Ques 1: Mention any two features of the administration system of the Mauryan Empire.
Ans: (i) The Mauryan Empire had five major political centres. The capital Patliputra and the provincial centres of Taxila, Ujjayaini, Tosali and Suvarngiri.
(ii) The administrative control was very strong in regions around the capital and the provincial centres.
Ques 2: 'By the eleventh century Sufism evolved into a well-developed movement.' Give any two examples.
Ans: (i) By the 11th century Sufism evolved into a well-developed movement with a body of literature on Sufi practices and Quranic Studies.
(ii) The Sufis began to organise communities around the hospice or Khanqah. It was controlled by Shaikh, Pir or Murshid.
Ques 3: Why was the colonial government keen on mapping of Indian cities from the early years? Give any two reasons.
Ans: (i) The colonial government felt that maps were essential to understand the landscape and know the topography.
(ii) This knowledge of mapping would allow better control over the region. The maps provided various important information.
Ques 4: How did architectural features of Mohenjodaro indicate planning? Support with suitable examples.
Ans: (i) The most unique feature of the Harappan civilization was the development of Urban centers. Harappan settlement is divided into two sections. Archaeologists designate these as the citadel and the lower town respectively.
(ii) The settlement was first planned and then implemented as per the plan other signs of planning comprise bricks, which, whether sun-dried or baked, were of a standardized ratio. Such bricks were used at all Harappan settlements.
(iii) One of the most distinctive features of Harappan cities was the carefully planned drainage system. Roads and streets were lid out along an approximate grid pattern, intersecting at right angles.
(iv) The Great Bath was a large rectangular tank in a courtyard surrounded by a planned corridor on all four sides. There were rooms on three sides. The uniqueness of the structure has led scholars to suggest that it was meant for some kind of special ritual bath.
Ques 5: Who composed the original story of Mahabharata in oral form? Explain any four elements considered by the historians while analyzing the Mahabharata.
Ans: There is no concrete proof about who was composer of original story of text of the Mahabharta. Historians speculate that the original story was composed by charioteer bards known as sutas who generally accompanied Kshatriya warriors to the battlefield and composed poems celebrating their victories and other achievements. These compositions circulated orally.
The following elements are considered by historians:
(1) Language and content: They looked for what kind of language is used and when was it prevalent. E.g., Mahabharata is written in Prakrit language which was a language of common use.
(2) Search for convergence: Since Mahabharata mentions many forests, palaces and battles, historians look for these evidences. E.g., Kurukshetra war is supposed to happen in present day Kurikshetra and historians do the archaeological digging to ascertain this.
(3) They look for similarity between traditions depicted in Mahabharata and other texts of that time.
(4) Since Mahabharata was composed over a long period, the historians search for original contents and other inscriptional evidences such as inscription of chariot during war at many places.
Ques 6: 'Buddha laid stress on right conduct and values.' In the light of the above message, explain his technique on life.
Ans: According to Buddha, the world is transient (anicca) and constantly changing.
(i) It is also soulless (anatta) as there is nothing permanent or eternal in it. Within this transient world sorrow (dukkha) is intrinsic to human existence.
(ii) The path of moderation between severe penance and self-indulgence that human beings can rise above these worldly troubles. He advised kings and gahapads to be humane and ethical. As Buddha regarded the social world as the creation of humans rather than of divine origin.
(iii) The Buddha emphasized individual agency and righteous action as the means to escape from the cycle of rebirth and attain self-realization and nibbana, literally the extinguishing of the ego and desire. According to Buddha, thus end the cycle of suffering for those who renounced the world.
(iv) His last words to his followers were, Be lamps into yourselves as all of you must work out your own liberation.
Ques 7: 'Domingo Paes has called the Mahanavami Dibba of Vijayanagara Empire as? The House of Victory'? Justify.
Ans: (i) Some of the more distinctive structures in the area have been given names based on the form of the buildings as well as their functions. The King's palace is the largest of enclosures.
(ii) It has two of the most impressive platforms, usually called the Audience Hall and the Mahanavami Dibba.
(iii) Domingo Peas called the Audience Hall and the Mahanavami Dibba the House of victory. The Mahanavami Dibba is situated on one of the highest points in the city and is a massive platform.
(iv) Peas maintained that in this House of Victory the king has a room made of cloth. Where the idol has a shrine and in the middle is placed a dais on which stands a throne of state.
