Chapter Notes - Migration Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Geography Class 12

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Humanities/Arts : Chapter Notes - Migration Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

The document Chapter Notes - Migration Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course Geography Class 12.
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CHAPTER-3 MIGRATION

  • Place of origin,
  • Place or destination,
  • it is the spontaneous effort to achieve a better balance between population and resources
  • It may be permanent ,temporary, / seasonal, it may be rural-rural ,rural-urban, urban-urban , urban – rural
  • Types, immigration, emigration

FACTORS RESPOSIBLE PUSH FACTORS:

  • Unemployment,
  • Poor living ,
  • Political turmoil,
  • Unpleasant climate,
  • Natural disasters,
  • Epidemics, and
  • Socio- economics backwardness

PULL FACTORS:

  • More attractive jobs,
  • Good living conditions,
  • Peace,
  • Stability,
  • Security of life,
  • Pleasant climate

TRENDS IN POPULATION GROWTH: POP growth is due to

  • Agricultural development,
  • industrial revolution,
  • transportation,
  • sanitation and medical facilities,
  • biotechnology,
  • information and computers technological revolution.
  • Discovery of machines,
  • medicines
  • Pop. Increased 10 times during last 500 years,
  • 4 times in 20th century,
  • 80 million people are added each year.

DOUBLING TIME OF WORLD POPULATION
1. More than one million to become one billion pop
2. It took 12 years to become from 5 billion to 6 billion
3. Developed countries take more time than developing countries
4. Liberia highest growth rate: 8.2% Latvia lowest gr : -1.5%
Spatial pattern of population Change when it is small change applied to large population it is large

GROWTH RATE DECLINES BUT POP STILL INCREASE IMPACT OF POPULATION CHANGE
1. Depletion of resources
2. Spread of epidemics
3. Reduced life expectancy
4. Increase in social crime rate
5. Health problems DEMOGRAPHIC

TRANSITION
1. Predict the future pop. Of any area
2. Any region changes from high BR & DR to low BR& DR
3. progress from rural to urban
4. Illiterate to literate
5. These are collectively known as demographic cycle

STAGE-I ;

  • High fertility,
  • High mortality,
  • Low growth,
  • More epidemics,
  • Variable food supply ,
  • Agriculture is occupation,
  • Low life expectancy,
  • Illiteracy,
  • Low level of technology -
  • Rain forest tribes, Bangladesh

STAGE -II

  • Fertility remains high ,but decline with time,
  • Reduced mortality,
  • Improved sanitation,
  • Medical facilities
  • High growth rate
  • Ex. Peru, Sri Lanka, Kenya

STAGE -III:

  • Low birth rate and
  • Death rate
  • Slow GR .
  • Stable growth rate

URBANISED POP. HIGH TECHNOLOGY. SMALL FMALIES. FLEXIBLE FAMILIES EX. CANADA JAPAN USA POPULATION CONTROL MEASURES:

  • Limiting the population growth,
  • improving women‟s health,
  • access to family planning services
  • Free availability of contraceptives,
  • tax disincentives for large families,
  • Government incentives for small families.

POPULATIONCOMPOSITION PEOPLE ARE DIFFERENT IN DIFFERENT WAYS

  • Age.
  • Sex.
  • Place of residence,
  • Occupation,
  • Education,
  • Life expectancy

SEX COMPOSITION The ratio between number of men and women is called SEX RATIO

 

SEX RATIO= MALEPOP /FEMALEPOP X 1000 IN INDIA IT IS CALCULATED AS

SEX RATIO:FEMALEPOP /MALEPOP X 1000

  • It shows the status of women in the country
  • It is unfavorable to women
  • Lower socio economic status
  • due to female feticide, female infanticide, domestic violence against women
  • Some times men might have migrated so women no. Is more
  • Natural advantages of women: they are more resilient, more resistant power, more patience
  • Sex ratio of the world is: 990 females/ 1000 males
  • Latvia highest 1187 lowest is 468/1000males
  • It is favorable in 139 countries
  • Unfavorable in 72 countries
  • Asia has low sex ratio Europe has highest
  • Europe has better status of women
  • Male dominated out migration

AGE STRUCTURE

  • No. of people in different age groups.
  • It is an important indicator of pop. Composition
  • A large group of population is in age group of 15-59 years
  • Large group of pop. Is above 60 years is called aged population
  • More expenditure on medical facilities
  • High 5 of young pop. Shows high birth rate
  • AGE- SEX PYRAMID
  • Number of females and males in different age groups
  • Pop. Pyramid is used to show age sex structure
  • Shape of pyramid shows the characteristics of population
  • Left side male and right side female
  • Types of age sex pyramid

I-EXPANDING POPULATION 

1.triangular shape ,

2. Less developed countries ,

3.young pop. is more,

4.ex. Bangladesh, Mexico, Nigeria

II-CONSTANT POPULATION

1. A bell shaped,

2. Birth and death rates are equal,

3. Ex Australia

III-DECLINING POPULATION 

1.narrow base ,

2. Low birth and death ,

3. Shows developed countries ,

4. Growth is negative or zero ex. Japan

RURAL URBAN COMPOSITION
1. It is based on residence
2. They differ from each other
3. The criteria for rural and urban varies from country to country
4. Rural population engaged in primary activities where as urban other than primary activities
5. Rural and urban composition of west European countries is different from African countries
6. Sex ratio is also different in European countries than African countries
7. In west European countries males are more in rural areas and females are more in urban areas
8. in Asian countries female is more in rural areas
9. In Asian countries female is less in urban areas due to shortage of housing, high cost of living, paucity of jobs, lack of security in cities
 

LITERACY

  • Literacy indicated the socio economic development
  • Standard of living
  • Social status of women
  • Availability of facilities
  • Policies of government
  • In India literate means: pop above 7 years age who is able to read write and have the ability to do arithmetic calculations with understanding.

OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE
I. The working population take part in various occupations such as primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary activities.
II. each category refers to the level of economic development of the country.
III. developed countries only show the job opportunities more in secondary activities
IV. developing countries show more people under primary activity

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