Ques 1: Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.
Irradiation is the treatment of food with energy from gamma rays, x-rays or electrons for a specific purpose. It offers advantages to the producer, processor, retailer and consumer by preventing food losses after harvesting and assures quality and safety of the food consumed.
At very low doses, it inhibits re-growth or sprouting of stored potatoes, onions, garlic; delays ripening and over-ripening of fruits and substitutes chemical fumigants used to control insects and pests in stored foods like rice, wheat flour, sooji, pulses, gram flour, dry fruits,nuts, spices and dry fish.
At higher doses, irradiation pasteurizes or retards spoilage of meat, poultry and seafood by killing the bacteria causing spoilage of these foods and ensures food safety by destroying food-borne pathogenic bacteria. At still higher doses, it can improve the quality and microbial safety of spices and dried herbs.
The incidence of food-borne gastro-intestinal infections has increased in recent years even in countries like North America and Europe. Irradiation is now widely considered the most effective technology to prevent such diseases. Answer the following questions,
(i) What is irradiation?
(ii) What advantages does it offer?
(iii) How does it ensure food safety?
(iv) What does it do in low doses?
(v) What does it do in higher doses?
(vi) How does it offer advantages to the producer and consumer?
(vii) Which incidence has increased recently and where?
(viii) How are these diseases prevented?
Ans: (i) Irradiation is the treatment of food with energy from gamma rays, x-rays or electrons for a specific purpose.
(ii) It offers advantages by preventing food losses after harvesting and assures safety and quality of the food consumed.
(iii) It ensures food safety by destroying food-borne pathogenic bacteria.
(iv) At low doses, it inhibits re-growth of stored potatoes, onions, garlic and delays ripening andover-ripening of fruits.
(v) At higher doses, it pasteurizes or retards spoilage of meat, poultry and seafood by killing the bacteria.
(vi) It offers advantages to the producer and consumer by preventing food losses after harvesting.
(vii) The incidence of food borne gastro-intestinal infections has increased, even in countries like North America and Europe.
(viii) These diseases are prevented through irradiation.
Ques 2: Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.
It is probable that illness and infection caused by food contaminated with bacteria which produce diseases have existed since the beginning of time. Drinking water can be made safe by treating itwith chlorine. Milk can be made safe by heating it and then packing it in the sterilized containers. But it is either very difficult or simply not possible to treat most of the things we eat, in either of these ways.
Many food items, such as jam, pickles, drinks, etc. can be made safe by the use of preservatives. At homes, refrigerators are used to keep meals, fruits, etc., either to prevent bacteria from entering the food, or to stop them from growing after they have entered. For a long time, it was believed that some substances called ptomaine's were the agents of food poisoning but it was finally discovered that these ptomaine's, found in rotten food, can be swallowed without the harmful effects that follow it.
In 1888, about 60 people, who had eaten meat from the same animal, were taken ill, and one man had died. Dr Gaertner, a German bacteriologist, was ableto isolate the food poisoning bacteria (Salmonella) which had caused the outbreak; and put forward the theory that all food poisoning was due to the presence of such bacteria. Food poisoning can prove fatal in many cases. What we can do is that we must be alert while taking food. We must also take care of hygiene.
A. Answer the following questions.
(i) How can food be made safe to eat?
(ii) What was the belief held about ptomaine's?
(iii) How can food poisoning be prevented?
(iv) What conclusion did Dr Gaertner bring out?
B. Tick the correct option.
(i) According to the passage which one of the following statements is not true?
(a) Illness and infection are caused by contaminated food
(b) Food is contaminated by bacteria which produces diseases
(c) Food contamination is a new problem that people are facing
(d) Chlorine is used to clean drinking water
(ii) Drinking water can be made safe by
(a) treating it with chlorine
(c) keeping it in refrigerator
(d) covering it
(iii) Salmonella is a
(b) good bacteria
(c) food poisoning bacteria
(iv) For a long time,.......... were considered agents of food poisoning.
(d) Good bacteria
Ans: (a) (i) Food can be made safe by treating it with different things and ensuring its hygiene. For example, milkcan be made safe by heating it and then packing it in the sterilized containers. Drinking water can bemade safe by treating it with chlorine. Many food items like jam, pickles, drinks, etc can be made safeby the use of preservatives.
(ii) For a long time, it was believed that some substances called ptomaine's were the agents of food poisoning. But it was later discovered that these ptomaine's, found in rotten food, can be swallowed without the harmful effects that follow it.
(iii) If we remain alert and cautious about the hygiene of the food that we intake, then food poisoning can be prevented. Food poisoning happens when food contaminated by harmful bacteria is consumed.
