Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics-1 Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Chemical Engineering : Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics-1 Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


v
Preface
This manual contains more or less complete solutions for every problem in the
book.  Should you find errors in any of the solutions, please bring them to my attention.
Over the years, I have tried to enrich my lectures by including histor ical
information on the significant developments in thermodynamics, and biographical
sketches of the people involved.  The multivolume Dictionary of Scientific Biography, edited by Charles C. Gillispie and published by C. Scribners, New York, has been
especially useful for obtaining biographical and, to some extent, historical information.
[For example, the entry on Anders Celsius points out that he chose the zero of his
temperature scale to be the boiling point of water, and 100 to be the freezing point.
Also, the intense rivalry between the English and German scientific communities for
credit for developing thermodynamics is discussed in the biographies of J.R. Mayer, J. P.
Joule, R. Clausius (who introduced the word entropy) and others.]  Other sources of
biographical information include various encyclopedias, Asimov’s Biographical
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology by I. Asimov, published by Doubleday & Co.,
(N.Y., 1972), and, to a lesser extent, Nobel Prize Winners in Physics 1901-1951, by
N.H. deV. Heathcote, published by H. Schuman, N.Y.
Historical information is usually best gotten from reading the original literature.
Many of the important papers have been reproduced, with some commentary, in a series
of books entitled “Benchmark Papers on Energy” distributed by Halsted Press, a division
of John Wiley and Sons, N.Y.  Of particular interest are:
Volume 1, Energy: Historical Development of the Concept, by R. Bruce Lindsay.
Volume 2, Applications of Energy, 19th Century, by R. Bruce Lindsay.
Volume 5, The Second Law of Thermodynamics , by J. Kestin and
Volume 6, Irreversible Processes, also by J. Kestin.
The first volume was published in 1975, the remainder in 1976.
Page 2


v
Preface
This manual contains more or less complete solutions for every problem in the
book.  Should you find errors in any of the solutions, please bring them to my attention.
Over the years, I have tried to enrich my lectures by including histor ical
information on the significant developments in thermodynamics, and biographical
sketches of the people involved.  The multivolume Dictionary of Scientific Biography, edited by Charles C. Gillispie and published by C. Scribners, New York, has been
especially useful for obtaining biographical and, to some extent, historical information.
[For example, the entry on Anders Celsius points out that he chose the zero of his
temperature scale to be the boiling point of water, and 100 to be the freezing point.
Also, the intense rivalry between the English and German scientific communities for
credit for developing thermodynamics is discussed in the biographies of J.R. Mayer, J. P.
Joule, R. Clausius (who introduced the word entropy) and others.]  Other sources of
biographical information include various encyclopedias, Asimov’s Biographical
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology by I. Asimov, published by Doubleday & Co.,
(N.Y., 1972), and, to a lesser extent, Nobel Prize Winners in Physics 1901-1951, by
N.H. deV. Heathcote, published by H. Schuman, N.Y.
Historical information is usually best gotten from reading the original literature.
Many of the important papers have been reproduced, with some commentary, in a series
of books entitled “Benchmark Papers on Energy” distributed by Halsted Press, a division
of John Wiley and Sons, N.Y.  Of particular interest are:
Volume 1, Energy: Historical Development of the Concept, by R. Bruce Lindsay.
Volume 2, Applications of Energy, 19th Century, by R. Bruce Lindsay.
Volume 5, The Second Law of Thermodynamics , by J. Kestin and
Volume 6, Irreversible Processes, also by J. Kestin.
The first volume was published in 1975, the remainder in 1976.
vi
Other useful sources of historical information are “The Early Development of the
Concepts of Temperature and Heat: The Rise and Decline of the Caloric Theory” by D.
Roller in Volume 1 of Harvard Case Histories in Experimental Science edited by J.B.
