Ques 1: What has been the contribution of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act in protecting animal habitats in India?
Ans: The Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, incorporated various provisions for protecting habitats. An all-India list of protected species was published. The Act banned hunting of certain endangered species, giving legal protection to their habitats, and restricting trade in wildlife. Many national parks and wildlife sanctuaries were established in which commercial activities were forbidden. The government also announced several projects for protecting specific animals, which were gravely threatened, including the tiger, one- horned rhinoceros, etc.
Ques 2: How can we solve the problem of land degradation? Suggest any three measures.
Ans: The following measures can help to solve the problem of land degradation.
(i) Afforestation over deforested areas and proper management of grazing on permanent pastures will avoid land degradation.
(ii) In areas where desertification has taken place, growing thorny bushes (which require little water) will help in arresting land degradation.
(iii) Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents after treatment will reduce land degradation due to pollution by effluents.
Ques 3: What are the differences between subsistence agriculture and commercial agriculture?
Ans: Differences between subsistence agriculture and commercial Agriculture are
|Parameter||Subsistence Agriculture||Commercial Agriculture|
|Reason for cultivation Land holding Crop mix Irrigation method Fertilizers used Mechanization and Labour||For self or local consumption Small (less than 2 hectares) Food grains and vegetable Dependent on rainfall and primitive methods Manure and natural fertility of soil Hand tools used by family members||Mainly for the market Larger than 2 hectares Cash crops and cereals Modern irrigation methods like tube wells and canals Chemical fertilizers Machine driven implements and hired labour|
Ques 4: What were the new forms of popular literature that targeted new audiences?
Explain any three features of the early Bengali novels.
Ans: The new forms of popular literature were
(i) Almanacs, ritual calendars, ballads and folktales were sold to the people.
(ii) Penny chapbooks were sold cheaply by pedlars in the villages, so that even the poor could buy them.
(iii) In France, low priced small books, called 'Biliotheque Bleue', printed on poor quality paper were sold.
(iv) 'Romances' were printed on four to six pages and 'histories', were longer stories about the past.
The features of early Bengali novels were
(i) Many of the novels were set in the past, with their characters, events and love stories based on historical events.
(ii) One group of novels depicted domestic life in contemporary settings, highlighting social issues and romantic relationships.
(iii) Initially the novels used a colloquial style associated with urban life. They also used meyeli, the language associated with women's speech.
Ques 5: What were the majoritarian measures adopted by the Government of Sri Lanka?
Ans: The measures adopted by Sri Lanka were
(i) An Act was passed in 1956 to recognize Sinhala as the only official language, thus disregarding Tamil.
(ii) The government followed preferential policies that favored Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.
(iii) A new Constitution stipulated that the State shall protect and foster Buddhism.
Ques 6: Distinguish between a 'coming together' federation and a 'holding together' federation.
Ans: Difference between a 'coming together' federation and. a 'holding together' federation
|Characteristic||Coming together federation||Holding together federation|
|Method of formation Distribution of power Examples are||Independent states come together on their own to form a bigger unit. All constituent states usually have equal power. USA. Australia, Switzerland,||A large country decides to divide its power between the constituent states and the national government. The Central Government tends to be more powerful. India, Belgium, Spain etc.|
Ques 7: How do social divisions negatively and positively impact politics?
Ans: Democracy involves competition among various political parties. Their competition tends to divide society and lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country. This is the negative impact. However, every expression of social divisions in politics does not lead to such disasters, because wherever social divisions exist, they are reflected in politics. Political parties talk about these divisions, they make different promises to different communities and look after due representation of various communities. This is the positive impact.
Ques 8: Describe the merits of print books.
Explain briefly how novels bring together different cultures.
Ans: The merits of print books were
(i) Print convinced the people to act differently and think in new ways. It engendered discussion and debate, which was not there earlier.
(ii) Philosophers' and scientists' ideas became more easily accessible, spreading enlightenment and understanding, thus giving people hope of liberation from despotism.
(iii) Print attacked the blind beliefs propagated by the Catholic Church, thus reforming both society and the Church.
