Ques 1: Define the term 'population distribution'.
Ans: The term population distribution refers to the way people are spaced over the earth's surface. The population distribution is in even throughout the world.
Ques 2: What are economic activities?
Ans: Economic activity defines as any activity which results in production and distribution of goods and services. They are undertaken by the people to satisfy their economic needs.
Ques 3: Define the term 'Transport Network'.
Ans: Several places (nodes) joined together by a series of routes (links) to form a pattern which permit vehicular moment or flow of some commodity is called transport network.
Ques 4: Distinguish between towns and villages on the basis of occupation.
Ans: The difference between towns and villages on the basis of occupation is that in towns the main occupation of the people is related to secondary and tertiary sectors, while in the villages most of the people are engaged in primary occupations such as agriculture, fishing, lumbering, mining, animal husbandry etc.
Ques 5: How is the level urbanization measured in India?
Ans: The level of urbanization is measured in terms of percentage of urban population to total population in any country.
Ques 6: Why did Sher Shah Suri built the Shahi (Royal) Road?
Ans: Sher Shah Suri built the Shahi (Royal) road from Indus Valley to the Sonar Valley in Bengal to strengthen and consolidate his empire.
Ques 7: What is criterion for the classification of pollution?
Ans: Different types of pollution are classified on the basis of medium through which pollutants are transported and diffused.
Ques 8: What is the subject-matter of the study of human geography? Explain any three facts.
Ans: (i) To establish relationship between the physical world and the human world.
(ii) To study the spatial distribution of human phenomena.
(iii) To study the social and economic differences between different parts of the world.
(iv) To understand the earth as home of human beings and to study all the elements which have sustained them.
(v) Nature and human are inseparable elements and should be see holistically.
Ques 9: Explain any three factors responsible for the location of rural settlements in the world.
Ans: The following any 3 factors are responsible for the location of rural settlement in the world:
(1) Water supply: Usually rural settlements are located near water bodies such as rivers, lakes, ponds and springs where water can be easily obtained. Most water-based wet point settlements have many advantages such as water for drinking, cooking and washing. Rivers and lakes can be used for irrigation. Water bodies also have fish. Navigable rivers and lakes can be used for transportation.
(2) Defence: During the times of political instability, war, hostility of heighbouring groups villages were built on defensive hills and islands. In India most of the forts are located on higher grounds or hills.
(3) Planned settlements: Sites that are not spontaneously chosen by villagers themselves. Planned settlements are constructed by government by providing shelter, water and other infrastructures on acquired land.
Ques 10: What are metropolitan cities and mega cities? Give two examples of each of metropolitan cities and mega cities from India.
Ans: Cities which have population size between one to five million are called metropolitan cities and more than five million cities in the world are mega cities.
Examples: (i) Metropolitan cities: Surat, Kanpur, Jaipur, Lucknow etc.
(ii) Mega cities, Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune.
Ques 11: 'Land resource is more crucial to the people whose livelihood is depending on agriculture in India.' Support this statement by any three suitable arguments.
Ans: Land resource is more crucial to people whose livelihood is depending on agriculture in India because
(i) Agriculture is land based activity.
(ii) Agricultural productivity is linked with quality of land.
(iii) Land ownership has a social and economic value.
(iv) Standard of living of the agrarian society depends on the agricultural productivity.
Ques 12: 'The assessment, efficient use and conservation of water are necessary to ensure development.' Explain in the light of values regarding conservation of water resources.
Ans: Conservation of water resources is necessary because:
(i) There is a vast disparity between population and availability of water resources as India has about 16 per cent of world's population, but has only 4 per cent of world?s water resources.
(ii) The total utilizable water resource in India is very limited.
(iii) Population is increasing at a faster rate and the demand is also increasing day by day. (iv) Pollution is making water resource unusable.
Human values like responsibility; costiveness; awareness; contentment; cooperation and active citizenship are needed for the conservation of water resource.
Ques 13: Define the term 'air pollution'. Explain any two harmful effects of air pollution.
Ans: Air pollution defined as addition of contaminants like dust, fumes, gas, fog, odor, smoke or vapor to the air in large proportion and duration that may have harmful effect. The harmful effect of air pollution are:
(i) It causes various diseases like respiratory, nervous and circulatory systems.
(ii) It causes urban smog which is has adverse effect on respiratory system.
(iii) It can cause acid rain which can damage flora, fauna and to property.
Ques 14: What is 'Human Development'? Explain the four pillars of Human Development.
Ans: Human Development concept was developed by economist Mahbub-ul-Haq. Human development is defined as the process of enlarging people's freedoms and opportunities and improving their well-being. There are four basic pillars of human development are equity, sustainability, productivity, empowerment, and security. Equity: It is the idea of fairness for every person, between men and women; we each have the right to an education and health care. Sustainability: It refers that we all have the right to earn our living that can sustain our lives and have access to a more even distribution of goods. Productivity: It refers to the full participation of people in the process of income generation. Empowerment: It is the freedom of the people to influence development and decisions that affect their lives.
Ques 15: Explain five factors that influence the industrial location in the world.
