Ques 1: Which are the two major types of settlements according to their shape found in the world?
Ans: Two major types of settlements according to their shape found in the world are:
(i) Compact settlement
(ii) Dispersed settlement.
Ques 2: Name the state of India having the least share of population according to the Census 2011.
Ans: According to census 2011 of all states, having least share of population is SIKKIM.
Ques 3: What is the major function of the National Highways Authority of India?
Ans: Major function of the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) is operation, maintenance and development of highway throughout India.
Ques 4: Why was gathering little chance of becoming important at the global level? Explain one reason.
Ans: In early stage of human civilization, they were greatly influenced by nature around them and were living on gatherings. Thus the primitive man was completely dependent on natural environment.
With the passage of time, human started understanding their environment, hence going back to gathering has very little chance.
Ques 5: How is 'node' different from 'link' in transport system?
Ans: Difference between node and link are:
(i) A Node is the meeting point of two or more routes.
(ii) A Link is a road that joins that nodes.
Ques 6: Classify rainfed farming on the basis of adequacy of soil moisture during cropping season.
Ans: Rainfed farming is classified to DRYLAND FARMING and WETLAND FARMING. Farming in areas with less than 75 cm annual rainfall is known as dry land farming and areas receiving more than 75 cm is called wet land or rainfed agriculture.
Ques 7: 'The Volga is one of the most developed inland water-ways in Russia'. Justify.
Ans: The Volga Inland waterways of Russia, is very famous waterway because:
(i) It connects various industrial regions of Russia.
(ii) It connects various navigable canals.
Ques 8: Describe any three features of Konkan Railway.
Ans: Main features of Konkan Railways:
(i) One of the achievements or India Railway, as it is bulk in toughest terrain between Arabian Sea and Western Ghats.
(ii) This line is 760 km long.
(iii) It crosses small and big 146 rivers. 2000 bridges approximately and. 91 tunnels on the Ghats Mountains.
(iv) Asia's largest Rail Tunnel lies in this route.
(vi) If connects Roha in Maharashtra to Mangalore in Karnataka.
(vii) A fold of 30 thousand workers were employed for construction work which was completed though with a lot of hurdles in 5 years times.
Ques 9: Study the given diagram carefully and answer the questions that follow:
(1) Which land use category has shown the highest increasing trend? What percentage in reporting area has increased in that category, during the given period?
(2) Explain any two reasong responsible for the increasing trend in that category.
Ans: (1) Highest increasing trend is "Areas under non-agricultural use". This increase in terms of percentage is 5 : 9 or 80%.
(2) Reasons for increase in use of Areas under Non-agricultural use:
(i) Changing structure of the Indian Economy.
(ii) Expansion of industrial and service sector: The second five year plan had emphasized on the growth of industries.
(iii) Expansion of related infrastructural facilities.
(iv) Expansion of area under urban and rural settlements especially in housing sectors.
(v) It is expanding at the expense of waste lands and agricultural lands.
Ques 10: Explain the three basic differences between rural and urban settlements in India.
Ans: The basic difference between rural and urban settlements in India:
(i) Rural settlements derive their life support from land based primary activities while urban settlements depend on processing of raw materials and various services.
(ii) Cities act as nodes of economic growth. They provide goods and services to both urban and rural centres.
(iii) Rural settlements supply food -and raw materials while urban areas provide services.
(iv) Both settlements differ in social relationship, attitude and outlook.
Ques 11: 'Nature and humans are inseparable elements'. Justify the statement with suitable examples.
Ans: Nature and humans are inseparable elements. The following statements are given: (i) The earth is the home of mankind. It may be in different forms. All types of life supports are provided by nature. They directly depend on nature.
(ii) Nature and humans are inseparable and should be seen holistically.
(iii) Physical features are described in metaphors using symbols from the human anatomy. These features include face of earth, nose of glacier, eye of storm, mouth of river, neck of isthmus, profile of soil etc.
