Chemistry In Everyday Life - Concepts Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Class 12 : Chemistry In Everyday Life - Concepts Class 12 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


 
Class XII: Chemistry 
Chapter 16: Chemistry in Everyday Life 
Top Concepts 
1.  Drugs are low molecular mass ( ~100-500 u) substances which 
interact with targets in the body and produce a biological response 
2.  Medicines are chemicals that are useful in diagnosis, prevention and 
treatment of diseases 
 
3.  Desirable or beneficial effect of a drug like treatment of symptoms and 
cure of a disease on a living body is known as therapeutic effect 
 
4.  Proteins which perform the role of biological catalysts in the body are 
called enzymes 
 
5.  Functions of enzymes: 
  
(i)  The first function of an enzyme is to hold the substrate for a chemical 
reaction. Active sites of enzymes hold the substrate molecule in a 
suitable position, so that it can be attacked by the reagent effectively 
 
(ii)  The second function of an enzyme is to provide functional groups that 
will attack the substrate and carry out chemical reaction 
 
6.  Main role of drugs is to either increase or decrease role of enzyme 
catalysed reactions. Inhibition of enzymes is a common role of drug 
action.  Enzyme inhibitor is drug which inhibits catalytic activity of 
enzymes or blocks the binding site of the enzyme and eventually 
prevents the binding of substrate with enzyme. Drug can inhibit 
attachment of substrate on active site of enzymes in following ways. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Page 2


 
Class XII: Chemistry 
Chapter 16: Chemistry in Everyday Life 
Top Concepts 
1.  Drugs are low molecular mass ( ~100-500 u) substances which 
interact with targets in the body and produce a biological response 
2.  Medicines are chemicals that are useful in diagnosis, prevention and 
treatment of diseases 
 
3.  Desirable or beneficial effect of a drug like treatment of symptoms and 
cure of a disease on a living body is known as therapeutic effect 
 
4.  Proteins which perform the role of biological catalysts in the body are 
called enzymes 
 
5.  Functions of enzymes: 
  
(i)  The first function of an enzyme is to hold the substrate for a chemical 
reaction. Active sites of enzymes hold the substrate molecule in a 
suitable position, so that it can be attacked by the reagent effectively 
 
(ii)  The second function of an enzyme is to provide functional groups that 
will attack the substrate and carry out chemical reaction 
 
6.  Main role of drugs is to either increase or decrease role of enzyme 
catalysed reactions. Inhibition of enzymes is a common role of drug 
action.  Enzyme inhibitor is drug which inhibits catalytic activity of 
enzymes or blocks the binding site of the enzyme and eventually 
prevents the binding of substrate with enzyme. Drug can inhibit 
attachment of substrate on active site of enzymes in following ways. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(a)  Competitive Inhibition: Competitive Inhibitors are the drugs that 
compete with the natural substrate for their attachment on the active 
sites of enzymes 
 
 
(b)  Non-Competitive Inhibition: Some drugs do not bind to the enzyme’s 
active site, instead bind to a different site of enzyme called allosteric 
site. This binding of inhibitor at allosteric site changes the shape of the 
active site in such a way that substrate cannot recognise it. If the bond 
formed between an enzyme and an inhibitor is a strong covalent bond 
and cannot be broken easily, then the enzyme is blocked permanently. 
The body then degrades the enzyme-inhibitor complex and synthesizes 
the new enzyme 
 
  
 
7.  Receptors as Drug Targets: 
 Proteins which are vital for communication system in the body are 
called receptors. In the body, message between two neurons and that 
between neurons to muscles is communicated through chemical 
messengers. They  are received at the binding sites of receptor 
proteins. To accommodate a messenger, shape of the receptor site 
 
Page 3


 
Class XII: Chemistry 
Chapter 16: Chemistry in Everyday Life 
Top Concepts 
1.  Drugs are low molecular mass ( ~100-500 u) substances which 
interact with targets in the body and produce a biological response 
2.  Medicines are chemicals that are useful in diagnosis, prevention and 
treatment of diseases 
 
