Ques 1: How is density of population of a region calculated?
Ans: Density of population is ratio between the numbers of people to the size of land. This ratio is called as density of population. It is usually measured in persons per sq. km.
Density of population = Population/Area
Ques 2: Who are called red collar workers?
Ans: People engaged in primary activities are called red collar workers, due to the outdoor nature of their work.
Ques 3: In which country are motorways called 'autobahns'?
Ans: Motorways are called as autobahns in Germany.
Ques 4: Mention any two characteristics of sub-urbanisation.
(i) It is a new trend of people moving away from congested urban areas to clear areas outside the city.
(ii) Everyday thousands of people commute from their homes in the suburbs to their work places in the city.
Ques 5: What two factors mostly helped in the development of ancient towns in India?
Ans: (i) Religion
Ques 6: Explain the term 'Golden Quadrilateral'.
Ans: The Golden Quadrilateral is the fifth longest highway project in the world. It is 4 to 6 lane, high density traffic corridor to connect India?s four big metro cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata. It is 5,846 km long. With the construction of Golden Quadrilateral, the time - distance and cost of movement among the mega cities of India will be minimized.
Ques 7: Mention any two sources of water pollutants created by humans.
Ans: (i) Sewage disposal.
(ii) Urban run-off.
(iii) Toxic effluents from industries.
(iv) Run-off over cultivated lands and nuclear power plants.
Ques 8: 'The knowledge about nature is extremely important to develop technology.' Support this statement by giving three examples.
Ans: Technology indicates the level of educational development of society. Human beings were able to develop technology after they developed better understanding of natural laws. (i) The understanding of concepts of friction and heat helped us discover fire.
(ii) Understanding of the secrets of DNA and genetics enabled us to conquer many diseases.
(iii) The laws of aerodynamics are used to develop faster planes. Knowledge about nature is extremely important to develop technology. Technology loosens the shackles of environment on human beings.
Ques 9: Explain with examples the 'population size' criteria used by most countries to define urban areas.
Ans: The lower limit of the population size for a settlement to be designated as urban is different countries are:
(i) It is 1500 in Colombia.
(ii) 2000 in Argentina and Portugal.
(iii) 5000 in India.
(iv) 30000 in Japan.
(v) In Denmark, Sweden and Finland, all places with a population size of 250 persons are, called urban.
(vi) He minimum population size for a city is 300 in Iceland.
(vii) In Canada and Venezuela, it is 1000 persons.
Ques 10: Explain any three characteristics of clustered rural settlements of India.
(i) The characteristics of rural settlement is a compact built up area of houses.
(ii) In this type of village the general living area is distinct and separated from the surrounding farms and pastures.
(iii) The closely built up area and its intervening streets present some recognisable pattern geometric shapes such as rectangular, radical, linear etc.
(iv) Such settlements are found in fertile alluvial plains and in north-eastern states.
(v) Sometime people live in compact village for security reasons, such as in Bundelkhand and Nagaland.
(vi) In Rajasthan, scarcity of water has necessitated compact settlement for; maximum utilization of available water resources.
Ques 11: Differentiate between protective irrigation and productive irrigation.
Ans: Protective irrigation:
(i) The objective of protective irrigation is to protect crops from adverse effects of soil moisture deficiency.
(ii) Protective irrigation acts as a supplementary source of water over and above the rainfall.
(ii) Protective irrigation acts as a supplementary source of water over and above the rainfall.
(iii) This type of irrigation is to provide soil moisture to maximum area.
(iv) In such irrigation the water input per unit area of cultivated area is lower than productive irrigation.
(v) Productivity is relatively lower.
(i) Productive irrigation is meant to provide sufficient soil moisture in the cropping season to achieve high productivity.
(ii) It provide maximum soil moisture to limited area, as required for a particular crop. (iii) In such irrigation the water input per unit area of cultivated area is higher than protective irrigation.
(iv) Productivity is relatively higher.
Ques 12: Electricity is one of the greatest inventions of all times. It is mostly generated by using coal, natural gas and petroleum, which are exhaustable resources. Can you imagine the human society without electricity? This may happen in future, when all energy resources will be exhausted. Explain the values that can change this possible darkness scenario.
Ans: Mineral fuels like coal, petroleum, natural gas and nuclear energy are the conventional sources of energy. They are exhaustable. Sustainable energy resources are the renewable. These resources can help us in future after taking great care of these resources. Even then we should kept in mind certain things to avoid such situation:
(i) Creating awareness among the masses about development of sustainable sources of energy.
(ii) Maximum use of renwable energy resources such as solar, wind, biomass and hydroelectricity.
(iii) Optimum use of energy resources and minimum wastage.
(iv) Alternative energy sources like solar power, wind, wav, geothermal etc. are to be developed.
Ques 13: What is noise pollution? Explain any four sources of noise pollution.
Ans: Noise pollution refers to the state of unbearable and uncomfortable to human beings which is caused by noise from different sources. In recent years, noise pollution has become a serious problem.
The following sources are mainly responsible for noise pollution:
(ii) Mechanised construction and demolution works.
(vi) Loud speakers used in various festivals.
Of all these sources, the biggest nuisance is the noise produced by traffic. Its intensity and nature depend upon the type of vehicle, trains and the condition of road as well as that of vehicle. In sea traffic, noise pollution is confined to the harbour due to loading and unloading activities being carried, creating noise.
