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Chapter Notes: The Earth-Our World - Notes | Study Social Studies for Class 5 - Class 5

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Our Earth & Other Planets of Solar System

  • Ravivar, Mangalvar, Shukravar, or Shanivar are some of the names of the days of the week. 
  • It is interesting to know that these names have been derived from heavenly bodies.
  • The Sun (ravi), Mars (mangal), Venus (shukra), and Saturn (shani) are all heavenly bodies that can be seen from the earth. 
  • When man first landed on moon (July 19, 1969) the earth was seen as a shining spherical ball, the way we see other heavenly bodies.

Earth as seen from Moon.Earth as seen from Moon.

The Shape of Our Earth

  • Ordinarily, the earth appears flat to us. That is so because we can, at any point of time see only a very small part of it. 
  • Remember the Portuguese navigator Magellan, who sailed around the world and proved that the earth is round. 
  • It should, however, be remembered that our earth is not exactly like a sphere. More like an orange, it is flat at the poles. 

The shape of our Earth is not round but it is like an Orange: Flat at Poles.The shape of our Earth is not round but it is like an Orange: Flat at Poles.

Continents of Earth

  • There are seven large masses of land called Continents. Asia is the largest of them all. 

Seven Continents of EarthSeven Continents of Earth

  • India is a part of the continent of Asia. All continents are divided into smaller units called countries. 
  • Antarctica is one continent where there is no habitation except that of visiting scientists. 
  • Asia and Europe are separated by the Ural mountains. Australia is the only continent that is made up entirely of islands. 
  • North America and South America are linked by Central America, which forms the Southern part of North America. 
  • The continent of Africa was at one time known as the Dark Continent. 

Water Bodies on Earth

  • There are large masses of water on earth called oceans. One of them is named after a country which is Indian Ocean.

Oceans and Continent of EarthOceans and Continent of Earth

  • The other oceans are the Pacific, Atlantic, Arctic, and Southern Ocean. 
  • Smaller bodies of water are called sea. Seawater is salty. 

Difference Between Sea and OceansDifference Between Sea and Oceans

  • There are lakes and rivers whose water is fit for drinking.  
  • The distribution of land and water on the surface of the earth can be easily seen on the globe. 
  • Similarly, we can have a good idea of the relative sizes of the various continents by looking at the globe.

Question for Chapter Notes: The Earth-Our World
Try yourself:The smallest ocean is the
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Globe

  • If we have to travel to the west coast of North America, we may cross the Pacific Ocean or the Atlantic Ocean. Which would be the shorter route? A look at the globe can provide an easy answer. 

GlobeGlobe

  • The globe that you would see in your classroom is a sphere. It has an axis running through the two extreme ends–the North and the South poles. 
  • The globe can rotate around the axis. The axis is not exactly vertical. It is mounted on a horizontal base at a certain inclination. 

Question for Chapter Notes: The Earth-Our World
Try yourself:A circle halfway between the north and south pole that divides the Earth into Northern and Southern Hemispheres is known as
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Features of Earth as Studied through Globe

  • A circle divides the globe into two hemispheres– Northern and Southern which is called equator. There are concentric circles on both sides of the equator. 

Latitudes

Latitudes and Longitudes of EarthLatitudes and Longitudes of Earth

  • Their circumferences keep on diminishing with their distance from the equator. These circles are called Latitudes, North or South depending on which side of the equator they are placed.
  • The Earth showing the Tropic of Capricorn at 23.5° South of the equator.
  • The latitudes are marked from 0° to 90° N/S. 
  • The equator marks the latitude 0° while those at the poles mark 90° N or S. The latitude 23½° N is called the Tropic of Cancer. The latitude 23½° S is called the Tropic of Capricorn. 
  • The Tropic of Cancer runs through India. The two other latitudes with special names are the Arctic Circle (66½° N) and the Antarctic Circle (66½° S).

Chapter Notes: The Earth-Our World - Notes | Study Social Studies for Class 5 - Class 5

Longitudes

  • The semicircular lines joining the poles are called Longitudes or Meridians. The Meridian passing through the Greenwich Observatory (near London in Britain) is taken as the reference point. 
  • It is the Prime Meridian. 
  • There are longitudes, marked 0° to 180° E and 0° to 180° W. The latitudes vary in circumference. 
  • The longitudes are all of equal length. All these are only imaginary lines drawn on the globe. 
  • If you visit Greenwich, you would find no such line physically marked on the earth’s surface. The latitudes and longitudes make a network on the surface of the globe.

Grids

  • The squares thus formed by intersecting Longitude and Latitude lines are called ‘grid’.
    Grid Lines of GlobeGrid Lines of Globe
  • Once we know about the latitude and the longitude nearest to any particular place, we can easily locate it on the globe. 
  • Pondicherry, in India, is situated near the latitude 12° N. It also lies near the longitude 80° E. With this information, it would be very easy to locate Pondicherry on the globe.
  • The nearest latitude for Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh is the Tropic of Cancer. The nearest longitude is 78° E. 
  • The mountain top K2 (height 8611 m.) lies near the latitude 36° N. It lies within the grid formed by latitudes 34°–36° N and the longitudes 76°–78° E. 
  • These imaginary and artificial lines on the globe help us in the study of lands and people in many more ways. 
  • The location of a place in terms of meridian determines its local time. The latitudes influence the climates of the various regions on the earth.
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