3.  Desirable or beneficial effect of a drug like treatment of symptoms and 
cure of a disease on a living body is known as therapeutic effect 
 
4.  Proteins which perform the role of biological catalysts in the body are 
called enzymes 
 
5.  Functions of enzymes: 
  
(i)  The first function of an enzyme is to hold the substrate for a chemical 
reaction. Active sites of enzymes hold the substrate molecule in a 
suitable position, so that it can be attacked by the reagent effectively 
 
(ii)  The second function of an enzyme is to provide functional groups that 
will attack the substrate and carry out chemical reaction 
 
6.  Main role of drugs is to either increase or decrease role of enzyme 
catalysed reactions. Inhibition of enzymes is a common role of drug 
action.  Enzyme inhibitor is drug which inhibits catalytic activity of 
enzymes or blocks the binding site of the enzyme and eventually 
prevents the binding of substrate with enzyme. Drug can inhibit 
attachment of substrate on active site of enzymes in following ways. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(a)  Competitive Inhibition: Competitive Inhibitors are the drugs that 
compete with the natural substrate for their attachment on the active 
sites of enzymes 
 
 
(b)  Non-Competitive Inhibition: Some drugs do not bind to the enzyme’s 
active site, instead bind to a different site of enzyme called allosteric 
site. This binding of inhibitor at allosteric site changes the shape of the 
active site in such a way that substrate cannot recognise it. If the bond 
formed between an enzyme and an inhibitor is a strong covalent bond 
and cannot be broken easily, then the enzyme is blocked permanently. 
The body then degrades the enzyme-inhibitor complex and synthesizes 
the new enzyme 
 
  
 
7.  Receptors as Drug Targets: 
 Proteins which are vital for communication system in the body are 
called receptors. In the body, message between two neurons and that 
between neurons to muscles is communicated through chemical 
messengers. They  are received at the binding sites of receptor 
proteins. To accommodate a messenger, shape of the receptor site 
 
 
changes which brings about the transfer of message into the cell. 
Chemical messenger gives message to the cell without entering the 
cell 
 
 
 
 Receptors show selectivity for one chemical messenger over the other 
because their binding sites have different shape, structure and amino 
acid composition. 
 Drugs that bind to the receptor site and inhibit its natural function are 
called antagonists. These are useful when blocking of message is 
required. Drugs that mimic the natural messenger by switching on the 
receptor are called agonists. These are useful when there is lack of 
natural chemical messenger. 
 
8.  Therapeutic action of different classes of drugs 
(i)  Antacid: Chemical substances which neutralize excess acid in the 
gastric juices and give relief from acid indigestion, acidity, heart burns 
and gastric ulcers  
 Examples: Eno, gelusil, digene etc. 
 
(ii)  Antihistamines: Chemical substances which diminish or abolish the 
effects of histamine released in body and hence prevent allergic 
reactions 
 Examples: Brompheniramine (Dimetapp) and terfenadine (Seldane) 
 
(iii)  Neurologically Active Drugs: Drugs which have a neurological effect 
i.e. affects the message transfer mechanism from nerve to receptor 
 
(a)  Tranquilizers: Chemical substances used for the treatment of stress 
and mild or severe mental diseases 
 Examples: Derivatives of barbituric acids like veronal, amytal, 
nembutal, luminal, seconal 
 
 
Page 4


 
Class XII: Chemistry 
Chapter 16: Chemistry in Everyday Life 
Top Concepts 
1.  Drugs are low molecular mass ( ~100-500 u) substances which 
interact with targets in the body and produce a biological response 
2.  Medicines are chemicals that are useful in diagnosis, prevention and 
treatment of diseases 
 
3.  Desirable or beneficial effect of a drug like treatment of symptoms and 
cure of a disease on a living body is known as therapeutic effect 
 
4.  Proteins which perform the role of biological catalysts in the body are 
called enzymes 
 
5.  Functions of enzymes: 
  
(i)  The first function of an enzyme is to hold the substrate for a chemical 
reaction. Active sites of enzymes hold the substrate molecule in a 
suitable position, so that it can be attacked by the reagent effectively 
 
