Ques 1: How were Harappan seals and sealings used to facilitate long distance communication? What did the sealings convey?
Ans: The bag of goods to be sent from one place to another was tied at its mouth with a rope and on the knot was affixed some wet clay on which one or more seals were pressed, leaving an impression.
Ques 2: Mention any two steps taken by the Mughals to create the revenue as an administrative apparatus.
Ans: (i) The Mughals included the office (daftar) of the Diwan who was responsible for supervising the fiscal system of the empire to create the revenue as an administrative apparatus.
(ii) The revenue officials and record keepers penetrated the agricultural domain and became a decisive agent in shaping agrarian relations.
Ques 3: Mention any two arguments given by Balakrishan Sharma for greater power to the Centre.
Ans: (i) Balkrishna Sharma, a member from the united Provinces reasoned at length that only a strong centre could plan for the well-being of India.
(ii) A strong centre could mobilise the available economic resources to establish a balanced administration. It could also defend die country against foreign aggression.
Ques 4: 'The Archaeological records provide no immediate answer to the Harappa's central authority? Analyze different views given on the same.
Ans: Opinion of some of the archaeologists about the Harappan Central authority:
1. According to some archaeologists the Harappan society had no rulers and that everybody enjoyed equal status.
2. Others feel that there was no single ruler but several. The Mohenjodaro had a separate ruler, Harappan another and so forth.
3. Others argue that there was a single state, given the similarity in artefacts, the evidence for planned settlement, the standardized ratio of brick size and the establishments near sources of raw material.
4. Of all, the last theory seems the most plausible as it is unlikely that entire communities could have collectively made and implemented such complex decisions.
Ques 5: 'Historians have used a veriety of sources to reconstruct the history of the Mauryan Empire.? Explain.
Ans: The historians used various sources to reconstruct the history of Mauryan Empire. These are archaeological finds, especially sculptures account of Megasthenes who was a Greek Ambassador to the court of Chandragupta Maurya. Another source which is often used is the Arthashastra composed by Kautilya or Chanakya, the minister of Chandragupta.
Ques 6: 'The conception of social pollution intrinsic to the caste system, was contrary to the law of nature?. Examine Al-Biruni's statement on Indian caste system.
Ans: Al Biruni tried to explain the caste system in India. Looking for parallels in other societies, he noted that in ancient Persia, four social categories were recognised; those of knights and princes, monks. Then priests and law years, physicians, astronomers and other scientists and finally peasant and artisans. He told that social divisions -were not unique in India. He also pointed out that within Islam all men were considered equal, differing only in their observance of piety.
Though Al-Biruni accepted the Brahmanical desperation of the caste system but disapproved of the notion or pollution. He remarked that every -thing which falls into a state of impurity strives and succeeds m regaining its original condition of purity. He insisted that life on earth would have been impossible if sun did not clean, the air, and the salt in the sea did not prevent water from becoming polluted. According to him the conception of social pollution, intrinsic to the caste system, according to him was contrary to the law of nature.
Al Biruni's description of the caste system was deeply influenced by his study of normative Sanskrit texts which laid down the rules governing the system from the point of view of the Brahmanas. However, in real life the: system was not quite as rigid. For example, the categories defined as antyaja (born outside the system) were often expected to provide inexpensive, labour to both peasants and zamindars. Though they were often subjected to social oppression they were included within economic networks.
Ques 7: Describe how the 'Humayun Nama' of Gulbdan Begum gives us the glimpses of the Mughal Imperial household.
Ans: Gulbadan Begum was the daughter of Babur, Humayun's sister and Akbar's aunt. She wrote Humayun Nama depicting the glimpse of domestic world of Mughal's. She wrote fluently in Turkish and Persian. When Akbar requested Abul Fazi to write a history of his reign, Akbar requested Gulbadan Begum to record her memories of earlier times Uner Babur and Humayun, for Abul Fazi to draw upon. She has described in detail die tensions and conflicts which existed between princes and kings. She gives an insight into the important role women played in resolving these conflicts.
Ques 8: Examine how the Ricardo's idea of land-ownership was introduced in the 'Bombay Deccan'.
Ans: According to Ricardian Theory, a landowner should have a claim only to the average rent that prevailed at a given time. When the land yielded more than this average rent, the landowner had a surplus that the state needed to tax. If tax was not levied, cultivators were likely to turn into rentiers, and their surplus income was unlikely to be productively invested in the improvement of the land.
Many British officials in India thought that the history of Bengal confirmed Ricardo's Theory. There the Zamindars seemed to have turned into rentiers, leasing out land and living on the rental incomes. It was therefore, necessary the British officials now felt, to have a different system.
