Characterization of Air Emissions Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

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Computer Science Engineering (CSE) : Characterization of Air Emissions Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

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AIR POLLUTION 

  • Air quality is affected by various economic and industrial activities which alter the composition of air and affect the environment locally, regionally and globally. 
  • It is estimated that anthropogenic sources have changed the composition of global air by less than 0.01%. However, this change has adversely affected the climate of the earth. 
  • Both natural and/or anthropogenic activities introduce air pollutants which can be solid (large or sub-molecular), liquid or gas into the atmosphere that pose problem to human health and other life forms on earth. 
  • These air pollutants include CO, SOx, NOx, SPM, CO2, ozone, photochemical smog, etc.. 

Classification of Air Pollutants 

  • Natural contaminants: Natural fog, pollen grain, bacteria, volcanic eruption, wind blown dust, lightning generated fires. 
  • Particulate (aerosols): Dust, smoke, fog, mists, fume. 
  • Gases and odor: SOx, NOx, CO, CO2, halogen compounds, hydrocarbons, radioactive compounds. 


PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) 

  • PM is a complex mixture variable in size (0.01- 100 μm), composition (metals, nitrates, sulfate, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile organic compound (VOC), etc.) and concentration. 
  • Toxicity and penetration depends on the composition and size of the particles. 
  • Solid or liquid particles with sizes from 0.005 – 100 μm 
  • General term is aerosols  
  • Dust originates from grinding or crushing 
  • Fumes are solid particles formed when vapors condense
  • Smoke describes particles released in combustion processes 
  • Smog used to describe air pollution particles 


Health Effects of Particulate Matter 

  • Impact depends on particle size, shape and composition 
  • Large particles trapped in nose · Particles >10 μm removed in tracheobronchial system 
  • Particles <0.5 μm reach lungs but are exhaled with air 
  • Particles 2 – 4 μm most effectively deposited in lungs 
  • Inhalable PM includes both fine and coarse particles.  
  • Coarse particles  
    • aggravation of respiratory conditions, such as asthma.  
  • Fine particles  
    • increased hospital admissions and emergency room visits for heart and lung disease 
    • increased respiratory symptoms and disease 
    • decreased lung function 
    • premature death Other Effects of Particulate matter
  • Decreased visibility 
  • Damage to paints and building materials 


Table 1.8.1. Gaseous air pollutants, their properties and significance.

Characterization of Air Emissions Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev
Characterization of Air Emissions Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev
Characterization of Air Emissions Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev
Characterization of Air Emissions Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev
Characterization of Air Emissions Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

 

Table 1.8.2. Monitoring systems used to determine the quality of ambient air . 
 

Characterization of Air Emissions Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev
Characterization of Air Emissions Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

 

Table 1.8.3. Monitoring systems can be used to monitor air emissions [2].
 

Characterization of Air Emissions Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev
Characterization of Air Emissions Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev
Characterization of Air Emissions Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev
Characterization of Air Emissions Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

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