(ii)  The second function of an enzyme is to provide functional groups that 
will attack the substrate and carry out chemical reaction 
 
6.  Main role of drugs is to either increase or decrease role of enzyme 
catalysed reactions. Inhibition of enzymes is a common role of drug 
action.  Enzyme inhibitor is drug which inhibits catalytic activity of 
enzymes or blocks the binding site of the enzyme and eventually 
prevents the binding of substrate with enzyme. Drug can inhibit 
attachment of substrate on active site of enzymes in following ways. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(a)  Competitive Inhibition: Competitive Inhibitors are the drugs that 
compete with the natural substrate for their attachment on the active 
sites of enzymes 
 
 
(b)  Non-Competitive Inhibition: Some drugs do not bind to the enzyme’s 
active site, instead bind to a different site of enzyme called allosteric 
site. This binding of inhibitor at allosteric site changes the shape of the 
active site in such a way that substrate cannot recognise it. If the bond 
formed between an enzyme and an inhibitor is a strong covalent bond 
and cannot be broken easily, then the enzyme is blocked permanently. 
The body then degrades the enzyme-inhibitor complex and synthesizes 
the new enzyme 
 
  
 
7.  Receptors as Drug Targets: 
 Proteins which are vital for communication system in the body are 
called receptors. In the body, message between two neurons and that 
between neurons to muscles is communicated through chemical 
messengers. They  are received at the binding sites of receptor 
proteins. To accommodate a messenger, shape of the receptor site 
 
 
changes which brings about the transfer of message into the cell. 
Chemical messenger gives message to the cell without entering the 
cell 
 
 
 
 Receptors show selectivity for one chemical messenger over the other 
because their binding sites have different shape, structure and amino 
acid composition. 
 Drugs that bind to the receptor site and inhibit its natural function are 
called antagonists. These are useful when blocking of message is 
required. Drugs that mimic the natural messenger by switching on the 
receptor are called agonists. These are useful when there is lack of 
natural chemical messenger. 
 
8.  Therapeutic action of different classes of drugs 
(i)  Antacid: Chemical substances which neutralize excess acid in the 
gastric juices and give relief from acid indigestion, acidity, heart burns 
and gastric ulcers  
 Examples: Eno, gelusil, digene etc. 
 
(ii)  Antihistamines: Chemical substances which diminish or abolish the 
effects of histamine released in body and hence prevent allergic 
reactions 
 Examples: Brompheniramine (Dimetapp) and terfenadine (Seldane) 
 
(iii)  Neurologically Active Drugs: Drugs which have a neurological effect 
i.e. affects the message transfer mechanism from nerve to receptor 
 
(a)  Tranquilizers: Chemical substances used for the treatment of stress 
and mild or severe mental diseases 
 Examples: Derivatives of barbituric acids like veronal, amytal, 
nembutal, luminal, seconal 
 
 
 
(b)  Analgesics: Chemical substances used to relieve pain without causing 
any disturbances in the nervous system like impairment of 
consciousness, mental confusion, incoordination or paralysis etc. 
 
Classification of Analgesics: 
Non-narcotic  
analgesics: 
 
Narcotic  analgesics: 
They are non-addictive 
drugs 
When administered in 
medicinal doses, these 
drugs relieve pain and 
produce sleep 
Examples: Aspirin, 
Ibuprofen, Naproxen, 
Dichlofenac Sodium 
Examples: Morphine 
and its derivatives 
 
(iv)  Antimicrobials: Drugs that tends to destroy/prevent development or 
inhibit the pathogenic action of microbes such as bacteria 
(antibacterial drugs), fungi (antifungal agents), virus (antiviral 
agents), or other parasites (antiparasitic drugs) selectively 
 
Types of antimicrobial drugs 
 
(a)  Antibiotics: Chemical substances produced by microorganisms that kill 
or prevent the growth of other microbes 
 
Classification of antibiotics on basis of mode of control of microbial diseases: 
             Bactericidal              Bacteriostatic 
Drugs that kills organisms in body Drugs that inhibits growth of 
organisms 
Examples: 
Penicillin, Aminoglycosides, 
Ofloxacin 
Examples: 
Erythromycin, Tetracycline, 
Chloramphenicol 
 