The novel uses the vernacular, the language that is spoken by common people. Thus, by coming closer to the people, the novel produces the sense of a shared world between diverse peoples in a nation. Novels also draw from different styles of language. A novel may take a classical language and combine it with the language of the streets and make them all a part of the vernacular that it uses. Like the nation, the novel brings together many cultures.
Ques 9: Why was the British government forced to abolish the Corn laws? After they were scrapped, how was agriculture in Britain affected?
Mention any three problems faced by the Indian cotton weavers by the end of the nineteenth century.
Explain how the London Underground Railway became a huge success.
Ans: Due to the Corn laws, food prices were high. Unhappy with the high food prices, the industrialists and urban dwellers forced the abolition of the laws. After the laws were scrapped, food could be imported into Britain cheaper than it could be produced within the country.
Thus British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were left uncultivated and thousands were people were thrown out of work. They migrated to the cities or went overseas.
The problems faced by the Indian cotton weavers by the end of the nineteenth century were
(i) Their export market collapsed and the local market shrank due to competition from cheaper machine made cloth from Britain.
(ii) Due to the American Civil War, supply of cheap raw cotton from USA stopped. Cotton began to be exported from India to Britain, starving the weavers for raw material and increasing the prices, threatening their survival.
(iii) Factories in India started producing machine made cloth which was cheaper, causing the weavers hardships.
The Underground Railway became a huge success by the twentieth century, as most large metropolises. could not do without their well-functioning transit systems. The population in the city became more dispersed due to the availability and convenience of the Underground Railway.
Better-planned suburbs and a good railway network enabled a large population to live outside central London and travel to work there.
Ques 10: Which of the following is not an abiotic resource?
(c) Crude oil
(d) Solar energy
Ans: (b) All the others are abiotic resources.
Ques 11: This question consists of an Assertion (A) and a Reason (R). Indicate your answer by selecting the correct alternative,
Assertion (A) Large and medium farmers sell their surplus produce in the market.
Reason (R) Sometimes they use this income for non-agricultural activities.
(a) Both A and R are right and R is the correct explanation for A
(b) Both A and R are right, but R is not the correct explanation for A
(c) A is right, but R is wrong
(d) Both A and R are wrong
Ans: (b) Both A and Rare correct but R is not the reason for A.
Ques 12: Which one of the following is a distinguishing feature of a federal government, compared to any other form of democracy?
(a) Governmental power is divided between different levels of government
(b) Power is distributed between the legislature, executive and judiciary
(c) Elected officials exercise supreme power in the government
(d) The National Government gives some powers to the provincial or state governments
Ans: All the other options are present in other forms of democracy also and are not exclusive to a federal government.
Ques 13: This question consists of an Assertion (A) and a Reason (R). Indicate your answer by selecting the correct alternative,
Assertion (A) Strip cropping is used to control soil erosion in agricultural regions.
Reason (R) Ploughing along the contour lines slows water flow down slopes.
(a) Both A and R are right and R is the correct explanation for A
(b) Both A and R are right, but R is not the correct explanation for A
(c) A is right, but R is wrong
(d) Both A and R are wrong
Ans: (b) Both A and R are correct but totally unrelated to each other.
Ques 14: Which one of the following is the prudential reason for power sharing in a democracy?
(a) Majority rule should always be there
(b) A checks and balances system is necessary in a democracy
(c) Power sharing reduces the possibility of social conflicts
(d) Power sharing is the spirit of democracy
Ans: (c) Option (d) is the moral reason. Option (a) is not desirable and option (b) is a characteristic of democracy, not a reason.
Ques 15: What is meant by sustainable development? Explain it using the case study of groundwater.
Ans: Sustainable development in the case of groundwater implies that development does not take place so that the resources of groundwater are overused to such an extent that they are not being replenished adequately through rainfall. If groundwater keeps on reducing, in future a time will come when it will not be available at all. So this development will not be sustainable. Only that much groundwater should be used which can be replenished with the normal rainfall.
Ques 16: Describe the role played by National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) in improving the employment situation in India.
