Page 2 ISBN: 0-8247-0444-4 This book is printed on acid-free paper. Headquarters Marcel Dekker, Inc. 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 tel: 212-696-9000; fax: 212-685-4540 Eastern Hemisphere Distribution Marcel Dekker AG Hutgasse 4, Postfach 812, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland tel: 41-61-261-8482; fax: 41-61-261-8896 World Wide Web http://www.dekker.com The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. For moreinformation,writetoSpecialSales/ProfessionalMarketingattheheadquarters address above. Copyright# # 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Neither this booknor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, micro?lming, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Current printing (last digit): 10987654321 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Page 3 ISBN: 0-8247-0444-4 This book is printed on acid-free paper. Headquarters Marcel Dekker, Inc. 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 tel: 212-696-9000; fax: 212-685-4540 Eastern Hemisphere Distribution Marcel Dekker AG Hutgasse 4, Postfach 812, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland tel: 41-61-261-8482; fax: 41-61-261-8896 World Wide Web http://www.dekker.com The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. For moreinformation,writetoSpecialSales/ProfessionalMarketingattheheadquarters address above. Copyright# # 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Neither this booknor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, micro?lming, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Current printing (last digit): 10987654321 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Preface Theobjectivesofthisbookaretwofold:(1)forthestudent,toshowhowthe fundamental principles underlying the behavior of ?uids (with emphasis on one-dimensional macroscopic balances) can be applied in an organized and systematicmannertothesolutionofpracticalengineeringproblems,and(2) for the practicing engineer, to provide a ready reference of current informa- tionandbasicmethodsfortheanalysisofavarietyofproblemsencountered in practical engineering situations. The scope of coverage includes internal ?ows of Newtonian and non- Newtonian incompressible ?uids, adiabatic and isothermal compressible ?ows (up to sonic or choking conditions), two-phase (gas–liquid, solid– liquid, and gas–solid) ?ows, external ?ows (e.g., drag), and ?ow in porous media. Applications include dimensional analysis and scale-up, piping sys- tems with ?ttings for Newtonian and non-Newtonian ?uids (for unknown driving force, unknown ?ow rate, unknown diameter, or most economical diameter), compressible pipe ?ows up to choked ?ow, ?ow measurement and control, pumps, compressors, ?uid-particle separation methods (e.g., iii Page 4 ISBN: 0-8247-0444-4 This book is printed on acid-free paper. Headquarters Marcel Dekker, Inc. 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 tel: 212-696-9000; fax: 212-685-4540 Eastern Hemisphere Distribution Marcel Dekker AG Hutgasse 4, Postfach 812, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland tel: 41-61-261-8482; fax: 41-61-261-8896 World Wide Web http://www.dekker.com The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. For moreinformation,writetoSpecialSales/ProfessionalMarketingattheheadquarters address above. Copyright# # 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Neither this booknor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, micro?lming, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Current printing (last digit): 10987654321 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Preface Theobjectivesofthisbookaretwofold:(1)forthestudent,toshowhowthe fundamental principles underlying the behavior of ?uids (with emphasis on one-dimensional macroscopic balances) can be applied in an organized and systematicmannertothesolutionofpracticalengineeringproblems,and(2) for the practicing engineer, to provide a ready reference of current informa- tionandbasicmethodsfortheanalysisofavarietyofproblemsencountered in practical engineering situations. The scope of coverage includes internal ?ows of Newtonian and non- Newtonian incompressible ?uids, adiabatic and isothermal compressible ?ows (up to sonic or choking conditions), two-phase (gas–liquid, solid– liquid, and gas–solid) ?ows, external ?ows (e.g., drag), and ?ow in porous media. Applications include dimensional analysis and scale-up, piping sys- tems with ?ttings for Newtonian and non-Newtonian ?uids (for unknown driving force, unknown ?ow rate, unknown diameter, or most economical diameter), compressible pipe ?ows up to choked ?ow, ?ow measurement and control, pumps, compressors, ?uid-particle separation methods (e.g., iii centrifugal, sedimentation, ?ltration), packed columns, ?uidized beds, sedi- mentation, solids transport in slurry and pneumatic ?ow, and frozen and ?ashing two-phase gas–liquid ?ows. The treatment is from the viewpoint of the process engineer, who is concerned with equipment operation, perfor- mance, sizing, and selection, as opposed to the details of mechanical design or the details of ?ow