Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics 2e Notes | EduRev

: Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics 2e Notes | EduRev

 Page 2


ISBN: 0-8247-0444-4
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Headquarters
Marcel Dekker, Inc.
270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016
tel: 212-696-9000; fax: 212-685-4540
Eastern Hemisphere Distribution
Marcel Dekker AG
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tel: 41-61-261-8482; fax: 41-61-261-8896
World Wide Web
http://www.dekker.com
The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. For
moreinformation,writetoSpecialSales/ProfessionalMarketingattheheadquarters
address above.
Copyright# # 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Neither this booknor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, micro?lming, and
recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission
in writing from the publisher.
Current printing (last digit):
10987654321
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Page 3


ISBN: 0-8247-0444-4
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Headquarters
Marcel Dekker, Inc.
270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016
tel: 212-696-9000; fax: 212-685-4540
Eastern Hemisphere Distribution
Marcel Dekker AG
Hutgasse 4, Postfach 812, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland
tel: 41-61-261-8482; fax: 41-61-261-8896
World Wide Web
http://www.dekker.com
The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. For
moreinformation,writetoSpecialSales/ProfessionalMarketingattheheadquarters
address above.
Copyright# # 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Neither this booknor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, micro?lming, and
recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission
in writing from the publisher.
Current printing (last digit):
10987654321
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Preface
Theobjectivesofthisbookaretwofold:(1)forthestudent,toshowhowthe
fundamental principles underlying the behavior of ?uids (with emphasis on
one-dimensional macroscopic balances) can be applied in an organized and
systematicmannertothesolutionofpracticalengineeringproblems,and(2)
for the practicing engineer, to provide a ready reference of current informa-
tionandbasicmethodsfortheanalysisofavarietyofproblemsencountered
in practical engineering situations.
The scope of coverage includes internal ?ows of Newtonian and non-
Newtonian incompressible ?uids, adiabatic and isothermal compressible
?ows (up to sonic or choking conditions), two-phase (gas–liquid, solid–
liquid, and gas–solid) ?ows, external ?ows (e.g., drag), and ?ow in porous
media. Applications include dimensional analysis and scale-up, piping sys-
tems with ?ttings for Newtonian and non-Newtonian ?uids (for unknown
driving force, unknown ?ow rate, unknown diameter, or most economical
diameter), compressible pipe ?ows up to choked ?ow, ?ow measurement
and control, pumps, compressors, ?uid-particle separation methods (e.g.,
iii
Page 4