Ans: NREGA provides guaranteed 100 days of employment per year for one person in every household in the rural areas who wants to work as an unskilled worker. It was started in the villages of 200 districts and has been now extended to villages in over 600 districts. One-third of the total vacancies are reserved for women. Thus it provides employment to rural people in the activities specified under the scheme. Thus it has helped reduce the unemployed population of India.
Ques 17: Why has the government taken up the responsibility of public sector activities in a country like India? Explain any three reasons.
Ans: Three examples of public sector activities are
(i) Railways Only the government can invest large sums of money on projects with a long gestation period.
(ii) All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) Providing quality health services at economical rates was the main purpose of the government.
(iii) National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) To provide electricity at a rate lower than actual cost was the main objective of the government, to protect and encourage the small scale industries.
Ques 18: Explain five ways by which the First World War impacted the world economy.
What changes affected the pattern of Industrialization in India by the first two decades of the twentieth century?
What were the housing conditions in London during the nineteenth century? What steps were taken to clean up the city?
Ans: The ways by which the First World War impacted world economy were
(i) During the war, industries were restructured to produce war related goods, all able-bodied men went into battle and women took over the jobs the men had left.
(ii) The war led to the breaking of economic links between the world's largest powers, as they were now fighting against each other.
(iii) The USA was transformed from an international debtor to an international creditor due to Britain borrowing a large sum from it.
(iv) Although the war led to an economic boom. after the war ended, production reduced and unemployment grew drastically.
(v) Agricultural economies were in crisis after the war because of the glut in the market.
The changes affected the pattern of industrialization in India by the first two decades of the twentieth century were
(i) Boycott of foreign cloth due to the Swedishi Movement caused industrial groups to pressurise the government to increase tariff protection and grant concessions.
(ii) Industries shifted from yam to cloth production, as export of Indian yarn to China declined from 1906.
(iii) With the start of the First World War, Indian factories started supplying jute bags and cloth for army uniforms, thus creating a boom in the industry.
(iv) After the war, Indian industrialists consolidated their position in the home market as the British economy crumbled due to the war.
The housing conditions in London were pitiful. One room houses for the poor were a serious threat to public health, as they were overcrowded, poorly ventilated and lacked sanitation, besides being fire hazards.
To prevent widespread social disorder. workers' mass housing schemes were planned to prevent the poor from turning rebellious. A number of steps were taken to clean up the city. which included
(i) Attempts were made to decongest localities, green the open spaces, landscape the city and reduce pollution.
(ii) Large blocks of new apartments were built to replace the earlier tenements.
(iii) Rent Control was introduced in Britain during the First World War to reduce the impact of a severe housing shortage.
Ques 19: How did Martin Luther's writings bring about the Protestant Reformation?
Explain how Viacom Muhammad Basheer's earlier life influenced the novels he wrote.
Ans: In 1517, the religious reformer Martin Luther wrote and got printed 'Ninety Five Theses' criticizing many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church. A copy was pasted on a church door in Wittenberg, challenging the Church to debate his ideas. This was reproduced in vast numbers and read widely.
This led to a division within the Church. Luther's translation of the New Testament sold 5000 copies within a few weeks and a second edition appeared within three months. Several scholars think that print brought about a new intellectual atmosphere and helped spread the new ideas that led to the Reformation.
Vaikkom Muhammad Basheer had little formal education. Most of his works were based on his personal experience rather than on books from the past. When he was in class five, Basheer left home to take part in the Salt Satyagraha.
Later he spent years wandering in different parts of India and travelling even to Arabia, working in a ship, living with Sufis and Hindu sanyasis, and training as a wrestler. Basheer wrote his short novels and stories in the ordinary language of conversation. With wonderful humour, Basheer's novels spoke about details from the everyday life of Muslim households.
He also brought into his books themes which were considered very unusual at that time - poverty, insanity and life in prisons.
Ques 20: What are differences between the Himalayan rivers and the peninsular rivers? Explain them with reasons.
