UPSC : Chronology - Ancient History UPSC Notes | EduRev
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- Explorations in progress are likely to throw fresh light on the full extent of this civilization; but even as we know it, the area covered by the civilization was much more than that covered by the contemporary civilizations in the Nile or Tigiris-Euphrates valleys in the west or the Yellow River Valley in the east.
- From Suktagendor in Southern Baluchistan to Alamgirpur in the Meerut district of U.P., the known western and eastern limits of the Indus civilization, it is a distance of over 1550 km.
- From north to south, it extends over 1100 km. between Ropar, in Punjab and Bhagatrav in the Kim estuary in Gujarat. Traces of civilization in Mohenjo-Daro
- According to the latest excavations most of the Northern site is Manda (J & K) and the southern-most, Diamabad (Maharashtra).
- A great majority of 250 sites lie on the plains of the Indus and its tributaries.
- In the early 1970’s nearly 250 Harappan sites were counted, but now about 1,000 have been noted, and two thirds of these lie in India.
- In the south, it extended upto Malvan and Jokha on the Tapti as well Daimabad in Ahmednagar District.
- The recent Harappan sites discovered in Punjab are Chandigarh, Sanghol, Dadheri, and Saraya Khota near Janila. In Haryana, it is Banwali, Mitathal and Rakhigarhi.
- In Gujarat, it is Lothal, Rojdi, Prabhas, Somnath, Desalpur, Mehgam, Cavanesvar, Telod and Dhulanira.
- In the seventies new sites have been discovered in Uttar Pradesh—one of them being Hulas in district Shahjahanpur.
- Among recent discoveries the most remarkable is the Harappan site at Shortughai on the south plain of the oxus in the north-eastern Afghanistan. This site probably exploited trade in lapis lazuli from the mines of Badakshan and perhaps other material such as copper.
- The settlement at Mehrgarh probably lasted for 5000 years before the Indus cities first appeared. The excavations revealed that Mehrgarh was inhabited by a community which started to make houses and compartmentalised store-houses or granaries of mud-bricks.
- Marshal suggested that the occupation of Mohenjodaro fell approximately between 3250 and 2750 B.C.
- Mackay assigned the lowest levels of Mohenjodaro to about 2800 B.C. and uppermost to 2500 B.C.
- D.P. Agrawal with the help of C-14 determinations proposed a maximum date bracket of 2300-1750 B.C.
- Wheeler was of the opinion that millennium 2500-1700 B.C. was a possible inclusive date for the Indus Valley Civilization.
- Dales suggested 2900-1900 B.C.
- M.S. Vats proposed a time bracket circa 3500-2500 B.C.