Chemical Reaction Engineering Third Edition Notes | EduRev

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: Chemical Reaction Engineering Third Edition Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Chemical 
Reaction 
Engineering 
Third Edition 
Octave Levenspiel 
Department of Chemical Engineering 
Oregon State University 
John Wiley & Sons 
New York Chichester Weinheim Brisbane Singapore Toronto 
Page 2


Chemical 
Reaction 
Engineering 
Third Edition 
Octave Levenspiel 
Department of Chemical Engineering 
Oregon State University 
John Wiley & Sons 
New York Chichester Weinheim Brisbane Singapore Toronto 
ACQUISITIONS EDITOR Wayne Anderson 
MARKETING MANAGER Katherine Hepburn 
PRODUCTION EDITOR Ken Santor 
SENIOR DESIGNER Kevin Murphy 
ILLUSTRATION COORDINATOR Jaime Perea 
ILLUSTRATION Wellington Studios 
COVER DESIGN Bekki Levien 
This book was set in Times Roman by Bi-Comp Inc. and printed and bound by the 
Hamilton Printing Company. The cover was printed by Phoenix Color Corporation. 
This book is printed on acid-free paper. 
The paper in this book was manufactured by a mill whose forest management programs 
include sustained yield harvesting of its timberlands. Sustained yield harvesting principles 
ensure that the numbers of trees cut each year does not exceed the amount of new growth. 
Copyright O 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted 
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning 
or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States 
Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or 
authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright 
Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (508) 750-8400, fax 
(508) 750-4470. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the 
Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 
10158-0012, (212) 850-6011, fax (212) 850-6008, E-Mail: PERMREQ@WILEY.COM. 
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: 
Levenspiel, Octave. 
Chemical reaction engineering 1 Octave Levenspiel. - 3rd ed. 
p. cm. 
Includes index. 
ISBN 0-471-25424-X (cloth : alk. paper) 
1. Chemical reactors. I. Title. 
TP157.L4 1999 
6601.281-dc21 
97-46872 
CIP 
Printed in the United States of America 
Page 3


Chemical 
Reaction 
Engineering 
Third Edition 
Octave Levenspiel 
Department of Chemical Engineering 
Oregon State University 
John Wiley & Sons 
New York Chichester Weinheim Brisbane Singapore Toronto 
ACQUISITIONS EDITOR Wayne Anderson 
MARKETING MANAGER Katherine Hepburn 
PRODUCTION EDITOR Ken Santor 
SENIOR DESIGNER Kevin Murphy 
ILLUSTRATION COORDINATOR Jaime Perea 
ILLUSTRATION Wellington Studios 
COVER DESIGN Bekki Levien 
This book was set in Times Roman by Bi-Comp Inc. and printed and bound by the 
Hamilton Printing Company. The cover was printed by Phoenix Color Corporation. 
This book is printed on acid-free paper. 
The paper in this book was manufactured by a mill whose forest management programs 
include sustained yield harvesting of its timberlands. Sustained yield harvesting principles 
ensure that the numbers of trees cut each year does not exceed the amount of new growth. 
Copyright O 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted 
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning 
or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States 
Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or 
authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright 
Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (508) 750-8400, fax 
(508) 750-4470. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the 
Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 
10158-0012, (212) 850-6011, fax (212) 850-6008, E-Mail: PERMREQ@WILEY.COM. 
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: 
Levenspiel, Octave. 
Chemical reaction engineering 1 Octave Levenspiel. - 3rd ed. 
p. cm. 
Includes index. 
ISBN 0-471-25424-X (cloth : alk. paper) 
1. Chemical reactors. I. Title. 
TP157.L4 1999 
6601.281-dc21 
97-46872 
CIP 
Printed in the United States of America 
Preface 
Chemical reaction engineering is that engineering activity concerned with the 
exploitation of chemical reactions on a commercial scale. Its goal is the successful 
design and operation of chemical reactors, and probably more than any other 
activity it sets chemical engineering apart as a distinct branch of the engi- 
neering profession. 