Conant and published by Harvard University Press in 1957; articles in Physics Today, such as “A Sketch for a History of Early Thermodynamics” by E. Mendoza (February,
1961, p.32), “Carnot’s Contribution to Thermodynamics” by M.J. Klein (August, 1974,
p. 23); articles in Scientific American; and various books on the history of science. Of
special interest is the book The Second Law by P.W. Atkins published by Scientific
American Books, W.H. Freeman and Company (New York, 1984) which contains a very
extensive discussion of the entropy, the second law of thermodynamics, chaos and
symmetry.
I also use several simple classroom demonstrations in my thermodynamics courses.
For example, we have used a simple constant-volume ideal gas thermometer, and an
instrumented vapor compression refrigeration cycle (heat pump or air conditioner) that
can brought into the classroom.  To demonstrate the pressure dependence of the melting
point of ice, I do a simple regelation experiment using a cylinder of ice (produced by
freezing water in a test tube), and a 0.005 inch diameter wire, both ends of which are
tied to the same 500 gram weight.  (The wire, when placed across the supported cylinder
of ice, will cut through it in about 5 minutes, though by refreezing or regelation, the ice
cylinder remains intact.—This experiment also provides an opportunity to discuss the
movement of glaciers.)  Scientific toys, such as “Love Meters” and drinking “Happy
Birds”, available at novelty shops, have been used to illustrate how one can make
practical use of the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure.  I also use some
professionally prepared teaching aids, such as the three-dimensional phase diagrams for
carbon dioxide and water, that are available from laboratory equipment distributors.
Despite these diversions, the courses I teach are quite problem oriented.  My
objective has been to provide a clear exposition of the principles of thermodynamics, and
then to reinforce these fundamentals by requiring the student to consider a great
diversity of the applications.  My approach to teaching thermodynamics is, perhaps,
similar to the view of John Tyndall expressed in the quotation
“It is thus that I should like to teach you all things; showing you the way to
profitable exertion, but leaving the exertion to you—more anxious to bring out
your manliness in the presence of difficulty than to make your way smooth by
toning the difficulties down.”
Which appeared in The Forms of  Water, published by D. Appleton (New York, 1872).
Page 3


v
Preface
This manual contains more or less complete solutions for every problem in the
book.  Should you find errors in any of the solutions, please bring them to my attention.
Over the years, I have tried to enrich my lectures by including histor ical
information on the significant developments in thermodynamics, and biographical
sketches of the people involved.  The multivolume Dictionary of Scientific Biography, edited by Charles C. Gillispie and published by C. Scribners, New York, has been
especially useful for obtaining biographical and, to some extent, historical information.
[For example, the entry on Anders Celsius points out that he chose the zero of his
temperature scale to be the boiling point of water, and 100 to be the freezing point.
Also, the intense rivalry between the English and German scientific communities for
credit for developing thermodynamics is discussed in the biographies of J.R. Mayer, J. P.
Joule, R. Clausius (who introduced the word entropy) and others.]  Other sources of
biographical information include various encyclopedias, Asimov’s Biographical
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology by I. Asimov, published by Doubleday & Co.,
(N.Y., 1972), and, to a lesser extent, Nobel Prize Winners in Physics 1901-1951, by
N.H. deV. Heathcote, published by H. Schuman, N.Y.
Historical information is usually best gotten from reading the original literature.
Many of the important papers have been reproduced, with some commentary, in a series
of books entitled “Benchmark Papers on Energy” distributed by Halsted Press, a division
of John Wiley and Sons, N.Y.  Of particular interest are:
Volume 1, Energy: Historical Development of the Concept, by R. Bruce Lindsay.
Volume 2, Applications of Energy, 19th Century, by R. Bruce Lindsay.
Volume 5, The Second Law of Thermodynamics , by J. Kestin and
Volume 6, Irreversible Processes, also by J. Kestin.
The first volume was published in 1975, the remainder in 1976.
vi
Other useful sources of historical information are “The Early Development of the
Concepts of Temperature and Heat: The Rise and Decline of the Caloric Theory” by D.
Roller in Volume 1 of Harvard Case Histories in Experimental Science edited by J.B.