The system of revenue that was introduced in Bombay Deccan was known to be ryotwari settlement where unlike the Bengal system, the revenue directly settled with the ryot in which the average income from different types of soil was estimated, the revenue-paying capacity of the ryot was assessed and a proportion of it fixed as the share of the state. The lands were surveyed every 30 years and the revenue rated increased. Thus the revenue demand was no longer permanent.
Ques 9: 'A careful study of census reveals some fascination trends of urbanization in 19th century.' Support the statement with facts.
Ans: A careful study of census reveals some fascinating trends of urbanization in the 19th century. This statement can be explained as follows:
(i) The ratio of the urban population was very low and had remained stagnant from 19th century to the first two decades of the 20th century.
(ii) The urban population increased from about 10% of the total population to about 13% from 1900 to 1940.
(iii) There were important variations in the patterns of urban development in different parts.
The growth of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay as the new commercial and administrative centres was at the expense of other existing urban centres. These cities became the hub of the colonial economy. But the smaller towns had limited opportunity to grow economically.
Ques 10: Read the following 'value-based' passage and answer the questions that follow:
The 77-year-old Gandhiji decided to stake his all in a bid to vindicate his lifelong principle of non-violence, and his conviction that people's hearts could be changed. He moved from the villages of Noakhali in East Bengal (present-day Bangladesh) to the villages of Bihar and then to the riot-torn slums of Calcutta and Delhi, in a heroic effort to stop Hindus and Muslims kill each other, careful everywhere to reassure the minority community. In October 1946, Muslims in East Bengal targeted Hindus. Gandhiji visited the area, toured the villages on foot, and persuaded the local Muslims to guarantee the safety of Hindus. Similarly, in other places such as Delhi he tried to build a spirit of mutual trust and confidence between the two communities.
(i) Explain how the spirit of mutual trust and confidence building was initiated by Gandhiji.
(ii) Explain the values mentioned in this passage.
Ans: (i) (a) Gandhiji was a true champion and pious followers of the eternal principal of non violence or ahimsa. He was of this conviction that people's heart could be changed.
(b) To convey the spirit of mutual trust and confidence building Gandhiji moved from the villages of Noakhali in East Bengal (present-day Bangladesh) to the villages of Bihar then to the riot-torn slums of Calcutta and Delhi. He wanted to stop the barbaric killing between the Hindus and the Muslims.
(ii) (a) This passage consists of human values and deeply-rooted conviction of Gandhiji that people's heart, mind and thinking could be changed. As an ardent follower of Ahimsa and a true champion of humanity Gandhiji firmly believed in Hindu - Muslim unity.
(b) As an advocate of humanitarian values and philanthropist, Gandhiji always championed the pious cause of Hindu - Muslim Unity. He was absolutely convinced that people?s heart could be changed through Ahimsa and mutual love.
Ques 11: Discuss how and why were stupas built?
Ans: Stupas were sacred places because the relics of the Buddha such as his bodily remains or objects used by him were buried there. According to a Buddhist text known as the Ashokavadana, Ashoka distributed portions of the Buddha's relics to every important towns and ordered the construction of stupas over them. By the second century BCE a number of Stupas, including those at Bharhut, Sanchi and Sarnath had been built.
Inscriptions found on the railings and pillars of stupas. Record donations made by women and men for building and decorating of stupas. Some donations were made by kings such as Satvahanas, others were made by guilds, such as that of ivory workers who financed part of one of the gateways at Sanchi. The people who made donations mentioned their names sometimes adding the name of the place from where they came, as well as their occupations and names of their relatives. Bhikkhus and bhikkhunis also contributed for building those monuments or stupas.
Ques 12: Why was the South-western part of Vijayanagara settlement designated as Royal Centre? Explain.
Ans: 1. The Royal Centre was located in the South-western part of the settlement and it had 60 temples.
2. The patronage of temples and cults was important for rulers. They were trying to establish and legitimise their authority through association with the divinities kept in the shrines.
3. Approximately, 30 building complexes have been identified as palaces. These are large structures that do not seem to have been associated with ritual functions.
4. One typical difference between the other structures and temples is that the latter were made entirely of masonry, while the superstructure of the secular buildings was built with perishable materials.
5. The palace of the king is the largest of the enclosures but has no strong- proof of being a royal residence. It has two of the most impressive platform, often known as the Audience Hall and the Mahanavami Dibba.
6. The Audience Hall is a raised platform with slots of wooden pillars -at close and regular distances and comprises a staircase leading to the 2nd floor. The pillars being closely spaced and would have left little free space and so, it is not clear what the hall was used for. The Mahanavami Dibba is situated on one of the highest points in the city it is a massive platform rising from a base of about 11,000 sq. ft. to a height of 40 ft. The base of the platform is covered with relief carvings.
