Ques 1: What are the two types of intensive subsistence agriculture?
Ans: It is of the following two types:
(i) Intensive subsistence agriculture dominated by wet paddy cultivation.
(ii) Intensive subsistence agriculture dominated by crops other than paddy.
Ques 2: Which country has the largest rail network in Africa?
Ans: South Africa, with 18,000 km of railways has the densest rail network because of the gold, copper and diamond activities.
Ques 3: Name any two towns of India, initially developed as mining towns.
Ans: In Odisha, important mines are Gurumahisani, Sulaipet, Badampahar (Mayurbhanj), Kiruburu (KenduJhar) and Bonai (Sundergarh).
Most of the important mines are located in Poorbi and Pashchimi Singhbhum districts of Jharkhand.
Ques 4: Describe any three characteristics of agro-based industries in the world.
Ans: Agro-based industries are those industries which obtains raw material from agricultual activities. Cotton textile, jute textile, silk, sugar, vegetable oil and paper industry industries of agro-based group of industries.
Its characteristics are:
(i) Agro-based industries are part of small scale industry which needs very nominal investment.
(ii) The contribution of Small scale industrial sector to employment is next to agriculture.
(iii) Most crucial factor is the availability of the raw materials. It should be available within a radius of 60 kms. In addition, water, power and other infrastructure facilities like access to road, railways, ports and airports as well as the markets for the products have to be ensured.
Ques 5: What is meant by human development? Classify countries into four groups on the basis of the human development scores earned by them. Explain one feature of each group.
Ans: Human Development: The concept of human development was introduced by Dr. Mahbub-ul-Haq. Dr. Haq has described human development as development that enlarges people's choices and improves their lives. People's choices are not fixed but keep on changing. The basic goal of development is to create conditions where people can live meaningful lives. A meaningful life is not just a long one. It must be a life with some purpose. This means that people must be healthy, be able to develop their talents, participate in society and be free to achieve their goals.
The Four Pillars of Human Development: Just as any building is supported by pillars, the idea of human development is supported by the concepts of equity, sustainability, productivity and empowerment.
1. Equity refers to making equal access to opportunities available to everybody. The opportunities available to people must be equal irrespective of their gender, race, income and in the Indian case, caste.
2. Sustainability means continuity in the availability of opportunities. To have sustainable human development, each generation must have the same opportunities. All environmental, financial and human resources must be used keeping in mind the future. Misuse of any of these resources will lead to fewer opportunities for future generations.
3. Productivity here means human labour productivity or productivity in terms of human work. Such productivity must be constantly enriched by building capabilities in people.
4. Ultimately, it is people who are the real wealth of nations. Empowerment means to have the power to make choices. Such power comes from increasing freedom and capability. Good governance and people-oriented policies are required to empower people. The empowerment of socially and economically disadvantaged groups is of special importance.
Ques 6: Explain the importance of five non-conventional sources of energy with suitable examples.
Ans: Importance of non-conventional sources of energy are:
1. Solar Energy: Sun rays tapped in photovoltaic cells can be converted into energy, known as solar energy. The two effective processes considered to be very effective to tap solar energy are photovoltaics and solar thermal technology. It is cost competitive, environment friendly and easy to construct. It is generally used more in appliances like heaters, crop dryers, cookers, etc. The western part of India has greater potential for the development of solar energy in Gujarat and Rajasthan.
2. Wind Energy: Wind energy is absolutely pollution free, inexhaustible source of energy. The mechanism of energy conversion from blowing wind is simple. The kinetic energy of wind, through turbines is converted into electrical energy. The permanent wind systems such as the trade winds, westerlies and seasonal wind like monsoon have been used as source of energy. Besides these, local winds, land and sea breezes can also be used to produce electricity. India, already has started generating wind energy. It has an ambitious programme to install 250 wind-driven turbines with a total capacity of 45 megawatts, in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka, favourable conditions for wind energy exists.
3. Tidal and Wave Energy: Ocean currents are the store - house of infinite energy. Since the beginning of seventeenth and eighteenth century, persistent efforts were made to create a more efficient energy system from: the ceaseless tidal waves and ocean current. Large tidal waves are known to occur along the west coast of India. Hence, India has great: potential for the development of tidal energy along the coasts but so far these have not yet been utilised.
4. Geothermal Energy: When the magma from the interior of earth, comes out on the surface, tremendous heat is released. This heat energy can successfully be tapped and converted to electrical energy. Apart from this, the hot water that gushes out through the geyser wells (Hot wells) is also used in the generation of thermal energy. It is popularly known as geothermal energy. This energy is now considered to be one of the key energy sources which can be developed as an alternate source. The hot springs and geysers are being used since medieval period. In India, a geothermal energy plant has been commissioned at Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh.
5. Bio-energy: Bio-energy refers to energy derived from biological products which includes agricultural residues municipal, industrial and other wastes. Bio energy is a potential source of energy conversion. It can be converted into electrical energy, heat energy or gas for cooking. It will also process the waste and garbage and produce energy. One such project converting municipal waste into energy is Okhla in Delhi.
Ques 7: Analyse the significance and growth of service sector in the modem economic development of the world.
Ans: The points of significance of service setter in the modern economic development ot the world are as follows:
(i) Services are an important constituent of the modern economic development which includes retailing or the modern of goods to the people.
(ii) The provision of services of ail kind education, health, welfare, leisure, recreation, and business services.
(iii) In developed economies service based development he been very rapid.
(iv) Service sector is growing faster than the manufacturing sector and its contribution to the national income is also very high,
(v) The formal sectors support the national income whereas the services of informal sectors in which large number of rural migrants are working. Besides this large number of unskilled workers are poorly paid and their services are not accounted.