Conant and published by Harvard University Press in 1957; articles in Physics Today, such as “A Sketch for a History of Early Thermodynamics” by E. Mendoza (February,
1961, p.32), “Carnot’s Contribution to Thermodynamics” by M.J. Klein (August, 1974,
p. 23); articles in Scientific American; and various books on the history of science. Of
special interest is the book The Second Law by P.W. Atkins published by Scientific
American Books, W.H. Freeman and Company (New York, 1984) which contains a very
extensive discussion of the entropy, the second law of thermodynamics, chaos and
symmetry.
I also use several simple classroom demonstrations in my thermodynamics courses.
For example, we have used a simple constant-volume ideal gas thermometer, and an
instrumented vapor compression refrigeration cycle (heat pump or air conditioner) that
can brought into the classroom.  To demonstrate the pressure dependence of the melting
point of ice, I do a simple regelation experiment using a cylinder of ice (produced by
freezing water in a test tube), and a 0.005 inch diameter wire, both ends of which are
tied to the same 500 gram weight.  (The wire, when placed across the supported cylinder
of ice, will cut through it in about 5 minutes, though by refreezing or regelation, the ice
cylinder remains intact.—This experiment also provides an opportunity to discuss the
movement of glaciers.)  Scientific toys, such as “Love Meters” and drinking “Happy
Birds”, available at novelty shops, have been used to illustrate how one can make
practical use of the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure.  I also use some
professionally prepared teaching aids, such as the three-dimensional phase diagrams for
carbon dioxide and water, that are available from laboratory equipment distributors.
Despite these diversions, the courses I teach are quite problem oriented.  My
objective has been to provide a clear exposition of the principles of thermodynamics, and
then to reinforce these fundamentals by requiring the student to consider a great
diversity of the applications.  My approach to teaching thermodynamics is, perhaps,
similar to the view of John Tyndall expressed in the quotation
“It is thus that I should like to teach you all things; showing you the way to
profitable exertion, but leaving the exertion to you—more anxious to bring out
your manliness in the presence of difficulty than to make your way smooth by
toning the difficulties down.”
Which appeared in The Forms of  Water, published by D. Appleton (New York, 1872).
Solutions to Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics, 3e vii
Finally, I usually conclude a course in thermodynamics with the following quotation    
by Albert Einstein:
“A theory is more impressive the greater the simplicity of its premises is, the
more different kinds of things it relates, and the more extended its area of
applicability. Therefore, the deep impression classical thermodynamics made
upon me. It is the only physical theory of universal content which, within the
framework of the applicability of its basic concepts, I am convinced will never
by overthrown.”
Page 4


v
Preface
This manual contains more or less complete solutions for every problem in the
book.  Should you find errors in any of the solutions, please bring them to my attention.
Over the years, I have tried to enrich my lectures by including histor ical
information on the significant developments in thermodynamics, and biographical
sketches of the people involved.  The multivolume Dictionary of Scientific Biography, edited by Charles C. Gillispie and published by C. Scribners, New York, has been
especially useful for obtaining biographical and, to some extent, historical information.
[For example, the entry on Anders Celsius points out that he chose the zero of his
temperature scale to be the boiling point of water, and 100 to be the freezing point.
Also, the intense rivalry between the English and German scientific communities for
credit for developing thermodynamics is discussed in the biographies of J.R. Mayer, J. P.
Joule, R. Clausius (who introduced the word entropy) and others.]  Other sources of
biographical information include various encyclopedias, Asimov’s Biographical
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology by I. Asimov, published by Doubleday & Co.,
(N.Y., 1972), and, to a lesser extent, Nobel Prize Winners in Physics 1901-1951, by
N.H. deV. Heathcote, published by H. Schuman, N.Y.
Historical information is usually best gotten from reading the original literature.
