Ques 1: Explain any three physical factors responsible for different types of rural settlements in India.
Ans: Types of rural settlement -are determined by the following physical factors:
(i) Climate: Very hot and very cold climate is unfavourable for rural settlements. Areas with favourable climate attract people to reside over that areas. North Indian plains, deltai regions and coastal plains have larger population with compact settlements. In harsh climate regions scattered settlements are found.
(ii) Fertile soils: Fertile -soils are important for. Agricultural and allied activities. Clustered settlements are generally found in fertile alluvial plains. They may be in rectangular, radical, linear shapes.
(iii) Nature of terrain: Shape and size of rural settlements are determined by the nature of terrain. In plain areas, the shape and size of rural settlements are compact or clustered and larger, having larger number of population. On the other hand on hilly and mountain areas they are scattered and small in size. In such areas, dispersed settlements are found in the form of isolated huts. The are found in Meghalaya, Uttrakhand and Himachal Pradesh.
Ques 2: How do industries pollute India's water bodies? Explain with examples.
Ans: Industry is a main source of water pollution, it produces pollutants such as wastes, polluted waste water, poisonous gases, chemical residuals, numerous heavy metals, dust, smoke etc. that are extremely harmful to people and the environment. Many industrial facilities use freshwater to dispose waste from the plant into the rivers, lakes and oceans by directly or indirectly discharging pollutants into water bodies without adequate treatment. Pollution affects the entire biosphere including plants and organisms living in these water bodies. Major polluting industries are leather, pulp and paper, textiles and chemicals.
Ques 3: How is the mortality rate of a region affected? Explain any four push factors responsible for emigration.
Ans: Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths in a particular population, per unit of time.
Mortality rate is expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year. Mortality rate is affected by a region?s demographic structure, social advancement and level of economic development.
Push factors responsible for emigration are:
(ii) Poor living conditions
(iii) Political turmoil
(iv) Unpleasant climate
(v) Natural disasters
(vii) Socio-economic backwardness.
Ques 4: Which means of transport is extensively ?used for carry water, petroleum, natural gas and other liquids? Describe the network of this means of transport in the world.
Ans: Pipelines are extensively used 10 carry water, petroleum, natural gas and other liquids tor uninterrupted flow.
(i) In U.S.A. there is a dense network of oil pipelines from the producing areas to the consuming areas. Big Inch. Is a famous pipeline, which carries petroleum from the oil wells of the Gulf of Mexico rev the North-eastern states.
(ii) In Europe, Russia and West A.sm pipelines are used to connect oil wells to refineries. COMECON a 4800 km long is the largest pipeline of the world. It transports mineral oil from Volga and Ural in Russia to east European countries.
(iii) In the Middle East the oil is transported through pipeline from Saudi. Arabia to Iraq and other countries and to the refineries located on the Mediterranean, coast (6550 Km). (iv) In North India pipelines connect the oil wells to. The refineries and then to the industrial belts.
(v) FIB] pipeline runs through the North Western Indie and it is extended to Delhi, it is important for the economic development of the region.
(vi) The oil producing countries of central Asia i.e. Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan supply petroleum and natural gas through pipeline to Turkey and Russia.
Ques 5: 'Development is general and human development in particular is a complex concept used in Social Science.' Justify this statement with suitable arguments.
Ans: No doubt human development is a complex concept because for ages it was thought that the development is a substantive concept. Once it is achieved it will address all the socio -cultural and environmental ills of the society. Though development has brought improvement in the equality of life but more than one way it has increased regional disparities social inequalities, discrimination, deprivation and displacement of people.
Considering the gravity and sensitivity of the issues involved, the UNDP in its Human Development Report, 1993 tried to amend some of the implicit biases and prejudices. People participation and their security were the major issues m the Human Development Report of 1993. It also emphasized on progressive democratisation and increasing empowerment of people as minimum conditions for human development. The ?civil societies? should work to building up opinion for reduction in the military expenditure. In a nuclearised world, peace and well-being are major global concerns.