(iv) In 1888, about 60 people, who had eaten meat from the same animal, were taken ill and one man died. Dr Gaertner, a German bacteriologist was able to isolate the food poisoning bacteria (Salmonella) which had caused the outbreak; and put forward the theory that all food poisoning was due to the presence of such bacteria.
(b) (i) (c) Food contamination is a new problem that people are facing.
(ii) (a) treating it with chlorine.
(iii) (c) food poisoning bacteria.
(iv) (b) Ptomaines
Ques 3: You are Reeva. You happened to see the following news item in the newspaper about the popularity of Indian Handicrafts abroad. But you are unhappy about the lack of recognition given to the artisans by the governments. Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper about the difficulties they face and the steps to be taken to solve their problems. Using the information given below, write the letter in not more than 100-120 words.
Indian Handicrafts sought after New Delhi: India Handicrafts ageing great demand in the US, Europe and the gulf countries. The artisans feel their products are not given the required publicity. Further the products are brought from them at very low prices by the middlemen and sold later at high prices abroad. They hope that the government would do something in this regard.
You are Aakash/Anu, a senior secondary school teacher. Though the internet opens up a world of knowledge, you are worried about its effect on teenagers. As a mark of caution, you decide to write an article on 'Internet Surfing and Online Safety.' Write the article in about 100-120 words.
Ans: 74, Ansari Road, Daryaganj New Delhi-110003 28th April, 20XX The Editor The Times of India Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg New Delhi-110002 Subject Promotion of Indian Handicrafts Sir, Through the columns of your esteemed newspaper, I want to highlight the difficulties and plight of the artisans who make the design of Indian handicrafts. Indian handicrafts have earned quite a name and fame abroad. Indian handicrafts are in great demand in the US, Europe and the gulf countries.
But in India, they are not given due recognition. The government is indifferent to their problems. They don't get the raw materials at reasonable rates. Then comes the problem of selling their finished products. They sell their products to middlemen who buy these at cheap prices and sell them at high prices, thus making lot of profit.
I suggest that the artisans and craftsmen must be provided easy loans to buy the raw materials and provisions should be made so that they can sell their products directly in the market, without the interference of middlemen.
Thanking you, Yours sincerely Reeva
Internet Surfing and Online Safety With the help of Internet surfing in today's age, one has found the world at their fingertips. With just a click of a button, the Internet can open up a world of opportunities, knowledge and education for us. Internet is also a window to other cultures. But Internet surfing also poses threats for us.
Before using internet, one must understand how to navigate safely and make the most of the on-line experience. For a hassle-free surfing, following suggestions can be adopted:
1. Do not disclose personal information such as address, telephone number, work address, etc. randomly on the internet.
2. You should not meet anyone in personal whom you have met online.
3. You should not send your picture or any personal document to on-line acquaintances.
4. You should not share your password with anyone, other than your parents.
Ques 4: Read the outline given below of a story. Write a story using this outline and your own ideas in 150-200 words. Assign a suitable title and moral to it.
Outlines A merchant going home from work-a large sum of money with him-sudden heavy rainfall-merchantgets wet-grumbles-shortly after attacked by a robber-robber's attempt to shoot-failure-powder damp-the merchant escapes
Ans: A Merchant And Robber Once upon a time there was a rich merchant. He was returning back to home from work. He brought along with himself a large sum of money he had collected throughout the day. He was quite wealthy and valued money the most. On the way he was trapped in heavy rainfall. He got totally drenched and along with him his money also got wet. He started grumbling and cursed the rainfall due to which he had to suffer loss. Sometime later a robber attacked him.
He could make out that he was a wealthy man and was carrying the money. He was about to fire, but the gun did not work because the gun powder had got damp and was not working. Meantime the merchant got a chance to escape and saved himself from the loss of his life as well as money. Then he realized that the rain, which he was cursing sometime ahead had actually saved him and his money. He then understood that whatever happens, it always happens for the good. Moral: Whatever happens, happens for the best.
Ques 5: Complete the following passage,
Overeating is one of the most wonderful practices among those who think that (a) ..............can afford it. In fact, authorities say (b) ..............nearly all who, can get as much (c) .............. they desire, overeat to their disadvantage. This class of people could save a great more food (d) ..............they can save missing one mealper week and (e) .............. the same time, they could improve their health. A heavy meal at night, (f).............. so called dinner, is the fashion for many and often it is taken shortly before retiring. It is unnecessary and should be avoided, not only once a week, but daily without loss of strength.