Many of the important papers have been reproduced, with some commentary, in a series
of books entitled “Benchmark Papers on Energy” distributed by Halsted Press, a division
of John Wiley and Sons, N.Y.  Of particular interest are:
Volume 1, Energy: Historical Development of the Concept, by R. Bruce Lindsay.
Volume 2, Applications of Energy, 19th Century, by R. Bruce Lindsay.
Volume 5, The Second Law of Thermodynamics , by J. Kestin and
Volume 6, Irreversible Processes, also by J. Kestin.
The first volume was published in 1975, the remainder in 1976.
vi
Other useful sources of historical information are “The Early Development of the
Concepts of Temperature and Heat: The Rise and Decline of the Caloric Theory” by D.
Roller in Volume 1 of Harvard Case Histories in Experimental Science edited by J.B.
Conant and published by Harvard University Press in 1957; articles in Physics Today, such as “A Sketch for a History of Early Thermodynamics” by E. Mendoza (February,
1961, p.32), “Carnot’s Contribution to Thermodynamics” by M.J. Klein (August, 1974,
p. 23); articles in Scientific American; and various books on the history of science. Of
special interest is the book The Second Law by P.W. Atkins published by Scientific
American Books, W.H. Freeman and Company (New York, 1984) which contains a very
extensive discussion of the entropy, the second law of thermodynamics, chaos and
symmetry.
I also use several simple classroom demonstrations in my thermodynamics courses.
For example, we have used a simple constant-volume ideal gas thermometer, and an
instrumented vapor compression refrigeration cycle (heat pump or air conditioner) that
can brought into the classroom.  To demonstrate the pressure dependence of the melting
point of ice, I do a simple regelation experiment using a cylinder of ice (produced by
freezing water in a test tube), and a 0.005 inch diameter wire, both ends of which are
tied to the same 500 gram weight.  (The wire, when placed across the supported cylinder
of ice, will cut through it in about 5 minutes, though by refreezing or regelation, the ice
cylinder remains intact.—This experiment also provides an opportunity to discuss the
movement of glaciers.)  Scientific toys, such as “Love Meters” and drinking “Happy
Birds”, available at novelty shops, have been used to illustrate how one can make
practical use of the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure.  I also use some
professionally prepared teaching aids, such as the three-dimensional phase diagrams for
carbon dioxide and water, that are available from laboratory equipment distributors.
Despite these diversions, the courses I teach are quite problem oriented.  My
objective has been to provide a clear exposition of the principles of thermodynamics, and
then to reinforce these fundamentals by requiring the student to consider a great
diversity of the applications.  My approach to teaching thermodynamics is, perhaps,
similar to the view of John Tyndall expressed in the quotation
“It is thus that I should like to teach you all things; showing you the way to
profitable exertion, but leaving the exertion to you—more anxious to bring out
your manliness in the presence of difficulty than to make your way smooth by
toning the difficulties down.”
Which appeared in The Forms of  Water, published by D. Appleton (New York, 1872).
Solutions to Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics, 3e vii
Finally, I usually conclude a course in thermodynamics with the following quotation    
by Albert Einstein:
“A theory is more impressive the greater the simplicity of its premises is, the
more different kinds of things it relates, and the more extended its area of
applicability. Therefore, the deep impression classical thermodynamics made
upon me. It is the only physical theory of universal content which, within the
framework of the applicability of its basic concepts, I am convinced will never
by overthrown.”
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Page 5


v
Preface
This manual contains more or less complete solutions for every problem in the
book.  Should you find errors in any of the solutions, please bring them to my attention.
Over the years, I have tried to enrich my lectures by including histor ical
information on the significant developments in thermodynamics, and biographical
sketches of the people involved.  The multivolume Dictionary of Scientific Biography, edited by Charles C. Gillispie and published by C. Scribners, New York, has been
especially useful for obtaining biographical and, to some extent, historical information.
[For example, the entry on Anders Celsius points out that he chose the zero of his
temperature scale to be the boiling point of water, and 100 to be the freezing point.
Also, the intense rivalry between the English and German scientific communities for
credit for developing thermodynamics is discussed in the biographies of J.R. Mayer, J. P.