ISBN: 0-8247-0444-4
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Headquarters
Marcel Dekker, Inc.
270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016
tel: 212-696-9000; fax: 212-685-4540
Eastern Hemisphere Distribution
Marcel Dekker AG
Hutgasse 4, Postfach 812, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland
tel: 41-61-261-8482; fax: 41-61-261-8896
World Wide Web
http://www.dekker.com
The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. For
moreinformation,writetoSpecialSales/ProfessionalMarketingattheheadquarters
address above.
Copyright# # 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Neither this booknor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, micro?lming, and
recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission
in writing from the publisher.
Current printing (last digit):
10987654321
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Preface
Theobjectivesofthisbookaretwofold:(1)forthestudent,toshowhowthe
fundamental principles underlying the behavior of ?uids (with emphasis on
one-dimensional macroscopic balances) can be applied in an organized and
systematicmannertothesolutionofpracticalengineeringproblems,and(2)
for the practicing engineer, to provide a ready reference of current informa-
tionandbasicmethodsfortheanalysisofavarietyofproblemsencountered
in practical engineering situations.
The scope of coverage includes internal ?ows of Newtonian and non-
Newtonian incompressible ?uids, adiabatic and isothermal compressible
?ows (up to sonic or choking conditions), two-phase (gas–liquid, solid–
liquid, and gas–solid) ?ows, external ?ows (e.g., drag), and ?ow in porous
media. Applications include dimensional analysis and scale-up, piping sys-
tems with ?ttings for Newtonian and non-Newtonian ?uids (for unknown
driving force, unknown ?ow rate, unknown diameter, or most economical
diameter), compressible pipe ?ows up to choked ?ow, ?ow measurement
and control, pumps, compressors, ?uid-particle separation methods (e.g.,
iii
centrifugal, sedimentation, ?ltration), packed columns, ?uidized beds, sedi-
mentation, solids transport in slurry and pneumatic ?ow, and frozen and
?ashing two-phase gas–liquid ?ows. The treatment is from the viewpoint of
the process engineer, who is concerned with equipment operation, perfor-
mance, sizing, and selection, as opposed to the details of mechanical design
or the details of ?ow patterns in such situations.
For the student, this is a basic text for a ?rst-level course in process
engineering?uidmechanics,whichemphasizesthesystematicapplicationof
fundamental principles (e.g., macroscopic mass, energy, and momentum
balances and economics) to the analysis of a variety of ?uid problems of
a practical nature. Methods of analysis of many of these operations have
beentakenfromtherecenttechnicalliterature,andhavenotpreviouslybeen
available in textbooks. This book includes numerous problems that illus-
trate these applications at the end of each chapter.
For the practicing engineer, this book serves as a useful reference for
the working equations that govern many applications of practical interest,
as well as a source for basic principles needed to analyze other ?uid systems
not covered explicitly in the book. The objective here is not to provide a
mindless set of recipes for rote application, however, but to demonstrate an
organizedapproachtoproblemanalysisbeginningwithbasicprinciplesand
ending with results of very practical applicability.
Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics is based on notes that I have
complied and continually revised while teaching the junior-level ?uid
mechanics course for chemical engineering students at Texas A&M
University over the last 30 years. It has been my experience that, when
being introduced to a new subject, students learn best by starting with
simple special cases that they can easily relate to physically, and then pro-
gressing to more generalized formulations and more complex problems.
That is the philosophy adopted in this book. It will certainly be criticized
by some, since it is contrary to the usual procedure followed by most text-
books, in which the basic principles are presented ?rst in the most general
and mathematical form (e.g., the divergence theorem, Reynolds transport
theorem, Navier Stokes equations, etc.), and the special cases are then
derived from these. Esoterically, it is very appealing to progress from the
general to the speci?c, rather than vice versa. However, having taught from
both perspectives, it is my observation that most beginning students do not
gain an appreciation or understanding from the very general, mathemati-
callycomplex,theoreticalvectorexpressionsuntiltheyhavegainedacertain
physicalfeelforhow?uidsbehave,andthelawsgoverningtheirbehavior,in
special situations to which they can easily relate. They also understand and
appreciate the principles much better if they see how they can be applied to
theanalysisofpracticalandusefulsituations,withresultsthatactuallywork
iv Preface
Page 5