patterns in such situations. For the student, this is a basic text for a ?rst-level course in process engineering?uidmechanics,whichemphasizesthesystematicapplicationof fundamental principles (e.g., macroscopic mass, energy, and momentum balances and economics) to the analysis of a variety of ?uid problems of a practical nature. Methods of analysis of many of these operations have beentakenfromtherecenttechnicalliterature,andhavenotpreviouslybeen available in textbooks. This book includes numerous problems that illus- trate these applications at the end of each chapter. For the practicing engineer, this book serves as a useful reference for the working equations that govern many applications of practical interest, as well as a source for basic principles needed to analyze other ?uid systems not covered explicitly in the book. The objective here is not to provide a mindless set of recipes for rote application, however, but to demonstrate an organizedapproachtoproblemanalysisbeginningwithbasicprinciplesand ending with results of very practical applicability. Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics is based on notes that I have complied and continually revised while teaching the junior-level ?uid mechanics course for chemical engineering students at Texas A&M University over the last 30 years. It has been my experience that, when being introduced to a new subject, students learn best by starting with simple special cases that they can easily relate to physically, and then pro- gressing to more generalized formulations and more complex problems. That is the philosophy adopted in this book. It will certainly be criticized by some, since it is contrary to the usual procedure followed by most text- books, in which the basic principles are presented ?rst in the most general and mathematical form (e.g., the divergence theorem, Reynolds transport theorem, Navier Stokes equations, etc.), and the special cases are then derived from these. Esoterically, it is very appealing to progress from the general to the speci?c, rather than vice versa. However, having taught from both perspectives, it is my observation that most beginning students do not gain an appreciation or understanding from the very general, mathemati- callycomplex,theoreticalvectorexpressionsuntiltheyhavegainedacertain physicalfeelforhow?uidsbehave,andthelawsgoverningtheirbehavior,in special situations to which they can easily relate. They also understand and appreciate the principles much better if they see how they can be applied to theanalysisofpracticalandusefulsituations,withresultsthatactuallywork iv Preface Page 5 ISBN: 0-8247-0444-4 This book is printed on acid-free paper. Headquarters Marcel Dekker, Inc. 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 tel: 212-696-9000; fax: 212-685-4540 Eastern Hemisphere Distribution Marcel Dekker AG Hutgasse 4, Postfach 812, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland tel: 41-61-261-8482; fax: 41-61-261-8896 World Wide Web http://www.dekker.com The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. For moreinformation,writetoSpecialSales/ProfessionalMarketingattheheadquarters address above. Copyright# # 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Neither this booknor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, micro?lming, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Current printing (last digit): 10987654321 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Preface Theobjectivesofthisbookaretwofold:(1)forthestudent,toshowhowthe fundamental principles underlying the behavior of ?uids (with emphasis on one-dimensional macroscopic balances) can be applied in an organized and systematicmannertothesolutionofpracticalengineeringproblems,and(2) for the practicing engineer, to provide a ready reference of current informa- tionandbasicmethodsfortheanalysisofavarietyofproblemsencountered in practical engineering situations. The scope of coverage includes internal ?ows of Newtonian and non- Newtonian incompressible ?uids, adiabatic and isothermal compressible ?ows (up to sonic or choking conditions), two-phase (gas–liquid, solid– liquid, and gas–solid) ?ows, external ?ows (e.g., drag), and ?ow in porous media. Applications include dimensional analysis and scale-up, piping sys- tems with ?ttings for Newtonian and non-Newtonian ?uids (for unknown driving force, unknown ?ow rate, unknown diameter, or most economical diameter), compressible pipe ?ows up to choked ?ow, ?ow measurement and control, pumps, compressors, ?uid-particle separation methods (e.g., iii centrifugal, sedimentation, ?ltration), packed columns, ?uidized beds, sedi- mentation, solids transport in slurry and pneumatic ?ow, and frozen and ?ashing two-phase gas–liquid ?ows. The treatment is from the viewpoint of the process engineer, who is concerned with equipment operation, perfor- mance, sizing, and selection, as opposed to the details of mechanical design or the details of ?ow patterns in such situations. For the student, this is a basic text for a ?rst-level course in process engineering?uidmechanics,whichemphasizesthesystematicapplicationof fundamental principles (e.g., macroscopic mass, energy, and momentum balances and economics) to the analysis of a variety of ?uid problems of a practical nature. Methods of analysis of many of these operations have beentakenfromtherecenttechnicalliterature,andhavenotpreviouslybeen available in textbooks. This book includes numerous problems that illus- trate these applications at the end of each chapter. For the practicing engineer, this book serves as a useful reference for the working equations that govern many applications of practical interest, as well as a source for basic principles needed to analyze other ?uid systems not covered explicitly in the book. The objective here is not to provide a mindless set of recipes for rote application, however, but to demonstrate an organizedapproachtoproblemanalysisbeginningwithbasicprinciplesand ending with results of very practical applicability. Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics is based on notes that I have complied and continually revised while teaching the junior-level ?uid mechanics course for chemical engineering students at Texas A&M University over the last 30 years. It has been my experience that, when being introduced to a new subject, students learn best by starting with simple special cases that they can easily relate to physically, and then pro- gressing to more generalized formulations and more complex problems. That is the philosophy adopted in this book. It will certainly be criticized by some, since it is contrary to the usual procedure followed by most text- books, in which the basic principles are presented ?rst in the most general and mathematical form (e.g., the divergence theorem, Reynolds transport theorem, Navier Stokes equations, etc.), and the special cases are then derived from these. Esoterically, it is very appealing to progress from the general to the speci?c, rather than vice versa. However, having taught from both perspectives, it is my observation that most beginning students do not gain an appreciation or understanding from the very general, mathemati- callycomplex,theoreticalvectorexpressionsuntiltheyhavegainedacertain physicalfeelforhow?uidsbehave,andthelawsgoverningtheirbehavior,in special situations to which they can easily relate. They also understand and appreciate the principles much better if they see how they can be applied to theanalysisofpracticalandusefulsituations,withresultsthatactuallywork iv Preface in practice. That is why the multi-dimensional vector generalizations of the basic conservations laws have been eschewed in favor of the simpler component and one-dimensional form of these laws. Itisalsoimportanttomaintainabalancedperspectivebetweenfunda- mental, or theoretical, and empirical information, for the practicing engineer must use both to be effective. It has been said that all the tools of mathematics and physics in the world are not suf?cient to calculate how much water will ?ow in a given time from a kitchen tap when it is opened. However, by proper formulation and utilization of certain experimental observations, this is a routine problem for the engineer. The engineer must be able to solve certain problems by direct application of theoretical principles only (e.g., laminar ?ow in uniform conduits), others by utilizing hypothetical models that account for a limited understanding of the basic ?ow phenomena by incorporation of empirical parameters (e.g., :turbulent ?ow in conduits and ?ttings), and still other problems in which important information is purely empirical (e.g., pump ef?ciencies, two-phase ?ow in packed columns). In many of these problems (of all types), application of dimensional analysis (or the principle of ‘‘conservation of dimensions’’) for generalizingtheresultsofspeci?canalysis,guidingexperimentaldesign,and scaling up both theoretical and experimental results can be a very powerful tool. This second edition of the book includes a new chapter on two-phase ?ow, which deals with solid–liquid, solid–gas, and frozen and ?ashing liquid–gas systems, as well as revised, updated, and extended material throughout each chapter. For example, the method for selecting the proper control valve trim to use with a given piping con?guration is presented and illustrated by example in Chapter 10. The section on cyclone separators has been completely revised and updated, and new material has been incorpo- rated in a revision of the material on particles in non-Newtonian ?uids. Changes have made throughout the book in an attempt to improve the clarity and utility of the presentation wherever possible. For example, the equationsfor compressible?ow inpipes havebeenreformulatedintermsof variables that are easier to evaluate and represent in dimensionless form. It is the aim of this book to provide a useful introduction to the simpli?ed form of basic governing equations and an illustration of a con- sistentmethodofapplyingthesetotheanalysisofavarietyofpractical?ow problems. Hopefully, the reader will use this as a starting point to delve more deeply into the limitless expanse of the world of ?uid mechanics. Ron Darby Preface vRead More

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