Children and Sports - Physical Education Revision Notes, Class 12 Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Physical Education Class 12(XII) - Notes & Model Test Papers

Class 12 : Children and Sports - Physical Education Revision Notes, Class 12 Class 12 Notes | EduRev

The document Children and Sports - Physical Education Revision Notes, Class 12 Class 12 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 12 Course Physical Education Class 12(XII) - Notes & Model Test Papers.
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Key Points: 

  • Motor Development in Children 
  • Factors affecting Motor Development 
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Weight Training 
  • Concept & Advantages of Correct posture 
  • Causes of Bad Posture 
  • Common postural deformities 
  • Corrective measures for postural deformities 

Motor development refers to the development of general body control, fine motor skills and large muscle movements. There are three stages of motor development in children as given below infancy or infancy hood, early childhood & later childhood
It is of two types: 
1. Gross motor development involves the development of large muscles in the child‘s body, such as sitting, walking, running etc.
2. Fine motor development involves development of small muscles of the body, especially during the small movements of the fingers and hands eg. Holding of javelin, discus and pole, catching a cricket ball, etc.

5.1 Motor Development-Motor Development refers to the development of a child’s Bone, muscles and ability to move around and manipulate his/her environment.
Motor Development 

Children and Sports - Physical Education Revision Notes, Class 12 Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Factors affecting motor development 
1. Nutrition:- Nutritious food promotes good motor development. Sensory-motor development is dependent upon nutrition that the child gets to a great extent. Children get stronger and development is good if they get nutritious food.
2. Immunization:- If mother and child both are immunized at a proper time it leads to good sensory-motor development.
3. Environment:- Encouragement, love and security help the child to take risks to explore fearlessly and to know more about the environment which leads to better sensory development.

5.2 Factors affecting Motor Development 
1. Heredity
2. Nutrition
3. Sleep
4. Immunization
5. Environment
6. Stimulation and Interaction
7. Opportunities
8. Training and Practice
9. Recreation
10. Education-Learning and Productivity
11. Gender
12. Posture Deformities
13. Sensory Impairment
14. Obesity
15. Social Skills
16. Mental Health

5.3 Physical and Physiological benefits of Exercise on Children 
Physical benefit of exercise
1. Physical Health and Strength
2. Mental Health
3. Emotional Wellbeing
4. Social Health
5. Positive School Environment
6. Motivating personality
7. Controls antisocial behavior

Physiological benefits of Exercise 
1. Strengthening the heart
2. Strengthens bones and muscles
3. Controls Blood Sugar
4. Regulate Blood Pressure
5. Increases Energy level
6. Detoxification
7. Reduce Cholesterol level

Advantages and disadvantages of weight training 
Advantages of weight training 
a) Increase bone density: weight training helps in increasing bone density. The risk for osteoporosis is lower for the individuals who do weight training exercises at least 3 times a week.
b) Helps in getting good shape: Weight training is magical as it shapes up all by involving an appropriate schedule. Fat people can become slim and slim can gain weight and become strong.

Disadvantages of weight training are:
a) Risk of injuries:
there is always a risk of injuries while performing weight training without any companion. In case you are alone and you are not able to do the required repetitions of the exercise, you may be injured.
b) Less flexibility: weight training reduces flexibility if flexibility exercises are not done along with weight training. If flexibility exercises are done continuously then such disadvantage can be ignored.

5.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Weight training and food supplement for children
Weight training:- That exercise
, that are designed to strengthen specific muscles. By causing them to overcome a fixed resistance, usually in the form of Barbells or dumbbells.

Advantages of Weight Training 
1. Improves Posture and range of motion
2. Increases muscle strength, bone density and endurance
3. Protection against injury
4. improve motor performance
5. Promote healthy Blood pressure and cholesterol levels
6. Maintain Healthy Weight
7. Develop confidence and self-esteem
8. Improve immune system functions
9. improve Psycho-socio well being
10. Promote and develop exercise habits

Disadvantages of Weight Training 
1. Maturity
2. Introduce Injury
3. Safety
4. Loss of Flexibility

Concept of posture:- The posture in which the body is so balanced as to produce the least fatigue It means balancing the body in an accurate and proper manner while sitting, standing etc or during any other actions.

Importance:- 
a) One‘s personality can be judged,
b) Better balance, agility and overall physical performance.
c) helps in maintaining the proper manner of standing, sitting and walking of one‘s body.
d) it is a measure of one‘s alertness.
e) has better alignment, which translates into less injury.
f) recovers quickly from exercise or physical exertion, and feels more energetic

Causes of poor posture 
(i) Injury when bone, ligament or muscle is injured, it weakens the support to that
(ii)Disease causes the joints to lose their strength and mobility.
(iii) Heredity Deformities like Kyphosis and flat foot are sometimes due to hereditary factors.
(iv) Overload Over work or fatigue also results in poor posture.
(v) Lack of Exercise The maintenance of erect posture requires strength and endurance.

Common postural deformities:- Postural deformities are the exaggerated curvature of the spine. The spine is naturally curved but various factors may give rise to the deformities. It reduces the efficiency of individual to great extent & cause more health problems.

Knock Knee - A postural deformity in which both the knees touch or overlap each other in normal standing position

Causes of knock knee 
(i) Weakness of muscles and ligaments
(ii)Overweight body
(iii) Lack of balanced diet
(iv) Lack of vitamin-D
Flat Foot is a deformity of the feet. In this deformity, there is no arc in the foot and the foot is completely flat.
Round Shoulder It is a postural deformity in which the shoulders are drawn, the head is extended with the chin pointing forward.

Causes of round shoulders 
(i) Due to poor posture while working
(ii) Faulty furniture
(iii) Wrong habit of sitting/standing
(iv) Carrying heavy load on shoulders
(V) By sleeping on one side
Kyphosis is a deformity of the spine in which there is an increase or exaggeration of a backward curve.

Corrective measures of kyphosis 
(i) Perform Dhanurasana regularly
(ii) Bend your head backward in standing position.
(iii) Reverse sit-up
(iv) Perform Bhujang Asana
(v) Perform just Asana
Bow Legs is a deformity opposite knock knee. In fact, if there is a wide gap between the knees, the deformity can be observed easily.
Lordosis is a common defect in deformity & posture. Here lumber curve becomes more pronounced and front central position of the pelvic region is tilted forward.

Corrective measures of Lordosis 
(i) Forward bending
(ii) Alternate toe touching
(iii) Sloop walking
(iv) Perform paschimotanasana
(v) Perform sit-ups regularly

Causes of scoliosis 
(i) Congenital scoliosis, which is caused by a bone abnormality present at birth. Neuromuscular scoliosis, which results in clue Lo abnormal muscles or nerves.
(ii) This is seen in people with cerebral palsy or having partial paralysis.
(iii) Degenerative scoliosis, which may result from traumatic (. i. e. Injury Í illness) bone collapse, previous major back surgery, or osteoporosis.
(iv) Idiopathic scoliosis, which is the most common type. It has no specific identifiable cause.

Preventive measures to avoid Scoliosis 
Corrective measures of scoliosis
(i) Perform Ardh Chakra Asana
(ii) Chin-ups
(iii) Swim by using breaststroke technique
(iv) Perform Trikonasana
(v) Perform Tarra Asana

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