Ques 8: Describe the life led by the forest dwellers during the Mughal era in 16th -17th centuries.
Ans: (i) Forest dwellers were termed jangli in contemporary texts. However, the term jangli did not mean an absence of civilization.
(ii) The term used for those whose, livelihood came from the hunting and shifting agriculture and gathering of forest produce. These activities were season specific.
(iii) This sequence presumed and perpetuated mobility, which was a significant feature of tribes inhabiting these forests. On the other hand for the state, the forest was a place of refuge (mawas) for trouble makers.
(iv) For example among the Bhils spring was reserved for collecting forest produce, summer for fishing, monsoon for cultivation, and winter and autumn for hunting.
Ques 9: Critically examine the policies adopted by the Britishers to control Paharias.
Ans: (i) Intensely irritated colonial officials tried desperately to control and subdue the Paharias, but this task was very difficult. To control the Paharias the British embarked on a brutal policy of extermination in the 1770s.
(ii) By the 1780s, Augustus Cleveland, the Collector of Bhagalpur suggested a policy of pacification.
(iii) Paharia Chiefs were given a yearly allowance and made responsible for the proper conduct of pacification.
(iv) They were expected to keep order in their areas and discipline their own people. Due to pacification campaigns, the Paharias withdrew deep into the mountains, separating themselves from hostile forces.
Ques 10: How did British dispossess Taluqdars of Awadh during 1857? Explain with examples.
Ans: (i) The annexation of Awadh not only displaced the Nawab but also dispossessed the taluqdars of the region.
(ii) In Pre-British times, taluqdars kept armed retainers, built forts and enjoyed sufficient autonomy as long as they accepted the suzerainty of the Nawab and paid the revenue of their taluq.
(iii) The British did not want to tolerate the power of the taluqdars. The taluqdars of Awadh were disarmed and their forts smashed just after the annexation.
(iv) The land revenue policy of the British further undermined the position and authority of the taluqdars. The Summary Settlement proceeded to remove the taluqdars. Data show that before the arrival of the British, taluqdars had held 67% of me total number of villages in Awadh, by the Summary Settlement this number had come down to 38%.
Ques 11: (i) 'The colonial cines provided new opportunities for women during the 19th century.' Give two examples.
(ii) Explain any three values encouraged women for their empowerment
Ans: (i) (a) Middle - class women sought to express themselves through the medium of journals, autobiographies and books.
(b) However, now they became more visible in public as they entered new professions in the city as domestic and factory workers, teachers and theatre and film actresses.
(ii) (a) After independence, women not equal rights in every walk of life. Spread of education created awareness among women and they began to choose different professions.
(b) Social, economic, political and cultural awareness created a new favourable environment that generated new confidence and empowerment among women.
(iii) Our rich culture and traditions of respecting women were revived by the freedom fighters and said that low status of women was not original culture. This give a boost to empowerment of women.
Ques 12: Explain the role of Panchayats in the Mughal rural Indian society during 16th-17th centuries.
Explain how Akbar maintained harmonious relations with different ethnic and religious communities.
Ans: The role of Panchayats in the Mughal rural Indian society during 16th-17th centuries:
(i) Structure: The village panchayats were an assembly of elders, usually important people of the village with hereditary rights over their property. However, in mixed-caste villages the panchayats were usually a heterogenous body. The panchayats were headed by a headman, known as muquaddam or Mandal.
Headmen used to hold their respective offices as long as they enjoyed the confidence of the village elders, failing which they could be dismissed by them. The chief function of die headman was to supervise the preparation of village accounts, assisted by the accountant or patwari of the panchayat.
(ii) Collection of funds: The panchayat derived its funds form contributions made by individuals to a common financial pool. These funds were used for meeting the costs of entertaining revenue officials who visited the village from time to time. Expenses for community welfare activities such as tiding over natural calamities were also met from these funds. The funds were also deployed in construction of a bund or digging a canal which peasants usually could not afford to do on their own.
(iii) Regarding caste boundaries: One of the important functions of the panchayat was to ensure that caste boundaries among the various communities inhabiting the village were upheld. In eastern India all marriages were held in the presence of the Mandal. The duty of the village headman was to observe the conduct of the members of village community so as to prevent any offence against their caste.
(iv) Authority to levy fines: The Panchayats had the authority to levy fines and inflict more serious for punishment like expulsion from the community, these meant that the person was forced to leave the village and become an out caste and he lost the right to practise his profession. Such a measure was taken as a violation of caste norms.
