Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

Created by: Prof Amit Gupta

Computer Science Engineering (CSE) : Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

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Biosystems Control Design

 

Chapter 23 addresses a variety of synthesis  problems in the field of biosystems:

  • Pharmaceutical Operations

    • Bioreactors

    • Crystallizers

    • Granulation

  • Drug Delivery

    • Type 1 Diabetes

    • Blood Pressure Control

    • Cancer Treatment

    • Controlled Treatment for HIV/AIDS

    • Cardiac Assist Devices

Advanced Process Control ------------------------------------------Next Slide

Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

Figure 23.1 Schematic of a typical industrial fermentor.

 

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Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

Figure 23.2 Step response of fermentor model to symmetric changes in dilution of magnitude 10% from the nominal value of D=0.202 h-1.

 

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Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

Figure 23.3 Step response of fermentor model to symmetric changes in dilution of magnitude 10% from the  nominal value of D=0.0389 h-1.

 

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Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

Figure 23.4 Flowsheet of a typical industrial crystallizer showing concentration and temperature controllers, including cascade control for temperature.

 

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Hierarchy of Process Information

Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

Need relationships between levels to deliver product which consistently meets the customers needs

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Specific Challenges in Agglomeration Control

Various process operations

 

  • granulation
  • polymerization

  • spray drying

Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

Common characteristics

  • real-time analysis required for distribution
  • complex heat/mass/momentum transfer problems

  • multiple attributes of interest (size, shape, concentration, etc.)

  • high dimension, stiff models

  • underactuated

 

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Granulation Control – Challenges

Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

Multivariable interactions (5th and 90th percentiles)

No target (setpoint) for 5th and 90th percentiles

  • One-sided limits

Data acquisition is difficult.Suggested Operating Objectives:

  • Track bulk density to reference
  • Minimize control effort if PSD within limits

  • Strong action if PSD out of limits

 

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Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

Figure 23.5 Process flowsheet for granulation circuit with recycle.

 

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Case Study
[Pottman, Ogunnaike, Adetayo, and Ennis, Powder Tech., 1999]

Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

 

Correlated Process Variables

  • particle size distribution (5th, 90th percentiles)
  • bulk density

Manipulated Variables

  • 3 spray nozzles (flow rate) [bounded]

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Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

Figure 23.6 Simplified process flowsheet for granulator example. Here u1, u2, u3 are, respectively, nozzles 1,2, and 3, and y1, y2, y3 are, respectively, bulk density, d5 and d90.

 

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Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

Figure 23.7 Closed-loop response of granulator to +10 step change in set point for y1 – left plot is outputs, right plot is inputs (dashed line, y1 and u1; dotted line, y2 and u2; dash-dot line, y3 and u3).

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Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

Figure 23.8 Closed-loop response of granulator to +50 step change in set point for y1 with constraints enforced on the inputs. The left plot is outputs, right plot is inputs (dashed line, y1 and u1; dotted line, y2 and u2; dash-dot line, y3 and u3).

 

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Diabetes Mellitus

World’s most common and costly disease

About one in every 400 to 600 children and adolescents has type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)

National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2005, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Complications of T1DM reduce life expectancy by ~15 years through micro- and macro-vascular disease

 

  • Heart disease and stroke
  • Blindness

  • Kidney disease

  • Nervous system disease

Evidence that intensive insulin therapy (IIT) reduces complications

  • Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, 1993

Increased hypoglycemic events with IIT

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, 1993

 

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Model-Based Control Approach for Diabetes
[Parker, Peppas, Doyle III, IEEE Trans Biomed. Eng. 1999]

Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

 

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Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

Figure 23.9 Block diagram for artificial β-cell, illustrating the meal as the most common disturbance. G denotes the blood sugar of the patient, Gm is the output of the glucose sensor, and Gsp is the glucose setpoint.

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Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

Figure 23.10 Open-loop response of patient’s blood glucose when the insulin pump is turned off.

 

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Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

Figure 23.11 Open-loop response of the patient’s blood glucose to a constant infusion rate of 15 mU/min  from her insulin pump.

 

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Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

Figure 23.12 Open-loop response of patient’s blood glucose to a constant infusion rate of 25 mU/min  from her insulin pump.

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Chapter23 - Biosystems Control Design, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev
Figure 23.13 Closed-loop response of patient’s mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output to a -10 mmHg change in the MAP set point.

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