In a typical situation the engineer is faced with a host of questions: what 
information is needed to attack a problem, how best to obtain it, and then how 
to select a reasonable design from the many available alternatives? The purpose 
of this book is to teach how to answer these questions reliably and wisely. To 
do this I emphasize qualitative arguments, simple design methods, graphical 
procedures, and frequent comparison of capabilities of the major reactor types. 
This approach should help develop a strong intuitive sense for good design which 
can then guide and reinforce the formal methods. 
This is a teaching book; thus, simple ideas are treated first, and are then 
extended to the more complex. Also, emphasis is placed throughout on the 
development of a common design strategy for all systems, homogeneous and 
heterogeneous. 
This is an introductory book. The pace is leisurely, and where needed, time is 
taken to consider why certain assumptions are made, to discuss why an alternative 
approach is not used, and to indicate the limitations of the treatment when 
applied to real situations. Although the mathematical level is not particularly 
difficult (elementary calculus and the linear first-order differential equation is 
all that is needed), this does not mean that the ideas and concepts being taught 
are particularly simple. To develop new ways of thinking and new intuitions is 
not easy. 
Regarding this new edition: first of all I should say that in spirit it follows the 
earlier ones, and I try to keep things simple. In fact, I have removed material 
from here and there that I felt more properly belonged in advanced books. 
But I have added a number of new topics-biochemical systems, reactors with 
fluidized solids, gadliquid reactors, and more on nonideal flow. The reason for 
this is my feeling that students should at least be introduced to these subjects so 
that they will have an idea of how to approach problems in these important areas. 
iii 
Page 4


Chemical 
Reaction 
Engineering 
Third Edition 
Octave Levenspiel 
Department of Chemical Engineering 
Oregon State University 
John Wiley & Sons 
New York Chichester Weinheim Brisbane Singapore Toronto 
ACQUISITIONS EDITOR Wayne Anderson 
MARKETING MANAGER Katherine Hepburn 
PRODUCTION EDITOR Ken Santor 
SENIOR DESIGNER Kevin Murphy 
ILLUSTRATION COORDINATOR Jaime Perea 
ILLUSTRATION Wellington Studios 
COVER DESIGN Bekki Levien 
This book was set in Times Roman by Bi-Comp Inc. and printed and bound by the 
Hamilton Printing Company. The cover was printed by Phoenix Color Corporation. 
This book is printed on acid-free paper. 
The paper in this book was manufactured by a mill whose forest management programs 
include sustained yield harvesting of its timberlands. Sustained yield harvesting principles 
ensure that the numbers of trees cut each year does not exceed the amount of new growth. 
Copyright O 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted 
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning 
or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States 
Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or 
authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright 
Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (508) 750-8400, fax 
(508) 750-4470. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the 
Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 
10158-0012, (212) 850-6011, fax (212) 850-6008, E-Mail: PERMREQ@WILEY.COM. 
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: 
Levenspiel, Octave. 
Chemical reaction engineering 1 Octave Levenspiel. - 3rd ed. 
p. cm. 
Includes index. 
ISBN 0-471-25424-X (cloth : alk. paper) 
1. Chemical reactors. I. Title. 
TP157.L4 1999 
6601.281-dc21 
97-46872 
CIP 
Printed in the United States of America 
Preface 
Chemical reaction engineering is that engineering activity concerned with the 
exploitation of chemical reactions on a commercial scale. Its goal is the successful 
design and operation of chemical reactors, and probably more than any other 
activity it sets chemical engineering apart as a distinct branch of the engi- 
neering profession. 
In a typical situation the engineer is faced with a host of questions: what 
information is needed to attack a problem, how best to obtain it, and then how 
to select a reasonable design from the many available alternatives? The purpose 
of this book is to teach how to answer these questions reliably and wisely. To 
do this I emphasize qualitative arguments, simple design methods, graphical 
procedures, and frequent comparison of capabilities of the major reactor types. 
This approach should help develop a strong intuitive sense for good design which 
can then guide and reinforce the formal methods. 
