Ques 1: Why is sex ratio in some European countries recorded favourable to females? Give one reason.
Ans: Sex ratio is favourable for women in some European countries is attributed to better status of women, and an excessively male-dominated out-migration.
Ques 2: Define the term 'technopolies.'
Ans: A technologically advanced city, or one heavily involved in mechanised manufacture of goods, especially of microelectronics.
Ques 3: How is 'Barter system' practiced among various tribal communities in the world?
Ans: The initial form of trade in primitive societies was the barter system, where direct exchange of goods took place. In the olden times, before paper and coin currency came into being, rare objects with very high intrinsic value served as money, like, flint stones, obsidian, cowrie shells, tiger's paws, whale's teeth, dogs teeth, skins, furs, cattle, rice, peppercorns, salt, small tools, copper, silver and gold in exchange of commodities.
Ques 4: Name the Union territory of India having lowest density of population as per 2011 census.
Ans: Andaman and Nicobar islands have the least density of population.
Ques 5: Name the major seaport which has been developed to relieve the pressure at Chennai seaport.
Ans: Ennore has been constructed to relieve the pressure at Chennai port.
Ques 6: Study the diagram given below and answer the questions that follow:
(i) Identify and name the pattern by rural settlement.
(ii) In which type of areas do we find such settlement patterns?
(iii) Give an important characteristic of this type of settlement pattern.
Ans: (i) Circular pattern.
(ii) Circular villages develop around lakes, tanks
(iii) Village is planned in such a way that the central part remains open and is used for keeping the animals to protect from wild animals.
Ques 7: Explain the importance of irrigation for agriculture in India.
Ans: Importance of Irrigation:
1. Control of drought and famines: Insufficient uncertain and irregular rain causes uncertainty in agriculture. Even during monsoon, the rainfall is scanty and undependable in many pans or the country. Sometimes the monsoon delayed considerably while sometimes they cease prematurely. This pushes large areas of the country into drought conditions. With the help of irrigation, droughts and famines can be effectively controlled.
2. Higher productivity on irrigated land: Productivity on irrigated land is considerably more than the productivity on un-irrigated land.
3. Multiple cropping possible: Provision oi irrigation facilities can make possible the growing of two or three crops in a year in most areas of the country. This will considerably enhance agriculture production and productivity.
4. Role in new agricultural strategy: The successful implementation of the High Yielding Programme enhances agricultural production, in a great intent. This has been made possible due to the expansion of irrigation facilities.
Ques 8: Differentiate between Co-operative farming and Collective farming; stating any five points of distinctions.
Ans: (i) Cooperative farming refers to an organization in which: each member, farmer remains the owner of his land individually but farming is done jointly. Profit is distributed among the member, farmers in the ratio of land owned by them. In socialist or communist countries, such as the former Soviet Union, a collective is a cooperative association of farmers who work on land owned by the state but who own most of their own farm implements.
(ii) Co-operative farming refers to pooling of farming re-sources such as fertilizers, pesticides, farming equipment?s such as tractors. It however generally excludes pooling of land unlike in collective farming where pooling of land is also done .In collective farming the farmers pool in all their resources like land, livestock and labour.
(iii) A group of farmers form a co-operative society by pooling in their resources voluntarily for more efficient and profitable farming. Collective farming is based on social ownership of the means of production and collective labour.
(iv) In Co-operative farming the farmers get assistance, to procure all important inputs of farming, sell the products at the most favourable terms and help in processing of quality products at cheaper rates. In case of collective farming yearly targets were set by the government and the produce was also sold to the state at fixed prices. Produce in excess of the fixed amount was distributed among; the members or sold in the market.
(v) Co-operative movement originated over a century ago and has been successful in many Western European countries like Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, Italy etc. Tins type of farming was introduced in former Soviet Union under the socialist regime which was adopted by the socialist countries.
Ques 9: 'Low productivity' and 'Fragmentation of land holdings' are the major problems of Indian agriculture.? Suggest and explain measures to overcome these problems.
Ans: The pressure of increasing population and the practice of dividing land equally among the heirs has caused excessive sub divisions of farm holdings. Consequently, the holdings are small and fragmented. The small size of holdings makes farming activity uneconomical and leads to social tension, violence and discontentment. Consolidation of village lands and cooperative farming will ease the burden of fragmented land holdings. Indian soils have been used for growing crops for thousands of years which have resulted in the depletion of soil fertility. With deforestation the sources of maintaining natural fertility of soil has been drying out. Lack of material resources and ignorance of scientific knowledge have further depleted the soils of the natural fertility. This is a serious problem which can be solved by using more manures and fertilizers. It has been felt that organic manures are essential for keeping the soil in good health. The government has given high incentive especially in the form of heavy subsidy for using chemical fertilizers.