Ques 12: 'Air pollution is very harmful to flora, fauna and property.' Explain any three values which can help in maintaining pollution free air to some extent.
Ans: Air pollution is very harmful to flora, fauna and property Flora and fauna are the plants and animal life around us. Air pollution's main reason is combustion of coal, petrol, diesel, solid waste disposal and industrial wastage. By air pollution the quantity of oxides of Sulphur, oxides of nitrogen, carbon mono oxide, hydrocarbon, ammonia exceeds normal acceptable limits in the air we breathe.
We can maintain pollution free air through:
(i) Air becomes polluted when its normal composition is disturbed either by nature or by man or by both. Since air pollution is harmful for environment and mankind it is our responsibility to save air from pollution.
(ii) People should be aware of the harmful effects of air pollution.
(iii) People should be aware and feel duty bound to save air.
(iv) People must follow rules for saving air and environment.
(v) We must use ecofriendly non-conventional sources of energy (Solar, Bio-gas and Wind energy) as conventional energy production from source like coal, oil and gas are harmful.
(vi) People should use public transport as far as possible against individual transport (private cars).
Ques 13: Describe the way of life of nomadic herders in the World.
Ans: Way of life of nomadic herders in the world are:
(i) Animals are the life of herders. They rely on them for food, clothing, shelter, tools and transport.
(ii) They move from one place to another place with their livestock and move in search of two vital necessities; fodder and water.
(iii) They follow well defined territory. They move according to the season. For example, Lapps of Tundra region migrate towards the north in the summer season and towards southern coniferous forest belts in winter.
(iv) Nomadism is associated with these distinct regions:
(a) Core region which is from Atlantic shores of North Africa eastward to Arabian Peninsula into Mangolia and Central China.
(b) Second is Tundra region of Eurasia.
(c) Third is southern hemisphere South West Africa to Madagascar.
(v) The number of nomadic herding's are decreasing due to life style. Now they want to live in one place.
Ques 14: Why do large scale industries choose different locations? Explain any four factors which influence the industrial location.
Ans: Industries are establishment for production of various item with a view that they want to earn profit by reducing costs. Therefore, industries are located at points where cost of production is lowest.
Factors influencing industrial locations:
(i) These are established in such area where supply of raw material is easily available.
(ii) Industries want good market to sell their products. Hence they choose a place where access of market is available.
(iii) Availability of trouble free labour is another factor for establishment of industry. Where labour is easily available at low cost.
(iv) Industries need continuous supply of energy, i.e., Electricity, Diesel, CNG etc.
(v) Every industry needs transportation to carry their product from one place to other hence, road/railway are available at nearnest place.
(vi) Similarly industry needs trouble free communication services to receive and place various orders.
Ques 15: Explain any five factors responsible for the development of 'Mumbai-Pune Industrial Region'.
Ans: Mumbai-Pune Industrial Region: This region extends from Thane to Pune and in adjoining districts of Nashik and Sholapur. In addition. Industries have grown at a rapid pace in Kolaba, Ahmednagar, Satara, Sangli. Major factors responsible for the development of "Mumbai-Pune Industrial Region.
(i) Favourable climatic conditions for the development of cotton textile industry. Since cotton was cultivated in the black soil area of Narmada and Tapi basis.
(ii) Opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 providing impetus for its growth.
(iii) Availability of port facility for export-import and communication link with the peninsular hinter land made the Mumbai as Hub of cotton export centre of India.
(iv) The electricity was available as the hydel power was developed in Western Ghats.
(v) Availability of labour in the region.
(vi) With Mumbai-high petroleum fields, favoured the growth of refineries and petrochemicals.
(vii) Growth and development of various other industries e.g., engineering goods, pharmaceutical and chemical industries, electricals and electronics, software, ship building came up in the region.
Ques 16: '90 percent of the world population lives in about 10 percent of its total land area, whereas remaining 10 percent population resides in the 90 percent of its land area.' Support the statement with suitable examples.