Joule, R. Clausius (who introduced the word entropy) and others.]  Other sources of
biographical information include various encyclopedias, Asimov’s Biographical
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology by I. Asimov, published by Doubleday & Co.,
(N.Y., 1972), and, to a lesser extent, Nobel Prize Winners in Physics 1901-1951, by
N.H. deV. Heathcote, published by H. Schuman, N.Y.
Historical information is usually best gotten from reading the original literature.
Many of the important papers have been reproduced, with some commentary, in a series
of books entitled “Benchmark Papers on Energy” distributed by Halsted Press, a division
of John Wiley and Sons, N.Y.  Of particular interest are:
Volume 1, Energy: Historical Development of the Concept, by R. Bruce Lindsay.
Volume 2, Applications of Energy, 19th Century, by R. Bruce Lindsay.
Volume 5, The Second Law of Thermodynamics , by J. Kestin and
Volume 6, Irreversible Processes, also by J. Kestin.
The first volume was published in 1975, the remainder in 1976.
vi
Other useful sources of historical information are “The Early Development of the
Concepts of Temperature and Heat: The Rise and Decline of the Caloric Theory” by D.
Roller in Volume 1 of Harvard Case Histories in Experimental Science edited by J.B.
Conant and published by Harvard University Press in 1957; articles in Physics Today, such as “A Sketch for a History of Early Thermodynamics” by E. Mendoza (February,
1961, p.32), “Carnot’s Contribution to Thermodynamics” by M.J. Klein (August, 1974,
p. 23); articles in Scientific American; and various books on the history of science. Of
special interest is the book The Second Law by P.W. Atkins published by Scientific
American Books, W.H. Freeman and Company (New York, 1984) which contains a very
extensive discussion of the entropy, the second law of thermodynamics, chaos and
symmetry.
I also use several simple classroom demonstrations in my thermodynamics courses.
For example, we have used a simple constant-volume ideal gas thermometer, and an
instrumented vapor compression refrigeration cycle (heat pump or air conditioner) that
can brought into the classroom.  To demonstrate the pressure dependence of the melting
point of ice, I do a simple regelation experiment using a cylinder of ice (produced by
freezing water in a test tube), and a 0.005 inch diameter wire, both ends of which are
tied to the same 500 gram weight.  (The wire, when placed across the supported cylinder
of ice, will cut through it in about 5 minutes, though by refreezing or regelation, the ice
cylinder remains intact.—This experiment also provides an opportunity to discuss the
movement of glaciers.)  Scientific toys, such as “Love Meters” and drinking “Happy
Birds”, available at novelty shops, have been used to illustrate how one can make
practical use of the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure.  I also use some
professionally prepared teaching aids, such as the three-dimensional phase diagrams for
carbon dioxide and water, that are available from laboratory equipment distributors.
Despite these diversions, the courses I teach are quite problem oriented.  My
objective has been to provide a clear exposition of the principles of thermodynamics, and
then to reinforce these fundamentals by requiring the student to consider a great
diversity of the applications.  My approach to teaching thermodynamics is, perhaps,
similar to the view of John Tyndall expressed in the quotation
“It is thus that I should like to teach you all things; showing you the way to
profitable exertion, but leaving the exertion to you—more anxious to bring out
your manliness in the presence of difficulty than to make your way smooth by
toning the difficulties down.”
Which appeared in The Forms of  Water, published by D. Appleton (New York, 1872).
Solutions to Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics, 3e vii
Finally, I usually conclude a course in thermodynamics with the following quotation    
by Albert Einstein:
“A theory is more impressive the greater the simplicity of its premises is, the
more different kinds of things it relates, and the more extended its area of
applicability. Therefore, the deep impression classical thermodynamics made
upon me. It is the only physical theory of universal content which, within the
framework of the applicability of its basic concepts, I am convinced will never
by overthrown.”
1
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Semester Notes

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Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics-1 Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

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