Ques 1: Explain any three features of semi-clustered rural settlements of India.
(i) Semi-clustered settlements may result from tendency of clustering in a restricted area of dispersed settlement.
(ii) Semi-clustered settlements results from fragmentation of a large compact village.
(iii) One or more sections of the village society is forced to live little away from the main village.
(iv) The dominant community occupies the central part of the main village.
(v) People of lower strata of society and menial workers settle on the outer planks of the village.
(vi) Such settlements are widespread in Gujarat plain and some parts of Rajasthan.
Ques 2: Explain any three consequences of air pollution.
Ans: Consequences of Air Pollution are:
(i) Air Pollution causes various diseases related to respiratory, nervous and circulatory systems.
(ii) Smog in urban areas is caused by atmospheric pollution. It is very harmful to human health.
(iii) Air pollution can also cause acid rain which is very harmful for flora, fauna and property.
Ques 3: Explain three economic and two social and cultural factors influencing the distribution of population in the world.
Ans: Factors influencing the distribution of population in the world are:
(i) Minerals: The regions which are rich in natural resources like coal, water, minerals and forest wealth favour the growth of population. These resources help in the development of trade, commerce and industry.
(ii) Urbanization: People move from villages to live in cities to get better employment opportunities, medical facilities and other amenities which results in the growth of the population of the cities.
(iii) Industrialization: Industrial areas provide job opportunities for the people as a result more and more people are attracted towards the industrial belt.
(iv) Agriculture: Rich and fertile soil always help in the growth and development of agricultural activities to support dense population.
Social and Cultural factors:
(i) People are attracted towards certain areas as they these areas have some Religious or cultural significance.
(ii) Social and political unrest results in the moment of people towards the areas where they can live peaceful life.
(iii) Government offer incentive to people to live in sparsely populated areas.
Ques 4: What is the importance of railways as a mode of land transport? Explain any four main features of the railway network in Europe.
Ans: Railways are a mode of land transport for carrying bulky goods and passengers over long distances. Commuter trains are very popular in UK, USA, Japan and India. These carry millions of passengers daily.
Features of Railway network in Europe:
(i) Europe has one of the most dense rail networks in the world.
(ii) Most of rail network in Europe is double or multiple tracked.
(iii) Belgium has the highest density of railway network.
(iv) The industrial regions of Europe have highest densities.
(v) London, Paris, Brussels, Milan, Berlin and Warsaw are the important rail heads.
(vi) There is a very dense network in the west of the Urals in Russia. Railways account for about 90 per cent of the country's total transport.
Ques 5: What is population doubling time? Explain the characteristics of the growth of population in India in phase I and phase II.
Ans: Population doubling time is defined as the time taken by any population to double itself at its current annual growth rate.
Characteristics of the growth of population in India in phase-I:
(i) The period from 1901 to 1921 is referred to as phase I.
(ii) Population growth during this phase remained stagnant.
(iii) Both birth rate and death rate were high keeping the rate of increase low.
(i) The decades 1921 to 1951 are referred to as phase II.
(ii) During this phase population growth is Steady.
(iii) Lower death rate due to better medical facilities results in the decline in the mortality rate.