ISBN: 0-8247-0444-4
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Headquarters
Marcel Dekker, Inc.
270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016
tel: 212-696-9000; fax: 212-685-4540
Eastern Hemisphere Distribution
Marcel Dekker AG
Hutgasse 4, Postfach 812, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland
tel: 41-61-261-8482; fax: 41-61-261-8896
World Wide Web
http://www.dekker.com
The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. For
moreinformation,writetoSpecialSales/ProfessionalMarketingattheheadquarters
address above.
Copyright# # 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Neither this booknor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, micro?lming, and
recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission
in writing from the publisher.
Current printing (last digit):
10987654321
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Preface
Theobjectivesofthisbookaretwofold:(1)forthestudent,toshowhowthe
fundamental principles underlying the behavior of ?uids (with emphasis on
one-dimensional macroscopic balances) can be applied in an organized and
systematicmannertothesolutionofpracticalengineeringproblems,and(2)
for the practicing engineer, to provide a ready reference of current informa-
tionandbasicmethodsfortheanalysisofavarietyofproblemsencountered
in practical engineering situations.
The scope of coverage includes internal ?ows of Newtonian and non-
Newtonian incompressible ?uids, adiabatic and isothermal compressible
?ows (up to sonic or choking conditions), two-phase (gas–liquid, solid–
liquid, and gas–solid) ?ows, external ?ows (e.g., drag), and ?ow in porous
media. Applications include dimensional analysis and scale-up, piping sys-
tems with ?ttings for Newtonian and non-Newtonian ?uids (for unknown
driving force, unknown ?ow rate, unknown diameter, or most economical
diameter), compressible pipe ?ows up to choked ?ow, ?ow measurement
and control, pumps, compressors, ?uid-particle separation methods (e.g.,
iii
centrifugal, sedimentation, ?ltration), packed columns, ?uidized beds, sedi-
mentation, solids transport in slurry and pneumatic ?ow, and frozen and
?ashing two-phase gas–liquid ?ows. The treatment is from the viewpoint of
the process engineer, who is concerned with equipment operation, perfor-
mance, sizing, and selection, as opposed to the details of mechanical design
or the details of ?ow patterns in such situations.
For the student, this is a basic text for a ?rst-level course in process
engineering?uidmechanics,whichemphasizesthesystematicapplicationof
fundamental principles (e.g., macroscopic mass, energy, and momentum
balances and economics) to the analysis of a variety of ?uid problems of
a practical nature. Methods of analysis of many of these operations have
beentakenfromtherecenttechnicalliterature,andhavenotpreviouslybeen
available in textbooks. This book includes numerous problems that illus-
trate these applications at the end of each chapter.
For the practicing engineer, this book serves as a useful reference for
the working equations that govern many applications of practical interest,
as well as a source for basic principles needed to analyze other ?uid systems
not covered explicitly in the book. The objective here is not to provide a
mindless set of recipes for rote application, however, but to demonstrate an
organizedapproachtoproblemanalysisbeginningwithbasicprinciplesand
ending with results of very practical applicability.
Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics is based on notes that I have
complied and continually revised while teaching the junior-level ?uid
mechanics course for chemical engineering students at Texas A&M
University over the last 30 years. It has been my experience that, when
being introduced to a new subject, students learn best by starting with
simple special cases that they can easily relate to physically, and then pro-
gressing to more generalized formulations and more complex problems.
That is the philosophy adopted in this book. It will certainly be criticized
by some, since it is contrary to the usual procedure followed by most text-
books, in which the basic principles are presented ?rst in the most general
and mathematical form (e.g., the divergence theorem, Reynolds transport
theorem, Navier Stokes equations, etc.), and the special cases are then
derived from these. Esoterically, it is very appealing to progress from the
general to the speci?c, rather than vice versa. However, having taught from
both perspectives, it is my observation that most beginning students do not
gain an appreciation or understanding from the very general, mathemati-
callycomplex,theoreticalvectorexpressionsuntiltheyhavegainedacertain
physicalfeelforhow?uidsbehave,andthelawsgoverningtheirbehavior,in
special situations to which they can easily relate. They also understand and
appreciate the principles much better if they see how they can be applied to
theanalysisofpracticalandusefulsituations,withresultsthatactuallywork
iv Preface
in practice. That is why the multi-dimensional vector generalizations of
the basic conservations laws have been eschewed in favor of the simpler
component and one-dimensional form of these laws.
Itisalsoimportanttomaintainabalancedperspectivebetweenfunda-
mental, or theoretical, and empirical information, for the practicing
engineer must use both to be effective. It has been said that all the tools
of mathematics and physics in the world are not suf?cient to calculate how
much water will ?ow in a given time from a kitchen tap when it is opened.
However, by proper formulation and utilization of certain experimental
observations, this is a routine problem for the engineer. The engineer
must be able to solve certain problems by direct application of theoretical
principles only (e.g., laminar ?ow in uniform conduits), others by utilizing
hypothetical models that account for a limited understanding of the basic
?ow phenomena by incorporation of empirical parameters (e.g., :turbulent
?ow in conduits and ?ttings), and still other problems in which important
information is purely empirical (e.g., pump ef?ciencies, two-phase ?ow in
packed columns). In many of these problems (of all types), application of
dimensional analysis (or the principle of ‘‘conservation of dimensions’’) for
generalizingtheresultsofspeci?canalysis,guidingexperimentaldesign,and
scaling up both theoretical and experimental results can be a very powerful
tool.
This second edition of the book includes a new chapter on two-phase
?ow, which deals with solid–liquid, solid–gas, and frozen and ?ashing
liquid–gas systems, as well as revised, updated, and extended material
throughout each chapter. For example, the method for selecting the proper
control valve trim to use with a given piping con?guration is presented and
illustrated by example in Chapter 10. The section on cyclone separators has
been completely revised and updated, and new material has been incorpo-
rated in a revision of the material on particles in non-Newtonian ?uids.
Changes have made throughout the book in an attempt to improve the
clarity and utility of the presentation wherever possible. For example, the
equationsfor compressible?ow inpipes havebeenreformulatedintermsof
variables that are easier to evaluate and represent in dimensionless form.
It is the aim of this book to provide a useful introduction to the
simpli?ed form of basic governing equations and an illustration of a con-
sistentmethodofapplyingthesetotheanalysisofavarietyofpractical?ow
problems. Hopefully, the reader will use this as a starting point to delve
more deeply into the limitless expanse of the world of ?uid mechanics.
Ron Darby
Preface v
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