Ques 1: What makes rural settlement different from urban settlement in India? Explain.
Ans: Difference between rural and urban settlements in India are:
(i) Most of the people are engaged in primary activities to support their life.
(ii) The people in the rural society had homogeneity and thus enjoyed more or less the same social status and had Informal Social relationships with each other.
(iii) Inadequate educational facilities.
(iv) Inadequate infrastructure.
(v) Life in the society was very simple and reflected in the way of living, dressing, food, habits, shelter and manners etc. showing low standard of living.
(i) Most of the people are engaged in secondary and tertiary activities/ other than primary activities.
(ii) The people in the city belong to different castes, creeds, religions and cultures, thus do not enjoy the same social status and had formal Social relationships with each other.
(iii) Adequate educational facilities.
(iv) Adequate infrastructure.
(v) Life in the city is not simple but very complex and complicated showing high living standard.
Ques 2: How is environment pollution caused? Mention the four types of pollution responsible for the environmental degradation.
Ans: Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that causes adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light.
Types of pollution:
(i) Air pollution
(ii) Water pollution
(iii) Land pollution
(iv) Noise pollution
Ques 3: When does positive population growth takes place? Explain the geographical factors that influences the distribution of population in the world.
Ans: Positive growth of population takes place when the birth rate is more than the death rate between two points of time or when people from other countries migrate permanently to a region.
Geographical Factors that influence the distribution of population in the world:
(i) Availability of water: Availability of water is very important in determining the population of a given area. Water is the basic necessity for several purposes including irrigation, industries, transport and domestic affairs. Rivers are the source of fresh clean water as a result; most of the population is concentrated in the river valleys.
(ii) Landforms: Terrain is one of an important factor which influences the concentration and growth of population, plain areas has higher density of population as compared to mountain regions. The steep slope in mountain areas restrict the availability of land for agriculture, development of transport, industries and other economic activities which discourage concentration of population.
(iii) Climate: Climatic factors such as rainfall and temperature play the most important role in determining the population of an area. Extremes of climate discourage the concentration of population. Climates include the too cold climate of Himalayas, and the too hot and dry climate of the Thar Desert. A moderate climate, on the other hand, is favourable for population.
(iv) Soils: Soil is an important factor in determining the density of population. Fertile soil supports higher population density while infertile soil leads to low density. In the northern plain of India, the soil is regularly enriched by annual floods of the rivers like the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra and their tributaries. Therefore, this area has high population density. On the other hand, desert soils, mountain soils laterite soils are infertile so there is low densities in those areas.
Ques 4: Describe the journey of development of land transport from the days of humans as carries and the cable ways of todays.
Ans: Land transport is an important part of India?s economy as most of the moment of goods takes place over land. In the early day?s human being themselves carries palki or doli on certain occasions such as marriage and ceremonies. Later animals were used to carry load and treated as beasts of burden. Invention of the wheel revolutionized the means of transport-carts and wagons, railways steam engine, invention of combustion engine-motors, cars and trucks, pipelines, ropeways and cableways have made the life of human easy.
Ques 5: Census of India is the source of population data in India.
Ans: India has uneven distribution of the population. The population of India as per 2011 census was 1,210,193,422. India added 181.5 million to its population since 2001. India has 2.4% of the world?s surface area, accounts for 17.5% of its population. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state with roughly 200 million people. A little over 5 out of 10 Indians live in the six states of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
Share of the population is very small in the states like Jammu Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh and Uttrakhand. This uneven spatial distribution of population in India suggests a close relationship between population and physical, Social, economic and historical factors. Rugged terrain and unfavorable climatic conditions are primarily responsible for sparse population in some areas. Hilly, dissected and rocky nature of the terrain, moderate to low rainfall, shallow and less fertile soils influence population in hilly areas.
Flat plains with fertile soils and abundant rainfall have resulted in large number of people to settle in the densely populated Northern Plains. The distribution of population in India is also governed by- physical features, Industrial development, Urbanization, economic development, availability of natural resources, agricultural development, transport facilities etc.