Ans: The differences between Himalayan rivers and Peninsular rivers are given below
|Himalayan Rivers||Peninsular Rivers|
|They rise glaciers or springs in high mountains. Perennial in nature due to originating from glaciers. Their plains are fertile as they deposit alluvium regularly. Generation of hydroelectricity only possible in hilly regions, as they are slow flowing in the plains. Dams are required to create waterfalls. Canal construction is easy as soil is not rocky. ||They rise from plateaus and highlands. Seasonal as they get water from rainfall. They do not deposit silt. Fertile land exists only in their deltas. They flow at high speed due to undulating topography and form waterfalls, thus being suitable for hydro-electricity generation. Canal construction is difficult because of hard rocks and undulating surface.|
Ques 21: Suggest five measures which should be taken by the government to increase agricultural production, besides those that are already being taken.
Ans: The measures which should be taken by the government to increase agricultural production can be
(i) Provide incentives to farmers to trade in agricultural products and also for their supply to the domestic market by facilitating access to land, rural finance, technical knowledge, communications and transport.
(ii) Increase output by giving incentives for expanding the area under cultivation, changes in output mix, and technical changes like using HYV seeds.
(iii) Promote a change away from staple foods to more labour-intensive, high income-elastic products such as vegetables, fruit and livestock products.
(iv) An indigenous system for generating technical change is necessary if the technology is to match changing local needs.
(v) Agricultural development should be broad-based, with small/medium scale rural industries. The development of such industries requires an appropriate industrial policy.
Ques 22: Explain how power is shared among different levels of the Governments in India.
Ans: The Indian Constitution specifies how the power between the various levels of governments is to be shared. The divisions are given below
(i) Union List To ensure uniformity across the country, all subjects of national importance like defence, foreign affairs, banking, currency and communication are exclusively under the Central Government.
(ii) State List Only the state government can take decisions on matters of state level importance like agriculture, commerce, trade, police etc. The Union Government cannot interfere in these matters.
(iii) Concurrent List Matters like education, forestry, labour etc are of interest to both Union and State and so both can take decisions on the related issues.
(iv) Residuary subjects The Union Government legislates on the balance subjects.
Ques 23: "Women in India continue to be discriminated against, which leads to their unequal position in society". Justify this statement with suitable examples.
Ans: Examples of discrimination against women leading to their unequal position in Indian society are given below
(i) Their literacy rate is much lower than that of men (about 20% less).
(ii) Parents prefer to have a male child, and many times they try to abort a female child even before she is born.
(iii) Harassment, exploitation and violence still occur against women on a regular basis.
(iv) Among working women, there are many cases in which they are paid less than men for the same amount of work. Sometimes they are not allowed to rise to higher posts or higher valued jobs in organizations.
Ques 24: What do you mean by public facilities? Why are they important? Explain the utility of two public facilities available in India.
Ans: Public facilities are those provided by the government, instead of by individuals or private sources. For this reason they may be either highly subsidized or totally free of cost. They are important because many persons do not have enough income to be able to avail facilities provided by the private sector, resulting in difficulties faced like inadequate healthcare, poor nutrition etc.
One public facility is the Public Distribution System (PDS) which provides fair average quality of food grains and other essential items to the weaker sections of the population at subsidized prices. The other is healthcare in government hospitals and dispensaries, which is provided to all at subsidized rates. This includes outpatient as well as hospitalization facilities.
Ques 25: The following newspaper report was published recently. "With a view to providing social security to unorganized workers, Labour and Employment Minister Mallikarjun Kharge said the Unorganized Worker's Social Security Act, 2008 has been enacted. He said there are social security schemes for BPL families, street vendors, workers in the construction and building segment and MGNREGA workers" Can you suggest 3 measures to protect workers in the unorganized sector in urban areas?
Ans: Some measures which can be taken to protect workers in the unorganized sector can be
(i) Strict enforcement of the mandatory registration of all employers of more than 9 persons, by activating the enforcement teams to visit all such employers and get them registered. Then their employees will become eligible for benefits like Provident Fund, Gratuity etc. Presently there is virtually no enforcement.
(ii) They should be covered for loss of life or disability insurance by the public sector insurance companies with payment of a nominal periodic premium.
(iii) They should be given subsidized skill up gradation training so that with the passage of time, they can improve their income by taking up trades that are currently in demand.