7. Rituals and ceremonies connected with the structure perhaps coincided with Mahanavami of the ten-day Hindu festival during the months of September and October. The Kings of Vijayanagara displayed their authority, prestige, power and suzerainty on this auspicious occasion.
8. The Lotus Mahal is one of the most beautiful buildings in the royal centre. However, the historians are not sure what the building was used for.
Mackenzie suggested that it may have been a council chamber. One of the most striking structures is known as the Hazara Rama Temple. Most probably, it was used by the King and his family members only. Though the images in the central shrine are missing yet sculpted panels on the walls survive. The scenes from the Ramayana are sculpted on the inner walls of the temple.
Ques 13: Explain the role played by Zamindars in Mughal India.
Ans: 1. The Zamindars in the Mughal period were the class of those people who lived off agriculture but did not participate directly in the processes of agricultural production. The Zamindars were landed proprietors who had some social and economic privileges by virtue of their superior status in rural society.
2. Caste hierarchy was also responsible for the higher status of Zamindars. They also performed certain services (Khidmat) for the state.
3. The Zamindars had extensive personal lands termed milkiyat. This milkiyat lands were cultivated for the personal use of the Zamindars, with the help of hired or servile labour.
4. The Zamindars were at liberty to sell, mortgage these lands at will. They could often collect revenue on behalf of the state.
5. The other source of Zamindars power was their control over military sources. Most of them had fortresses as well as an armed contingent comprising units of infantry, cavalry and artillery.
6. If we visualise of social relations in the Mughal countryside as a pyramid, zamindars constituted its very narrow apex. In this context Abul Fazls account indicates an Upper caste, Brahmana - Rajput combine had already made that firm control over rural society. It also reflects a fairly good representation from intermediate castes along with a liberal sprinkling of Muslim Zamindars.
7. The dispossession of weaker people by a powerful military chieftain was a popular way of expanding zamindari. In Northern India the Rajputs and the Jats followed the strategies to firm up their control over extensive swathes of territory.
8. The Zamindars led the colonisation of agricultural land and helped in settling cultivators by providing them cash loans, and another means of cultivation.
9. Zamindars were an exploitative class and their relationship with the peasantry had a touch of reciprocity, paternalism and patronage. That is why, Zamindars often got the support of the peasantry in their conflict against the state.
Ques 14: How did the Constituent Assembly seek to resolve the language controversy? Explain.
Ans: The Constituent Assembly sought to resolve the language controversy in the following way:
1. The language controversy. It was a sensitive and tedious issue before the Constituent Assembly was a challenging task to untwist this knotty problem. A. strong plea made by R.V. Dhulekar, a Congressman from the united provinces, that Hindi should be used as the language of constitution making. However, when he was told that not all the members of the Constituent Assembly knew the language. At this Dhulekar retorted. People who are present in this house to fashion a constitution for India and do not know Hindustani are not worthy to be members of this Assembly They better leave.
2. This pungent remark created lots of commotion in the house. However Dhulekar proceeded with his speech in Hindi. Nehruji intervened at this crucial juncture to restore peace in the House. But this controversial issue continued to disrupt proceedings of the Constituent Assembly and agitate members over the subsequent three years. On 12 September 1947, Dhulekar's speech on the language of the nation once again kicked it huge storm.
3. The Language Committee of the Constituent Assembly submitted its report and had thought of a compromise formula as a solution for resolving the deadlock between those advocated Hindi as the National language and those who were in the opposition. The Committee had decided but not yet formally declared that Hindi in the Devanagari script would be the official language, but the transition to Hindi would be in stages. For the first 15 years, English would continue to be used for all official purposes.
4. In this way, by considering Hindi as the official rather than the National language, the Language Committee expected to satisfy boiling emotions and reached at a solution that would be acceptable for everyone. Shrimati Durgabai from Madras explained her worries and informed the House that opposition in the South against Hindi was very strong. Many members of the Assembly appealed for a spirit of accommodation as the discussion became bitter. T.A. Ramalingam Chattier emphasised that Whatever was done had to be done with caution; the cause of Hindi would not be helped if it was pushed too aggressively. The fears of the people, even if they were unjustified, had to be allayed, or else there will be bitter feelings left behind.When we want to live together and form a united nation, he said there should be mutual adjustment and no question of forcing things on people...
Ques 15: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Deeds of hire
When debts mounted the peasant was unable to pay back the loan to the moneylender. He had no option but to give over all his possessions - land, carts, and animals - to the moneylender. But without animals he could not continue to cultivate. So he took land on rent and animals on hire. He now had to pay for the animals which had originally belonged to him. He had to sign a deed of hire stating very clearly that these animals and carts did not belong to him. In cases of conflict, these deeds could be enforced through the court. The following is the text of a deed that a peasant signed in November 1873, from the records of the Deccan Riots Commission:
I have sold to you, on account of the debt due to you, my two carriages having iron axles, with their appurtenances and four bullocks ... I have taken from you on hire under (this) deed the very same two carriages and four bullocks. I shall pay every month the hire thereof at Rupees four a month, and obtain a receipt in your own handwriting. In the absence of a receipt I shall not contend that the hire had been paid.