 
Classification of antibiotics on basis of its spectrum of action: 
Broad spectrum antibiotics Narrow spectrum 
antibiotics 
Limited spectrum 
antibiotics 
Antibiotics which kill or 
inhibit a wide range of 
Gram-positive and Gram-
negative bacteria 
Antibiotics which are 
effective mainly 
against Gram-
positive or Gram-
negative bacteria 
Antibiotics effective 
against a single 
organism or disease 
Examples: 
Ampicillin and Amoxycillin 
Examples: 
Penicillin G 
 
 
 
Page 5


 
Class XII: Chemistry 
Chapter 16: Chemistry in Everyday Life 
Top Concepts 
1.  Drugs are low molecular mass ( ~100-500 u) substances which 
interact with targets in the body and produce a biological response 
2.  Medicines are chemicals that are useful in diagnosis, prevention and 
treatment of diseases 
 
3.  Desirable or beneficial effect of a drug like treatment of symptoms and 
cure of a disease on a living body is known as therapeutic effect 
 
4.  Proteins which perform the role of biological catalysts in the body are 
called enzymes 
 
5.  Functions of enzymes: 
  
(i)  The first function of an enzyme is to hold the substrate for a chemical 
reaction. Active sites of enzymes hold the substrate molecule in a 
suitable position, so that it can be attacked by the reagent effectively 
 
(ii)  The second function of an enzyme is to provide functional groups that 
will attack the substrate and carry out chemical reaction 
 
6.  Main role of drugs is to either increase or decrease role of enzyme 
catalysed reactions. Inhibition of enzymes is a common role of drug 
action.  Enzyme inhibitor is drug which inhibits catalytic activity of 
enzymes or blocks the binding site of the enzyme and eventually 
prevents the binding of substrate with enzyme. Drug can inhibit 
attachment of substrate on active site of enzymes in following ways. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(a)  Competitive Inhibition: Competitive Inhibitors are the drugs that 
compete with the natural substrate for their attachment on the active 
sites of enzymes 
 
 
(b)  Non-Competitive Inhibition: Some drugs do not bind to the enzyme’s 
active site, instead bind to a different site of enzyme called allosteric 
site. This binding of inhibitor at allosteric site changes the shape of the 
active site in such a way that substrate cannot recognise it. If the bond 
formed between an enzyme and an inhibitor is a strong covalent bond 
and cannot be broken easily, then the enzyme is blocked permanently. 
The body then degrades the enzyme-inhibitor complex and synthesizes 
the new enzyme 
 
  
 
7.  Receptors as Drug Targets: 
 Proteins which are vital for communication system in the body are 
called receptors. In the body, message between two neurons and that 
between neurons to muscles is communicated through chemical 
messengers. They  are received at the binding sites of receptor 
proteins. To accommodate a messenger, shape of the receptor site 
 
 
changes which brings about the transfer of message into the cell. 
Chemical messenger gives message to the cell without entering the 
cell 
 
 
 
 Receptors show selectivity for one chemical messenger over the other 
because their binding sites have different shape, structure and amino 
acid composition. 
 Drugs that bind to the receptor site and inhibit its natural function are 
called antagonists. These are useful when blocking of message is 
required. Drugs that mimic the natural messenger by switching on the 
receptor are called agonists. These are useful when there is lack of 
natural chemical messenger. 
 
8.  Therapeutic action of different classes of drugs 
(i)  Antacid: Chemical substances which neutralize excess acid in the 
gastric juices and give relief from acid indigestion, acidity, heart burns 
and gastric ulcers  
 Examples: Eno, gelusil, digene etc. 
 