Ans: (a) they
Ques 6: In the passage given below, one word has been omitted in each line. Write the missing word along with the word that comes before and the word that comes after it in your answer sheet against the correct blank number. Ensure that the word that forms your answer is under lined. The first one has been done for you as an example,
When in evening Shiv Kumar's daughter did not come, he e.g., in the evening and his wife very much sad and worried. The daughter
(a) .......... ........... ............ arrived 5 days. When Shiv Kumar asked her where
(b) .......... ........... ............ she had for 5 days; she replied that she had to go Goa
(c) .......... ........... ............ and not return due to the late running of the trains,
(d) .......... ........... ........... Shiv Kumar asked her to inform him when she went out again. The daughter told him that she would do so in the future. She stuck to her promise and never gave a chance of complaint to anybody.
Ans: (a) wife were very
(b) arrived after 5
(c) had been to
(d) and could not
Ques 7: Rearrange the following words and phrases to form meaningful sentences. The first one is done for you as an example,
for/ us/ impossible/ be/ would/ it It would be impossible for us.
(i) living/ in/ this world/ to continue
(ii) knew exactly/each of us/in store/if/what fate had/for him
(iii) in his/ mercy/ so God/ conceals
Ans: (i) To continue living in this world.
(ii) If each of us knew exactly what fate had in store for him.
(iii) So God in his mercy conceals.
Ques 8: Read the/allowing extracts and answer the questions that follow.
'It's mad man, sir, who worries us by calling everyday for letters that never come', said the clerk to the postmaster.
(i) Why did the clerk call Ali a mad man?
(ii) What was Ali waiting for?
(iii) How did the people at the post office behave with him?
Look at the many cases of persons being restored to life hours after they were thought to be 'gone'.
(i) How have many a cases of persons restored to life?
(ii) Who is gone in this case?
(iii) Why hadn't he been taken to the doctor?
Ans: (i) Ali had been coming to the post office for 5 long years without a miss.
(ii) Ali was waiting for his daughter's letter.
(iii) The post office employees laughed at him and made fun of him.
(i) They are being restored to life by praying to God.
(ii) Grandfather was believed to be gone.
(iii) The doctor was out of town.
Ques 9: Answer the following questions in about 30-40 words.
(i) How did the boys and Lucia suffer after the great ruin of their family?
(ii) What message does 'The Dear Departed' give?
(iii) Describe the meeting between the frog and the nightingale.
(iv) What made Mrs Packletide to go for a tiger hunt?
Ans: (i) Lucia along with her brothers grew to hate the Germans. The war had ruined their family and peace of life.For months they kept themselves alive in some shelter amidst the rubble. The boys joined the resistance movement and when the war was over they came back to their beloved sister, who by then had become a victim of spinal tuberculosis.
(ii) 'The Dear Departed' is a satire on selfishness. It shows how children withdraw themselves from their duties and just act to be good to get material benefits. As time is passing people are getting more materialistic and are losing ground over human values. It simultaneously shows the sad plight of older people and how they suffer, when they stop earning and become subject to be taken care of. The young generation actually needs to learn a lesson to make the society a better place to live in.
(iii) The frog lived in Bingle Bog, but no creature living there liked him. One day when the nightingale came there he became jealous of her because everyone loved her songs and wished to hear her again and again. The frog introduced himself as the owner of the sumac tree and a great musician, who could even write songs. He told the nightingale that her voice lacked certain force and he could train her to get even better.
(iv) Mrs Packletide was envious of the fame received by Loona Bimberton, who had been carried 11 miles in an aeroplane by an Algerian aviator. She would talk of nothing else apart from her so called achievement. To counter the fame she thought a personally procured tiger-skin and an offer of a tiger-claw brooch to Loona Bimberton would be good enough. Such an intention made her to go for a tiger hunt.
Ques 10: Answer any one of the following questions in about 80-100 words.
"The Dear Departed' is a satire on the modern society, devoid of moral values and full of insensitive, greedy and pretentious people.
After her brothers visit, Lucia writes a page in her diary in the form of a short story about her past life and her present situation. As Lucia, write the short-story in about 80-100 words.
Ans: Yes, through the portrayal of various characters in the play' The Dear Departed', the playwright comments onthe modern day society. Most people, now, have become insensitive. They possess an apathetic view towards others. This insensitivity is found more towards the elderly people. Old parents and grandparents are treatedas a burden and everyone wishes them to depart from this world. People like Amelia and Elizabeth are moreconcerned about how they should appear rather than shedding a tear on the loss of the one who had given them birth and had spent his life bringing them up.
The playwright wants to make a comment on the loss of moral values in the society. The conversation between the characters of the play shows that, all of them arepretentious. They are materialistic and possessive in their attitude and behavior. Henry and Amelia don't even wait for the funeral of the 'dead', they grab all his precious or not so precious belongings like the bureau, the clock and even his slippers. No doubt, this decline of values and the weakness of one's personality doesn't belong only to the characters of the play. The playwright wishes to say that it has become an epidemic in our society.