This is a teaching book; thus, simple ideas are treated first, and are then 
extended to the more complex. Also, emphasis is placed throughout on the 
development of a common design strategy for all systems, homogeneous and 
heterogeneous. 
This is an introductory book. The pace is leisurely, and where needed, time is 
taken to consider why certain assumptions are made, to discuss why an alternative 
approach is not used, and to indicate the limitations of the treatment when 
applied to real situations. Although the mathematical level is not particularly 
difficult (elementary calculus and the linear first-order differential equation is 
all that is needed), this does not mean that the ideas and concepts being taught 
are particularly simple. To develop new ways of thinking and new intuitions is 
not easy. 
Regarding this new edition: first of all I should say that in spirit it follows the 
earlier ones, and I try to keep things simple. In fact, I have removed material 
from here and there that I felt more properly belonged in advanced books. 
But I have added a number of new topics-biochemical systems, reactors with 
fluidized solids, gadliquid reactors, and more on nonideal flow. The reason for 
this is my feeling that students should at least be introduced to these subjects so 
that they will have an idea of how to approach problems in these important areas. 
iii 
i~ Preface 
I feel that problem-solving-the process of applying concepts to new situa- 
tions-is essential to learning. Consequently this edition includes over 80 illustra- 
tive examples and over 400 problems (75% new) to help the student learn and 
understand the concepts being taught. 
This new edition is divided into five parts. For the first undergraduate course, 
I would suggest covering Part 1 (go through Chapters 1 and 2 quickly-don't 
dawdle there), and if extra time is available, go on to whatever chapters in Parts 
2 to 5 that are of interest. For me, these would be catalytic systems (just Chapter 
18) and a bit on nonideal flow (Chapters 11 and 12). 
For the graduate or second course the material in Parts 2 to 5 should be suitable. 
Finally, I'd like to acknowledge Professors Keith Levien, Julio Ottino, and 
Richard Turton, and Dr. Amos Avidan, who have made useful and helpful 
comments. Also, my grateful thanks go to Pam Wegner and Peggy Blair, who 
typed and retyped-probably what seemed like ad infiniturn-to get this manu- 
script ready for the publisher. 
And to you, the reader, if you find errors-no, when you find errors-or 
sections of this book that are unclear, please let me know. 
Octave Levenspiel 
Chemical Engineering Department 
Oregon State University 
Corvallis, OR, 97331 
Fax: (541) 737-4600 
Page 5


Chemical 
Reaction 
Engineering 
Third Edition 
Octave Levenspiel 
Department of Chemical Engineering 
Oregon State University 
John Wiley & Sons 
New York Chichester Weinheim Brisbane Singapore Toronto 
ACQUISITIONS EDITOR Wayne Anderson 
MARKETING MANAGER Katherine Hepburn 
PRODUCTION EDITOR Ken Santor 
SENIOR DESIGNER Kevin Murphy 
ILLUSTRATION COORDINATOR Jaime Perea 
ILLUSTRATION Wellington Studios 
COVER DESIGN Bekki Levien 
This book was set in Times Roman by Bi-Comp Inc. and printed and bound by the 
Hamilton Printing Company. The cover was printed by Phoenix Color Corporation. 
This book is printed on acid-free paper. 
The paper in this book was manufactured by a mill whose forest management programs 
include sustained yield harvesting of its timberlands. Sustained yield harvesting principles 
ensure that the numbers of trees cut each year does not exceed the amount of new growth. 
Copyright O 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted 
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning 
or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States 
Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or 
authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright 
Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (508) 750-8400, fax 
(508) 750-4470. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the 
Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 
10158-0012, (212) 850-6011, fax (212) 850-6008, E-Mail: PERMREQ@WILEY.COM. 
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: 
Levenspiel, Octave. 
Chemical reaction engineering 1 Octave Levenspiel. - 3rd ed. 
p. cm. 
Includes index. 
