Ques 1: Which age group forms the working population?
Ans: The working age population is between 15 to 99 years.
Ques 2: Explain any two features of foot loose industries.
Ans: (a) Footloose industries are not dependent on any particular raw material.
(b) They produce in small amount and employ small labour force.
Ques 3: Explain the meaning of 'Volume of Trade'.
Ans: The actual tonnage of goods traded makes up the volume. However, services traded cannot be measured in tonnage. Therefore, the total value of goods and services traded is considered to be the volume of trade.
Ques 4: How is agricultural density of population different from physiological density of population?
Ans: The agricultural density of a population is the number of farmers per unit area of farmland. Physiological density is the number of people per unit area of arable land.
Ques 5: Name the riverine port on the eastern coast of India.
Ans: Kolkata port.
Study the table given below and answer the questions that follow:
(i) Name the two continents, one with highest growth rate and the other with lowest growth rate of million cities.
(ii) Why is the number of million cities increasing in the world?
(iii) Give the meaning of 'Conurbation'.
Ans: (i) Highest - Asia Lowest-Australia.
(ii) The number of million cities are increasing in the World due to rapid increase in urban population. The urban population of the world has grown rapidly from 746 million in 1950 to 3.9 billion in 2014. This has resulted in rapid urbanisation resulting in a growing number of megacities in the World. By 2030, the world is projected to have 41 mega-cities with 10 million inhabitants or more.
9.3. The term conurbation was coined by Patrick Geddes in 1915 and applies to a large area of urban development that results from the merging or ogirinally separate towns or cities e.g. Greater London.
Ques 7: Explain the importance of 'Integrated Tribal Development Project' implemented in Bharmaur region of Himachal Pradesh.
Ans: Bharmaur tribal area comprises Bharmaur and Holi tehsils of Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh. It is inhabited by Gadd A tribal community who practised transhumance and the economy is largely based on agriculture and allied activities such as sheep and goat rearing. Under the Fifth Five Year Plan, the tribal sub-plan was introduced in 1974 and Bharmaur was designated as one of the five Integrated Tribal Development Projects (ITDP) in Himachal Pradesh.
(i) This plan laid the highest priority on development of transport and communications, agriculture and allied activities, and social and community services.
(ii) The most significant contribution of tribal sub plan in Bharmaur region is the development of infrastructure in terms of schools, health care facilities, potable water, roads, communications.
(iii) The social benefits derived from ITDP include tremendous increase in literacy rate, improvement in sex ratio and decline in child marriage. The female literary rate in the region has also increased.
(iv) The cultivation of pulses and other cash crops has increased and there is a declining importance or pastoralism.
Ques 8: 'Land transport plays a vital role in the development of trade and tourism in the world', Support the statement with suitable examples.
Ans: Transport helps in die assembly or raw materials and distribution of finished goods. It makes possible to move goods from the place of production to the place where they are to be consumed. In the earlier days, there were only local markets due to the absence of safe means of transport. Now-a-days, trade is not restricted to the boundaries of a nation, but has spread throughout the world.
Development of the efficient means of transport has knit together all the nations of the world into the one big world market. Even the perishable articles like fish, dairy products, meat etc. are being transported to distant places of the world. But for good transport facilities, such a development in trade and commerce would not have been possible. In India, there are many highways linking the major towns and cities. For example, National Highway No. 7 (NH 7), connecting Varanasi with Kanya Kumari, is the longest in the country. The Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) or Super Expressway connects the four metropolitan cities-New Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata and Hyderabad which has helped in the development of trade.
Transportation links diverse destinations and ferries people commodities and services between these places. Tourism is much about travel and therefore the role of transportation in its operation is vital. Railways are also a mode of land transport that helps to carry passengers over long distance. The Border mountainous terrain joining Chandigarh with Manali (Himachal Pradesh) and Leh (Ladakh). This road runs at an average altitude of 4,270 metres above the mean sea level and has promoted tourism in such high altitude areas as well.
Ques 9: Explain why rail transport continues to remain the chief mode of transport for the masses In India.
Ans: Railway transport occupies a significant role in the transport system of a country because the development of trade, industry and commerce of a, country largely depends on the development oi railways.
(i) It facilitates long distance travel and transport of bulky goods which are not easily transported through motor vehicles.
(ii) It is a quick and more regular form of transport because it helps in the transportation, of goods with speed and certainty.
(iii) It helps in the industrialization process of a country by easy transportation of coal and raw-materials at a cheaper rate.
(iv) It helps in the quick movement or goods from one place to another at the rime of emergencies like famines and scarcity.
(v) It encourages mobility of labour and thereby provides a great scope for employment.