(a) How did the peasants pay back the loan to the moneylender?
(b) What NATs the deed of hire? Explain.
(c) What light does the deed of hire throw on the relationship between the peasants and the moneylenders?
Ans: (a) (i) When debts increased die peasants were unable to pay back the loan to the moneylender.
(ii) In this situation, the peasants had no option but to give all their possessions to the moneylender.
(iii) They had to surrender their land, carts and animals to the moneylender.
(b) (i) The peasant had to sign a deed of hire stating very clearly that all his possessions (land, carts and animals) did not belong to him.
(ii) The peasant had to sell, on account of the debt to the moneylender, his carriages having iron axles, with their accessories and bullocks.
(iii) A peasant had to sign a deed that lie had taken from the moneylender on hire under this deed die very same carriages and bullocks. The peasant had to pay every month the hire thereof at Rupees four a month.
(c) The deed of hire clearly shows that the relationship between the peasant?s and the moneylenders was characterized by acrimony. The deed of hire was absolutely loaded in favour of the moneylenders and the peasants were at the receiving end.
Ques 16: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Born in 1754, Colin Mackenzie became famous as an engineer, surveyor and cartographer. In 1815 he was appointed the first Surveyor General of India, a post he held till his death in 1821. He embarked on collecting local histories and surveying historic sites in order to better understand India's past and make governance of the colony easier. He says that 'it struggled long under the miseries of bad management... before the South came under the benign influence of the British government'. By studying Vijayanagara, Mackenzie believed that the East India Company could gain ?much useful information on many of these institutions, laws and customs whose influence still prevails among the various Tribes of Natives forming the general mass of the population to this day?.
(a) Who was Colin Mackenzie? Give his introduction.
(b) Mention what Mackenzie did to make governance of the colony easier.
(c) According to him, what benefits would the East India Company gain after studying Vijayanagara? Explain in brief.
Ans: (a) Colin Mackenzie was born in 1754. He became famous as an engineer, surveyor and cartographer. He was appointed the first Surveyor General of India in 1815 and held lids post till his death in 1821.
(b) Colin Mackenzie embarked on collecting local histories and surveying historic sites in order to better understand India's past and make governance of the colony easier.
(c) Colin Mackenzie opined that the East India Company could gain much useful information on many of these institutions, laws and customs whose influence still prevails among the various Tribes of Natives forming the general mass of the population to this day.
Ques 17: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Rules for Monks and Nuns
These are some of the rules laid down in the Vinaya Pitaka: When a new felt (blanket/rug) has been made by a bhikkhu, it is to be kept for (at least) six years. If after less than six years he should have another new felt (blanket/rug) made, regardless of whether or not he has disposed of the first, then - unless he has been authorised by the bhikkhus - it is to be forfeited and confessed.
In case a bhikkhu arriving at a family residence presented with cakes or cooked grain-meal, he may accept two or three bowlfuls if he so desires. If he should accept more than that, it is to be confessed. Having accepted the two or three bowlfuls and having taken them from there, he is to share them among the bhikkhus. This is the proper course here.
Should any bhikkhu, having set out bedding in a lodging belonging to the sangha - or having had it set out - and then on departing neither put it away nor have it put away, or should he go without taking leave, it is to be confessed.
(a) Name any two Buddhist texts in which the rules for the monks have been laid down.
(b) Why were these rules framed?
(c) What was the sangha? Explain?
(d) State any three rules mentioned in the passage, for the bhikkhus.
Ans: (a) (i) Sutta Pitaka, (ii) Vinay Pitaka.
(b) These rules were framed to maintain simplicity and dhamma. Mainly, these rules were for monks and nuns.
(c) (i) Sangha was a body of disciples of the Buddha.
(ii) It was an organisation of monks who became teachers of dharma.
(d) (i) a new felt (blanket/rug) made by a bhikkhu is to be kept for (at least) six years.
(ii) In case a bhikkhu arrives at a family residence, he should accept 2 or 3 bowlfuls.
(iii) Should any bhikkhu, having set out bedding in a lodging belonging to the Sangha or having had it set out and then on departing neither put it away nor have put it away, or should he go without taking leave, it is to be confessed.
Ques 18: (i) On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following:
(ii) On the same map 3 centres of the Revolt of 1857 have been marked as 1, 2 and 3. Identify them and write their names of the lines drawn near them.