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Chapter Notes - Structural Change Notes | Study Sociology Class 12 - Humanities/Arts

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STRUCTURAL CHANGES

1. Colonialism can be understood as the rule by one country over another.
2. Pre-colonial rule-invaders and rulers were interested in a continuous flow of tribute but did not interfere with the socio-economic system in place.
3. Impact of colonial rule

  • new land ownership laws was introduced
  • what crops to be grown was dictated
  • the way of production and distribution of goods was altered
  • tea plantations were introduced
  • Forest Acts changed the life of the pastoralists.
  • western education was introduced to create Indians who could assist in administration.’
  •  Certain industries closed down as it could not compete with machine-made goods from Europe.
  • old urban centers declined, while coastal cities were developed.
    • unintended consequence was the growth of nationalism

4. Many sided impact of English language on Indian society
widely used a major contributor to growth ‘of nationalism.

  •  its knowledge has given Indians an edge over others in the job market post-globalization
  • Linked to social prestige and status and sometimes able to reduce the importance of caste position

5. Capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and is organised to accumulate profits within a market system

6. Two structural changes brought about by colonialism.

  • Urbanization
  • Industrialization

Urbanization: Cities replaced villages as places to live for many (as living and working arrangements)
Industrialization refers to emergence of machine production based on the use of inanimate power resources like steam, or electricity.
De-industrialization: It is a process of social and. economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial activity in a region. In India the impact of the very same British industrialisation led to deindustrialization in some sectors.

  • decline of old urban centres. Just as manufacturing boomed in Britain, traditional exports of cotton and silk manufactures from India declined in  the face of Manchester competition.
  • This period also saw the further decline of cities such as Surat and Masulipatnam while Bombay and Madras grew.

7. Urbanisation & Industrialisation are linked processes.

  • British industrialization led to deindustrialization in some sectors.
  • Old urban centres like Surat, Masulipatnam, Dhaka, Murshidabad declined.
  • Coastal cities like Bombay, Calcutta and Madras were developed for exporting raw materials-cotton, jute, indigo, coffee-and importing machine  made goods from Britain.

8. There is a vital difference between the empire building of pre-capitalist times and that of capitalist times.

  • Pre capitalist conquerors did not interfere with the economic base. Whereas British colonialism was based on a capitalist system which directly  interfered to ensure maximum profit.
  • Every policy was geared towards the strengthening and expansion of British capitalism.
  • It changed not just land ownership laws but decided even what crops ought to be grown and what not.

9. Tea plantations

  • Undemocratic measures were used to get work done by the workers, for the benefit of the ‘British planters.
  • The planters enjoyed lavish lifestyles
  • The workers worked under unjust contract and unfavorable conditions

10. Early industrialization in Independent India

  • Development of heavy and machine making industries
  • Expansion of public sector
  • Development of a large cooperative sector

11. Urbanization in Independent India

  • M.S.A. Rao identified the impact of urban influences on many Indian villages.
    • Villages where sizable population is employed in far off cities or in overseas towns. Members of families are left behind.
    • Villages situated near an industrial town like Bhilai, Bokaro
    • Villages surrounding ever expanding metropolitan cities like Delhi, Mumbai’

12. Difference between western and Indian patterns of industrialisation.

  • In western pattern of industrialization majority of people are employed in the service sector, while in India majority are in agriculture sector.
  • In western pattern majority are formally employed and getting regular salaries. Whereas in India very few are in regular salaried employment.
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