Chapter Notes - Secondary Activities, Class 12, Geography | EduRev Notes

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Humanities/Arts : Chapter Notes - Secondary Activities, Class 12, Geography | EduRev Notes

The document Chapter Notes - Secondary Activities, Class 12, Geography | EduRev Notes is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12).
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SECONDARY ACTIVITIES 

GIST : 

MANUFACTURING, CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN LARGE SCALE MANUFACTURING, CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES GENERAL: 

1. secondary activities add value to natural resources by transforming raw materials into valuable products

2.Manufacturing: 

a. Involves a full array of production from handicrafts to molding iron and steel and stamping out plastic toys to assembling delicate computer components or space vehicles

b. Application of power

c. mass production

d. identical products

e. specialized labour

f. standardized commodities

CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN LARGE SCALE MANUFACTURING
1. Specialization of skills/ methods of production
2. Mechanization
3. Technical innovation
4. Organizational structure and stratification
5. Uneven geographic distribution
6. Access to market
7. Access to raw material
8. Access to labour supply
9. Access to sources of energy
10. Access to transportation& communication skills
11. Government policy
12. Link to industries

CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES

A. BASED ON SIZE
1. COTTAGE / HOUSEHOLD
2. SMALL SCALE
3. LARGE SCALE

B. BASED ON INPUT/RAW MATERIAL
1. AGRO BASED 2. MINERAL BASED 3.CHEMICAL BASED 4. FOREST BASED 5ANIMAL BASED

C. BASED ON OUTPUT/PRODUCT
1. BASIC INDUSTRIE 2. CONSUMER INDUSTRIES

D. BASED ON OWNERSHIP
1. PUBLIC SECTOR
2. PRIVATE SECTOR
3. JOINT SECTOR
 

TRADITIONAL LARGE SCALE INDUSTRIAL REGIONS
1. HIGH PROPORTION OF EMPLOYMENT
2. HIGH DENSITY OF HOUSING
3. POOR SERVICES INFERIOR QUALITY
4. POLLUTION, WASTE HEAPS
5. UNEMPLOYMENT, EMIGRATION DERELICT LAND AREAS

RUHR COAL FIELD –GERMANY
1. One of the major industrial area
2. Coal, iron, steel are bases for the economy
3. Demand for coal declined so industry shrinking
4. Ruhr region is producing 80% of steel production
5. Problems of industrial waste and pollution
6. New industries emerged in the place of old industries such as car assembly new chemical industry, universities.

CONCEPT OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY
1. Latest generation manufacturing unit
2. Application of R&D unit
3. Professional workers(white collar) share a large group
4. Highly skilled specialists (blue collar) also working
5. Robotics are used in assembly line
6. Computer Aided Design is used
7. Electronic controls
8. Neatly spaced, low modern dispersed office plant and lab buildings
9. Planned business parks for high-tech industries
10. Regionally concentrated, self-sustained highly specialized techno-poles
11. Silicon Valley in San Francisco and silicon forest near Seattle are techno poles

IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIE
1. The base for other industries so it is called basic industry
2. Provide raw material to other industries
3. Also called heavy industry
4. Use bulky material
5. Produce heavy material

RAW MATERIALS
A. COAL

B.LIMESTONE

C COKE

D.IRON ORE

E. MANGANESE

FEATURES
1. A located nearby raw material or Near the ports
2. Mini steel industries are located nearby markets
3. Located nearby integrated steel plants for scrap

DISTRIBUTION
1. The most complex and capital-intensive industry

a. North America: USA –North Appalachian region: PITTSBURGH,

Great lake region: CHICAGO, GARRY, ERIE, CLEVELAND LORAIN BUFFALO , DULUTH Atlantic region SPARROWS POINT AND MORRISVILLE

b. Europe UK - Birmingham, &Sheffield

Germany: Duisburg, Dortmund Dusseldorf Essen

France: Le Creosote St.Ettienne

Russia: Moscow, St. Petersburg. Lipetsk Tula

Asia: Nagasaki, Tokyo Yokoma of Japan Shanghai, Tangshan and Wuhan in China Jamshedpur, Kulti Burnpur Durgapur Roukela Bhilai Bokaro Salem Vizak of India

COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY THREE SUBSECTORS
1. handloom
provide more labor employment, semi-skilled workers, small capital, spinning weaving and finishing of fabrics are important functions

2.Power loom
Machines are used, less labor intensive, the volume of production increases

3. Mill sector: highly capital intensive produce cloth in bulk
Distribution: INDIA CHINA USA PAKISTAN UZBEKISTAN EGYPT Egypt produces half of the world cotton UK NW EUROPE JAPAN produce textiles by importing raw material from other countries Industry facing stiff competition with synthetic fiber Now it is declining trend due to technology It is shifted to less developed countries

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