My angelic brothers Nicola and Jacopo had come to visit me along with a stranger, who had brought them inhis car. They have grown up as responsible gentlemen. I remember our childhood, which was so comfortable and cultured. Father was a well known singer and I too was getting training to become a singer. We all used toplay together, but who knew that destiny would strike so hard on us. The bomb explosion simply ruined ourlives. On the top of it, this disease of mine took our happiness. Today I am alive and struggling to recover just because of my brothers.
They have sacrificed their childhood for me. They go hungry and without sleep just for my sake. They wish to see me in perfect condition for which they undergo all kinds of odd jobs. Every penny is saved for my treatment. I just want to recover and stand on my own feet and then do whatever I can for them. I cannot see them working so hard and would like to help them in any manner.
They are so honest in character that they would never indulge in any kind of unfair means to earn money. We can suffer more, but we will never sacrifice our family values. This truth will surely repay and everything will be alright. Our bad days shall soon get over and we will again enjoy our past days. May god bless my brothers and give them all the energy and vigour to fight against all odds.
Ques 11: Answer any one of the following questions in about 150-200 words.
Anne Frank shows signs of fear and courage alike. Explain. (The Diary of a Young Girl)
Draw a character sketch of Peter van Daan. (The Diary of a Young Girl)
How did Sullivan punish Helen for her tantrums? (The Story of My Life)
Draw a character sketch of Dr Alexander Graham Bell. (The Story of My Life)
Ans: The Diary of a Young Girl The note of fear was never far away from Anne. Anne writes on 29th October, 1943, that sometimes she can only escape the 'terrible fear' through sleep; a couple of weeks later she reports that a simple thing like the doorbell ringing makes her stomach churn and her heart beat wildly in fear. After the arrest of Mr Van for hiding two Jews in his house, Anne's spirits sink to one of her lowest points: 'All the fear I've ever felt is looming before me in all its horror.' But she remains optimistic. She hopes for a better life and time.
This must have taken considerable courage on her part. After the break in that Anne reports on 11th April, 1944, she tells Mrs van Daan, 'we must behave like soldiers'. Anne used to long for the happy life outside the annexe but at the same time feared the condition meted out to the Jews outside. All her friends were in a terrible condition but it was a blessing for her to be hiding in the annexe. This gave her courage at times when she became frustrated with life-in-hiding.
Peter van Daan is a gawky teenager at the start of the book, who is stubborn and disobedient. Soon these ways change, but he continues to be quiet, self contained and a lover of books. He spends most of the time in the left of the building. He does not do physical work and is unafraid. Anne does not like him at the start but later falls in love with him.
She later realizes that he is weak minded and not strong in character. He disappears while on a march by the German army. Anne's first impression of 16 year old Peter was that he was lazy, hyper sensitive and a hypochondriac. He imagined all kinds of diseases, with pains and aches all over his body. He used to refuse to listen to his father and was immature and rebellious. He was too shy to share deepest thoughts with Anne. He longed to be loved, but could never open up. Anne tried to broaden his outlook but failed and couldn't instill confidence in him.
The Story of My Life After the illness that left Helen deaf and blind, there was nothing she could do to make others understand what she wanted. This left her quite frustrated and she started throwing tantrums every now and then. After teaching Keller basic language skills by using her finger to spell words on Keller's hand, Sullivan next tackled Keller's Atrocious table manners. Keller had the habit of eating with her hands, grabbing from the plates of everyone at the table and throwing a temper tantrum if anyone tried to stop her. Sullivan punished Keller's tantrums by refusing to 'talk' with Helen by spelling words on her hands.
Soon Keller developed impeccable manners and learned how to per for me very day tasks such as getting dressed and brushing her hair. Miss Sullivan patiently dealt with Helen, in order to teach her about the world outside and table manners. Had it not been for Miss Sullivan, Helen's world would have remained dark and dreary.
Dr Alexander Graham Bell was tender and sympathetic, which endeared him to so many hearts. He enjoyed working for the deaf and was very happy in the company of children. Dr Bell was deeply committed to the education of the hearing impaired, which shows that he was a kind-hearted person, For Helen, he remained a true companion and support and it was due to his efforts that Helen was exposed to a whole new world of possibilities.
Dr Bell was a helpful and kind man who advised Helen's father to write to Mr Anagnos, Director of the Perkins Institution for the Blind in Boston to enquire about a teacher for Helen. Miss Sullivan who became Helen's Guide, companion and teacher was referred by Mr Anagnos who in turn was referred to Helen's father by Mr Graham Bell.
Helen had spent many happy days with Mr Bell at Washington and his home listening about his experiments. He could present even the most difficult theories in a simple and interesting way. Dr Bell was deeply committed to the education of the hearing impaired.