Ans: 90% of the world population lives in about 10% of its total land area, whereas remaining 10% population has spread over 90% of land area. The reasons are:
(i) Density of population is high in river valleys due to water availability through rivers and canals. The soil and water makes the land usable for agriculture.
(ii) The plains are densely populated while hilly areas and desserts are sparsely populated.
(iii) Population also depends on climatic conditions. Hot, cold and dry climates have sparse populations example: Tundra region is very cold all the time with snow, these are less populated, in desserts due to accute scarcity of water and without agriculture the area remains sparse populated. But areas of moderate climate have dense population.
(iv) Areas such as Gangatic plains, deltas. North Indian plain have higher proposition of population, because oi: fertile soil with possibility of agriculture.
(v) Development of Transport network, industrialisation and urbanisation are some important socio-economic and historical factors which, influence the distribution of population.
Ques 17: 'An uneven distribution of population suggests a close relationship between population and physical and socio-economic factors.' Support the statement with suitable examples.
Ans: An uneven distribution of population suggests a close relationship between population and physical and socio-economic factors.
(i) Physical factors: Among the physical factors, reliefs, climate and availability of water are main factors. Because of these factors northern areas of India have higher density of population than the interior districts of Central India Platen and Southern India.
(ii) Socio-economic Factors: Evolution of settled agricultural development and agriculture, development of transport network and urbanization are socio-economic factor influencing the distribution of population. The moderate density of population is seen in Odisha, Assam, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu etc. due to newly developed canal network and possibility of agriculture, industrial development and favourable climate to some extent.
Ques 18: What is human development? Analyse the four pillars of human development.
Ans: Human development is a process that enlarges people?s choices and improves their life. A meaningful life is not just a long one. It must be a life with some purpose. This means that people must be healthy, be able to develop their talents, participate in society and be free to achieve their goals.
Four pillars of human developments are:
(i) Equity: Equity means making equal access to opportunities available to everybody. The opportunities w available to people must be equal irrespective of their render, race, income and the caste.
(ii) Sustainability: It refers to continuity in the available opportunities. This means each generation must have same opportunity. Therefore, we must use our environmental, financial and human resources in such a way that our future generation are not deprived of these opportunities.
(iii) Productivity: It means human labour productivity of work. It must be enriched by building capabilities in people. In fact, people of a country are its real wealth.
(iv) Empowerment: It refers to have power to make choices. Such newer comes from increasing freedom and capabilities. Good governance and people oriented policies are required to empower people. The empowerment of socially and economically disadvantaged group is of special importance.
Ques 19: 'Scarcity of water on account of its increased demand, possesses possibility the greatest demand in India.' Analyse the statement.
Ans: 20 increasing demand for water is a challenge of India. The reasons are:
(i) India has a large population and resources are very limited. Ground water level is depleting due to excessive take off of water for domestic or agricultural use.
(ii) Rising demand of water for increasing population. Since water is limited and increasing population need water for daily necessities, it is creating problem.
(iii) There is rapid industrial growth and every industry needs water hence demand is increasing.
(iv) More water is required for irrigation to increase agricultural production as rainfall is highly variable.
(v) Urbanisation and modern life style has increased the demand as present days houses are equipped with showers and bathtub. Every house has their own car and they use water to clean/wash their car daily.
(vi) Water pollution has added to water shortage since Indian cities are not having sufficient/proper waste water treatment plant.
Ques 20: Identify the five Geographical features shown on the political outline map of the World as A, B, C, D and E and write their correct names on the lines marked near them with the help of following information:
(A) A large country of Europe in area.
(B) An area of subsistence gathering.
(C) The terminal station of a 'trans-continental railway'.
(D) A major sea-port. (E) An international airport.
Ques 21: Locate the label the following features with approximate symbols on the given political outline map of India.
(i) The most urbanized state (2011)
(ii) The leading cotton producing state.
(iii) The Software Technology Park located in Punjab.
(iv) The major coal field located in Chhattisgarh.
(v) The international airport located in Karnataka.