Ans: Factors influencing the Industrial location are:
(i) Access to market: Industries are looking for locations as near as possible to their markets. It helps in reducing the transport cost and enables the consumer to get things at cheaper rates. Ready market is also essential for perishable and heavy commodities.
(ii) Access to raw material: The raw materials is very important for the manufacturing industry. The raw materials which get reduced in weight during manufacturing process influence the industry to be located near the source for example location of sugar mills in Maharashtra and western Uttar Pradesh and iron and steel industry in West Bengal-Bihar-Orissa belt.
(iii) Access to labour supply: The availability of both unskilled and skilled, or technically qualified manpower, is an important factor that influences the location of industries. Some of the small scale industries traditionally associated with labour is glasswork (Firozabad), brass work (Moradabad), utensils (Yamunanagar in Haryana), silk sarees (Varanasi), carpets (Mirzapur), etc.
(iv) Access to sources of energy: Regular supply of power is a prerequisite for the localization of industries. Coal, mineral oil and hydro-electricity are the three important conventional sources of power. Most of the industries are located near the source of power for example the iron and steel industry which depends on large quantities of cooking coal as source of power are located near the coal fields.
(v) A good network of transpart and communication facilities are essential for industrial development as it helps in proem-rent of raw materials and distribution of finished products to the market.
Ques 16: Define the term 'nomadic herding'. Explain its any four characteristics.
Ans: Nomadic Herding is a primitive subsistence activity in which the herders rely on animals for food, clothing, shelter, tools and transport. They move from one place to another along with their livestock.
(i) Simplest form of pastoralism in which herds and flocks graze on natural vegetation called pastures.
(ii) It ancient activity where each nomadic community occupies a well-defined territory as per their traditions and culture.
(iii) Nomads different type of animals in the herd according to local cultural and physical characteristics. The camel is the most desired animal in North Africa and the Middle East followed by sheep and goats. Horses, yaks, reindeers and Llamas are other important animals.
(iv) The life of the nomadic herders is dependent upon their animals, which provided food, clothing (from their wool, hair or skins), transport and for materials from which their houses can be made.
(v) They move with their herds from one place to another place with change in seasons. This is known as Transhumance for example sheep or other animals may graze in alpine meadows in the summer and be heralded back down into valleys tor the winter.
Ques 17: Name the longest trans-continental railway of the world. Describe its and four features.
Ans: Trans - Siberian railway is the longest Trans - Continental railway of the world. Characteristics:
(i) It is 9289 km long railway route.
(ii) It extends between Six Petersburg in. the east to Vladivostok m the west.
(iii) It is double crack route which is electrified.
(iv) It is the most important route in Asia.
(v) There are several connecting .links to the South.
(vi) It. connects Asian region to the European region.
Ques 18: What is density of population? Describe the spatial variation of population density in India.
Ans: Density of population is the number of people per unit of area. It is expressed as number of people per unit area/per sq. km. Spatial Variation m the density of population are:
(i) Very low: Arunachal Pradesh 13/17 persons/sq. km.
(ii) The hill states of Himalayan region and North Eastern states including Assam has relatively low densities.
(iii) Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana has Moderate-density of population.
(iv) West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu has higher densities among the peninsular Indian states.
(v) Delhi has very high density of population 11297 persons/sq. km.
Ques 19: Why is the area under pastures decreasing in India? How do the changes in the economy effect the changes in land use? Explain.
Ans: The area under pasture is decreasing in India due to the pressure from agricultural land and illegal encroachment due to expansion of cultivation on common pasture land. Changes in economy effect the change in land use:
(i) Size of economy: Growth of the economy over the period of time result in increasing population, change in income levels, available technology and associated factors. As a result, the pressure on land will increase and marginal lands will come under use.
(ii) Composition of economy: The secondary and the tertiary sectors are growing much faster than the primary sector, specifically the agricultural sector. This type of change is common in developing countries like India. This process would result in a gradual shift of land from agricultural uses to non-agricultural uses.
(iii) Declining contribution of agriculture: The contribution of the agricultural activities reduces over time. In developing countries, the share of population dependent on agriculture declines slowly as compared to the decline in the sector's share in GDP. The number of people that the agricultural sector has to feed is increasing day by day.
Ques 20: 'The distribution of roads is not uniform in India' Support this statement with suitable arguments.
Ans: The distribution of roads isomer in India due to the following reasons:
1. The land in India is unseen higher slopes of die Himalayas have less density of roads as compared to the Ganga plains.
2. India has unused distribution of population. Kerala has dense population so there are more roads. While Rajasthan is sparsely populated and fucas have less roads.
3. Areas which are rich in agricultural resources have high density of roads. It helps them in the collection and distribution of agricultural products e.g. the Ganga plains.
4. In India, the industrially developed areas like, the perimular region have high road density. This is essential for connecting the industries to the sources of raw materials and the markets.
Ques 21: On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following with, appropriate symbols:
(i) The state having the smallest area»
(ii) The leading jute producing state,
(iii) An oil refinery in Haryana.
(iv) An integrated Iron and Steel Plant in Chhattisgarh.
(v) The international airport in Karnataka.