Ques 1: How have the modern towns developed in India? Explain.
Ans: The modern towns developed in India as under:
(i) The British and other Europeans have first developed some coastal locations and trading points in India such as Surat, Daman, Goa, Pondicherry, etc.
(ii) The British later consolidated their hold around three principal nodes - Mumbai, Chennai & Kolkata and built them in British style.
(iii) They developed cantonment areas/towns such as New Delhi and Bangalore.
(iv) They developed hill stations as summer capital like Shimla.
(v) They developed administrative and industrial towns such as Chandigarh, Bhilai etc.
(vi) After independence large number of towns has been developed as administrative headquarters such as Chandigarh, Bhubaneshwer, Gandhinagar.
(vii) Industrial town such as Durgapur, Bhilai, Barauni are developed to establish big industrial units.
Ques 2: Explain the causes of migration of unskilled migrants from rural to urban areas in India and their sufferings.
Ans: In India, unskilled people migrate from rural to urban due to:
(ii) More demand of labour in cities.
(iii) Better job opportunities in urban areas.
(iv) Lack of basic infrastructure facilities in the rural areas.
(v) There is vast vanation in the development of rural and urban areas.
(i) The absence of family members and children causes anxiety.
(ii) In rural areas, male selective out migration leaving their wives behind puts extra physical as well as mental pressure on the women.
(iii) Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures. It creates social vacuum and sense of dejection among individuals. It may motivate people fall in the trap of and social activities.
(iv) Menial jobs on low wages.
Ques 3: Explain the trends in population growth of the world with special reference to the help of science and technology.
Ans: (1) The population on the earth is more than six billions. It has grown to this size over the years. In the early period, population of the world grew very slowly.
(2) During the last few hundred years? population has increased at an rapid pace.
(3) The expending trade, set the stage for rapid population growth.
(4) The industrial revolution led to the population explosion around the world.
(5) Science and technology helped in controlling the birth rate, and reducing death rate.
(6) Due to advancement in medical facilities.
Ques 4: Which shipping canal links the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean? Explain its any four characteristics.
Ans: The Panama Canal is a man-made water - way in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.
Characteristics of the Panama Canal are:
(i) The canal is constructed across the Isthmus of Panama between Panama City and Colon to facilitate international trade.
(ii) The canal is 48-mile (77 km) waterway. Canal began commercial operation on June 26, 2016.
(iii) The Panama Canal reduced the time for ships to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, enabling them to avoid die lengthy, hazardous Cape Horn route around the southernmost tip of South America via the Drake Passage or Strait oi Magellan.
(iv) The USA government has purchased 8 Km. area on either side and named it a canal zone.
(v) It has six lock systems.
(vi) Tolls tor the canal are set by me Panama Canal Authority and are based on vessel type, size, and the type of cargo it is carrying.
Ques 5: Define the term 'migration'. Explain any two economic and two demographic consequences of migration in - India.
Ans: Migration: Movement of the people for the specific purpose from one place to another in the country or to a foreign country.
(i) A major benefit for the source region, is the remittance sent by the migrants.
(ii) Remittances from the international migrants are one of the major source of foreign exchange and helps in the growth of economy of the source area.
(iii) Punjab, Kerala and Tamil Nadu receive very significant amount from their international migrants.
(i) Migration leads to the re-distribution of population within a country.
(ii) Rural-urban migration is contributing in the population growth of cities.
(iii) Age and skill selective migration from the rural areas to urban areas have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure.
(iv) Imbalances in age and sex composition is also one of the adverse consequence of migration.