Ques 14: What is sex ratio? Explain the world pattern of sex ratio with suitable examples.
Ans: Sex Ratio: It is defined as the number of males per thousand female.
World pattern of sex ratio:
(i) On an average, the world population reflects a sex ratio of 990 females per 1000 males. (ii) The highest sex ratio in the world has been recorded Lativia which is 1187 females per 1000 males.
(iii) The lowest sex ratio occurs in UAE which is 468 females per 1000 males.
(iv) The world pattern of sex ratio does not exhibit variations in the developed regions of the world.
(v) The sex ratio is favourable for females in 139 countries of the world and unfavourable for them in the remaining 72 countries listed in United Nations.
(vi) In general, Asia has a low sex ratio, countries like China, India, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have a lower sex ratio.
(vii) On the other extreme is greater part of Europe including Russia where males are in minority.
(viii) A deficit of males in the population of many European countries is attributed to better status of woman and an excessively male-dominated out-migration to different parts of the world in the past.
Ques 15: Define the term 'commercial livestock rearing'. Explain any four characteristics.
Ans: Commercial livestock rearing is the practice of nurturing the animals for food and for other human uses. The word Livestock applies to dairy cows, chickens, goats, Pigs, horses and sheep. Today, even animals like donkeys, mules, rabbits and insects such as bees are being raised as part of Commercial livestock rearing.
Characteristics of commercial livestock rearing are:
(i) Commercial livestock rearing is practiced in the western cultures.
(ii) Ranches cover large areas and are divided into parcels.
(iii) The number of animals in the pastures is kept according to the carrying capacity of the pasture.
(iv) Only one type of animal is reared.
(v) Rearing of animals in ranching is organized on a scientific basis.
(vi) It has emphasis on breeding, genetic improvement, disease control and health care of the animals.
Ques 16: What is medical tourism? Explain the scope of medical services for overseas patients in India.
Ans: Medical tourism is defined as the process of traveling outside the country of residence for the purpose of receiving medical care. Traditionally, people travel from under-developed countries to medical centers in highly developed countries for treatment that was not available in their own country. The trends have reversed now people started traveling from developed countries to third-world countries for medical treatments because of low cost medical treatment with results at par with the best in the world with zero waiting time.
Scope of Medical Services for overseas patients in India:
(i) About 55,000 patients from U.S.A visited India in 2005 for treatment.
(ii) India has emerged as the leading country of medical tourism in the world.
(iii) World class hospitals located in metropolitan cities of India.
(iv) Medical tourism brings abundant benefits for the developing countries like India by boosting its economy.
Ques 17: Which is the longest trans-continental railway of North America? Describe its any four features.
Ans: The longest trans-continental railway or North America, is Trans-Canadian Railway. Feature of Trans Canadian Railway are:
(i) It is 7,050 km long rail-line in Canada which was constructed for British Columbia.
(ii) It runs between Halifax in the East to Vancouver in the West.
(iii) It connect Quebec - Montreal Industrial Region with the wheat belt of the Prairie region and the coniferous forest region in the north.
(iv) A loop line from Winnipeg to Thunder Bay located on Lake Superior connects tins rail- line with one of the important waterways of the world.
(v) This line is the economic artery of Canada.
(vi) Wheat and meat are the important exports on the route.
Ques 18: Define the term 'growth of population' Describe the third (III) phase of growth of population in India.
Ans: Growth of population is the change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points of time. The rate of the growth of the population is expressed in percentage (%).
Third (III) phase of growth of population:
(i) India's population entered the third stage of transition sometime in the close of the 1960s.
(ii) This is the period of population explosion in India.
(iii) Decline in the death rates was much more rapid then birth rate, the rate of increase in the population went up from 1.2 to 1.3 per cent during 1921-51 to 2 to 2.2 per cent during 1951 - 81.
(iv) Improvement in the economy results m increase in the standard of living which in turn resulted in the decline of death rate.
Ques 19: Explain the importance of food grains in the Indian agricultural economy. Describe any three characteristics of rice cultivation.
Ans: The importance of food grains:
(i) Food grain crops occupy about two-third of the total cropped area in the country.
(ii) Food grains are dominant crops in all parts of the country.
(iii) Food grains are classified as cereals and pulses.
(iv) Cereals include rice, wheat, jowar, bajara, maize and ragi.
(v) India accounts for about one fifth of the total production of pulses in the world.
(vi) Gram and tur are the main pulses cultivated in India.
Characteristics of rice cultivation:
(i) Rice is a staple food for the majority of population in India.
(ii) It is considered to be a crop of tropical humid areas.
(iii) It has about 3000 varieties which are grown in different agro - climatio regions.
(iv) In West Bengal farmers grow three crops of rice called aus, aman and boro.
(v) India contributes 22 per cent of rice production in the world.
(vi) India is the second largest rice producer in the world.
Ques 20: 'Indian railways brought people of diverse cultures together.' Support this statement with suitable examples.
Ans: Indian Railways brought people of diverse cultures together:
(i) Indian Railway was introduced in 1853.
(ii) Indian Railways network is one of the longest in the world which is more than 64,000 kms.
(iii) It connects people or different regions through in sixteen (16) zones.
(iv) Railway is the life line of India which facilitates the movement of the passengers and freight.
(v) People from different languages with different customs and food habits could connect with each other using Indian Railways.