1. Social movements have shaped the world we live in
3. Counter movements sometimes arise in defense of status quo. For eg; when Raja Rammohun Roy campaigned against sati and formed the Brahmo Samaj, defenders of sati formed Dharma Sabha and petitioned the British not to legislate against sati
7. Social reform movements before Independence
- Changes in social practices that discriminated against women and lower caste
- issues taken up by the reformers were sati. Child marriage, widow remarriage, caste discrimination etc.
- a creative combination of modern ideas and western liberalism and a new look on traditional literature.
- The varied reform movements did not have common themes. For some the concerns were confined to the problems of upper caste and middle class men and women. For others, the injustices suffered by the discriminated castes were the central issue
8. Reasons for Social Reform movements in the 19th and 20th centuries.
- The concerns for injustices suffered by the discriminated castes.
- problems faced by upper caste and middle class men and women
- gender oppression and social evils
9. Differences between OLD AND NEW MOVEMENTS
10. ECOLOGICAL MOVEMENT
- The Chipko movement, an example of the ecological movement, started in the Himalayan foothills; to stop exploitation/depletion of forests and consequent environmental degradation.
- When government forest contractors came to cut down the trees, villagers.
- including large numbers of women, stepped forward to hug the trees to prevent their being felled
- The economy of subsistence was pitted against the economy of profit.
- The movement focused on economy, ecology and political representation,
A. PEASANT MOVEMENT
- Have taken place from pre-colonial days.
- Eg—— the Bengal revolt of 1859-62 against the indigo plantation system and the “Deccan riots’ of 1857 against moneylenders.
- The Bardoli Satyagraha (1928. Surat District).a ‘non-tax’ campaign was part of the nationwide struggle.
- Between 1920 and 1940 peasant organisations such as the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (1929) and in 1936 the All India Kisan Sabha was founded. They demanded freedom from economic exploitation for peasants, workers and all other exploited classes.
- At the time of Independence peasant movements, namely the Tebhaga movement (1946-7) and the Telangana movement (1946-51) emerged
B. NEW FARMER’S MOVEMENT:
- It began in the 1970s in Punjab and Tamil Nadu.
- regionally organised,
- non-party organisation
- The basic ideology of the movement was strongly anti-state and antiurban.
- The focus of demand was ‘price and related issues’(for example price procurement, remunerative prices, prices for agricultural inputs, taxation, non-repayment of loans).
- They use novel methods of agitation such as: blocking of roads and. railways, refusing politicians and bureaucrats entry to villages, environment and women’s issues. Etc
C. WORKERS MOVEMENTS
- During the colonial regime, raw materials were procured from India and goods manufactured in the United Kingdom were marketed in the colony.
- These factories were, established in the port towns of Calcutta (Kolkata) and Bombay (Mumbai), in Madras (Chennai).
- Labour was very cheap as the colonial government did not regulate either wages or working conditions.
- Later, trade unions emerged as workers started to protest.
- There were waves of strikes in the textile mills in Bombay etc
A. THE DALIT MOVEMENT
- a struggle against economic exploitations, political oppression, recognition as fellow human beings, for self-confidence, for self-determination, for the abolishment of stigmatization. a struggle to be touched.
- The word Dalit is commonly used in Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati and many other Indian languages, meaning the poor and oppressed persons, broken, ground down by those above them
- For Eg: Satnami Movement of the Chamars in the Chattisgarh plains in eastern MP,
- Adi Dharma Movement in Punjab,
B. BACKWARD CLASS CASTE MOVEMENTS
- emerged as political entities both in the colonial and post-colonial contexts.
The colonial state often distributed patronage on the basis of caste.
people stayed within their caste for social and political identity in institutional life
THE UPPER CASTE RESPONSE
- The rise in both Dalits and other backward classes’ movements has led to a feeling among sections of the upper caste that they are being given short shrift,
13. THE TRIBAL MOVEMENTS
largely located in the so-called ‘tribal belt’ in middle India, such as the Santhals, Hos, Oraons, Mundas in Chota Nagpur and the Santhal Parganas
♦ Jharkhand is one of the newly-formed states of India, carved out of south
Bihar in the year 2000
- had a charismatic leader in Birsa Munda, an Adivasi who led a major uprising against the British.
- Literate adivasis helped to create a unified ethnic consciousness and a shared identity as Jharkhand is.
- It was the middle-class Adivasi intellectual leadership that formulated the demand for a separate state and lobbied for it in India and abroad.
- Within south Bihar, adivasis shared a common hatred of dikus – migrant traders and money-lenders who had settled in the area and grabbed its wealth, impoverishing the original residents.
- Adivasi experiences of marginalization and their sense of injustice were mobilized to create a shared Jharkhandi identity and inspire collective action
B. The issues against which the leaders of the movement in Jharkhand
- acquisition of land for large irrigation projects and firing ranges;
- Survey and settlement operations, which were held up, camps closed down, etc.
- collection of loans, rent and cooperative dues, which were resisted;
- nationalisation of forest produce which they boycotted
C. THE NORTHEAST
- The process of state formation initiated by the Indian government with the attainment of independence generated unrest even in all the major hill districts in the region.
- This was so (unrest), since these hill districts, were also conscious of their distinct identity and traditional autonomy
- Alienation of tribal’s from forest lands.
- Hence, ecological issues are central to tribal movements, just as cultural issues of identity and economic issues such as inequality.
14. THE WOMEN’S MOVEMENT
- The early 20th century saw the growth of women’s organizations at a national and local level.
- The Women’s India Association (WIA) (1917)
- All India Women’s Conference (AIWC) (1926),
- National Council for Women in India (NCWI) (1925)
B. POST 1947
- In the mid-1970s, there was a renewal of the women’s movement in India.
- Women’s movement included issues such as violence against women, land rights, employment along with rights against sexual harassment and dowry.