(ii)  Antihistamines: Chemical substances which diminish or abolish the 
effects of histamine released in body and hence prevent allergic 
reactions 
 Examples: Brompheniramine (Dimetapp) and terfenadine (Seldane) 
 
(iii)  Neurologically Active Drugs: Drugs which have a neurological effect 
i.e. affects the message transfer mechanism from nerve to receptor 
 
(a)  Tranquilizers: Chemical substances used for the treatment of stress 
and mild or severe mental diseases 
 Examples: Derivatives of barbituric acids like veronal, amytal, 
nembutal, luminal, seconal 
 
 
 
(b)  Analgesics: Chemical substances used to relieve pain without causing 
any disturbances in the nervous system like impairment of 
consciousness, mental confusion, incoordination or paralysis etc. 
 
Classification of Analgesics: 
Non-narcotic  
analgesics: 
 
Narcotic  analgesics: 
They are non-addictive 
drugs 
When administered in 
medicinal doses, these 
drugs relieve pain and 
produce sleep 
Examples: Aspirin, 
Ibuprofen, Naproxen, 
Dichlofenac Sodium 
Examples: Morphine 
and its derivatives 
 
(iv)  Antimicrobials: Drugs that tends to destroy/prevent development or 
inhibit the pathogenic action of microbes such as bacteria 
(antibacterial drugs), fungi (antifungal agents), virus (antiviral 
agents), or other parasites (antiparasitic drugs) selectively 
 
Types of antimicrobial drugs 
 
(a)  Antibiotics: Chemical substances produced by microorganisms that kill 
or prevent the growth of other microbes 
 
Classification of antibiotics on basis of mode of control of microbial diseases: 
             Bactericidal              Bacteriostatic 
Drugs that kills organisms in body Drugs that inhibits growth of 
organisms 
Examples: 
Penicillin, Aminoglycosides, 
Ofloxacin 
Examples: 
Erythromycin, Tetracycline, 
Chloramphenicol 
 
 
Classification of antibiotics on basis of its spectrum of action: 
Broad spectrum antibiotics Narrow spectrum 
antibiotics 
Limited spectrum 
antibiotics 
Antibiotics which kill or 
inhibit a wide range of 
Gram-positive and Gram-
negative bacteria 
Antibiotics which are 
effective mainly 
against Gram-
positive or Gram-
negative bacteria 
Antibiotics effective 
against a single 
organism or disease 
Examples: 
Ampicillin and Amoxycillin 
Examples: 
Penicillin G 
 
 
 
 
(b)  Antiseptics: Chemical substances that kill or prevent growth of 
microorganisms and can be applied on living tissues such as cuts, 
wounds etc. 
Examples: Soframicine, dettol 
 
(c)  Disinfectants: Chemical substances that kill microorganisms but cannot 
be applied on living tissues such as cuts, wounds etc. 
Examples: Chlorine (Cl
2
), bithional, iodoform etc. 
 
(v)  Antifertility Drugs: Chemical substances used to prevent conception or 
fertilization 
Examples: Norethindrone, ethynylestradiol (novestrol) 
9.  Food additives are the substances added to food to preserve its flavour 
or improve its taste and appearance  
Different types of food additives: 
No. Name of food additive Examples 
1 
Artificial Sweetening Agents: Chemical 
compounds which gives sweetening effect 
to the food and enhance its flavour 
Aspartame, 
Sucrolose and 
Alitame 
2 
Food preservatives: Chemical substances  
which are added to food material to 
prevent their spoilage due to microbial 
growth 
Sugar, Salts, Sodium 
benzoate 
3 
Food colours: Substances added to food to 
increase the acceptability and 
attractiveness of the food product 
Allura Red AC, 
Tartrazine 
4 
Nutritional supplements: Substances 
added to food to improve the nutritional 
value 
Vitamins, minerals 
etc. 
5 
Fat emulsifiers and stabilizing agents: 
Substances added to food products to give 
texture and desired consistency  
Egg yolk (where the 
main emulsifying 
chemical is Lecithin) 
6 
Antioxidants :Substances added to food to 
prevent oxidation of food materials 
Butylated Hydroxy 
Toluene (BHT), 
Butylated Hydroxy 
Anisole (BHA) 
 
10. Soaps: 
(i) Soap: It is a sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids like 
stearic, oleic and palmitic acid. 
 
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