ISBN 0-471-25424-X (cloth : alk. paper) 
1. Chemical reactors. I. Title. 
TP157.L4 1999 
6601.281-dc21 
97-46872 
CIP 
Printed in the United States of America 
Preface 
Chemical reaction engineering is that engineering activity concerned with the 
exploitation of chemical reactions on a commercial scale. Its goal is the successful 
design and operation of chemical reactors, and probably more than any other 
activity it sets chemical engineering apart as a distinct branch of the engi- 
neering profession. 
In a typical situation the engineer is faced with a host of questions: what 
information is needed to attack a problem, how best to obtain it, and then how 
to select a reasonable design from the many available alternatives? The purpose 
of this book is to teach how to answer these questions reliably and wisely. To 
do this I emphasize qualitative arguments, simple design methods, graphical 
procedures, and frequent comparison of capabilities of the major reactor types. 
This approach should help develop a strong intuitive sense for good design which 
can then guide and reinforce the formal methods. 
This is a teaching book; thus, simple ideas are treated first, and are then 
extended to the more complex. Also, emphasis is placed throughout on the 
development of a common design strategy for all systems, homogeneous and 
heterogeneous. 
This is an introductory book. The pace is leisurely, and where needed, time is 
taken to consider why certain assumptions are made, to discuss why an alternative 
approach is not used, and to indicate the limitations of the treatment when 
applied to real situations. Although the mathematical level is not particularly 
difficult (elementary calculus and the linear first-order differential equation is 
all that is needed), this does not mean that the ideas and concepts being taught 
are particularly simple. To develop new ways of thinking and new intuitions is 
not easy. 
Regarding this new edition: first of all I should say that in spirit it follows the 
earlier ones, and I try to keep things simple. In fact, I have removed material 
from here and there that I felt more properly belonged in advanced books. 
But I have added a number of new topics-biochemical systems, reactors with 
fluidized solids, gadliquid reactors, and more on nonideal flow. The reason for 
this is my feeling that students should at least be introduced to these subjects so 
that they will have an idea of how to approach problems in these important areas. 
iii 
i~ Preface 
I feel that problem-solving-the process of applying concepts to new situa- 
tions-is essential to learning. Consequently this edition includes over 80 illustra- 
tive examples and over 400 problems (75% new) to help the student learn and 
understand the concepts being taught. 
This new edition is divided into five parts. For the first undergraduate course, 
I would suggest covering Part 1 (go through Chapters 1 and 2 quickly-don't 
dawdle there), and if extra time is available, go on to whatever chapters in Parts 
2 to 5 that are of interest. For me, these would be catalytic systems (just Chapter 
18) and a bit on nonideal flow (Chapters 11 and 12). 
For the graduate or second course the material in Parts 2 to 5 should be suitable. 
Finally, I'd like to acknowledge Professors Keith Levien, Julio Ottino, and 
Richard Turton, and Dr. Amos Avidan, who have made useful and helpful 
comments. Also, my grateful thanks go to Pam Wegner and Peggy Blair, who 
typed and retyped-probably what seemed like ad infiniturn-to get this manu- 
script ready for the publisher. 
And to you, the reader, if you find errors-no, when you find errors-or 
sections of this book that are unclear, please let me know. 
Octave Levenspiel 
Chemical Engineering Department 
Oregon State University 
Corvallis, OR, 97331 
Fax: (541) 737-4600 
Contents 
Notation /xi 
Chapter 1 
Overview of Chemical Reaction Engineering I1 
Part I 
Homogeneous Reactions in Ideal 
Reactors I11 
Chapter 2 
Kinetics of Homogeneous Reactions I13 
2.1 Concentration-Dependent Term of a Rate Equation I14 
2.2 Temperature-Dependent Term of a Rate Equation I27 
2.3 Searching for a Mechanism 129 
2.4 Predictability of Reaction Rate from Theory 132 
Chapter 3 
Interpretation of Batch Reactor Data I38 
3.1 Constant-volume Batch Reactor 139 
3.2 Varying-volume Batch Reactor 167 
3.3 Temperature and Reaction Rate 172 
3.4 The Search for a Rate Equation I75 
Chapter 4 
Introduction to Reactor Design 183 
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