Mughal chronicles present the empire during Akbar as comprising many different ethnic and religious communities - Hindus, Jainas, Zoroastrians and Muslims.
1. As the source of all peace and stability the emperor stood above all religious and ethnic groups, mediated among them, and ensured that justice and peace prevailed.
2. Abul FazI describes the ideal of Sulh-i-Kul as the cornerstone of enlightened rule.
3. In Sulh-i-Kul all religions and schools of thought had freedom of expression but on condition that they did not undermine the authority of the state or fight among themselves.
4. The nobility under the Mughals was a composite one comprising Iranis, Turanis, Afghans, Rajputs, Deccanis all of whom were given positions and awards purely on the basis of their service and loyalty to the king. Akbar abolished the tax on pilgrimage in 1563 and Jizya in 1564 as the two were based on religious discrimination.
Ques 13: 'In the history of nationalism Gandhiji is often identified with the making of a nation.' Describe his role in the freedom struggle of India.
Describe the harrowing experiences of ordinary people during the period of partition of India.
Ans: The period 1915-48 saw the emergence of Gandhi and his activities as a nationalist leader. Gandhi transformed the national movement by making it into a mass struggle. Under his leadership the freedom struggle acquired a multi- class umbrella character.
By taking up the cause of peasants at Champaran and Kheda, textile workers at Ahmedabad, and later launching of the Khilafat Non-cooperation Movement (1920), Civil Disobedience Movement (1930) and Quit India Movement (1942) Gandhi transformed the national movement. The national movement was no longer a movement limited to professionals and intellectuals but a movement representative of Indian people as a whole. Peasants, workers, artisans, tribals, women and students played an active role. The Non-cooperation Movement was the hallmark of Hindu-Muslim unity.
Gandhian ideology played a key role in transformation. Satyagraha based on the concepts of truth, non-violence and passive resistance formed the basis of mass mobilization and mass participation. The non-violent national struggle was based on the courage, strength self-confidence and self - sacrificing spirit of the masses. It enabled participation of mass people who could not have participated in a violent struggle example women. It was based on moral force and posed the best challenge to the mighty British rule, while defining Gandhian principle of means and ends.
The national struggle had a clear pragmatic dimension. It involved politics of press and compromise based on the strategy of struggle, truce, struggle. It had two facets. The-was based on the strength of the masses. The 2nd facet was withdrawal marked by extensive constructive work at the grass-root level.
Examples: Non-cooperation Movement and Civil Disobedience Movement. Satyagraha involved peaceful violation of laws, courting arrest, marches, combined with readiness for negotiation and compromise. It represented a breakthrough for a freedom struggle which had previously oscillated between moderate techniques of prayer and petition and individual terrorism of the revolutionary terrorists. The national movement under Gandhi not only drew masses but also kept masses under strict control.
A significant parallel development of the national movement under Gandhi was Gandhian constructive programme which focused on community unity, removal of untouchability, peasant uplift, economic and social uplift, promotion of self-reliance through use of charkha to spin khadi and village industries.
Moreover, the personal charisma and peasant appeal of Gandhi, played a significant role in transforming the national movement into a mass movement. The simple attire, (dhoti, speaking Hindustani, spinning charkha, all ensured Gandhi did not stand apart from ordinary folk. For the poor Gandhi was Mahatma, a saviour who would restore dignity, honour autonomy to their lives.
Thus Gandhi's coming transformed the national movement into a non-violent struggle. However, it is important to understand that India's freedom movement was historical process not an event led by a single individual.
Buried under the debris of the violence and pain of partition is the harrowing experience for ordinary people. Scholars have written about the experience of ordinary people mainly women in those violent times as follows:
(i) Resulted in forced transfer of an estimated 18 to 19 million people between the two countries. Thus people of both sides displaced from their ancestral homes.
(ii) The ensuring religious animosity and communal strife resulted in the deaths of some two million Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs of both countries.
(iii) Many Muslim families of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh forced to migrate to Pakistan.
(iv) At the time of partition mainly women suffered worse than death.
(v) Women were raped, abducted, sold often many times over.
(vi) They were forced to settle down to a new life with strangers in unknown circumstances.
(vii) Traumatised when some began to develop new family bonds in their changed circumstances they were torn away from their new bonding.
(viii) Governments both Indian and Pakistani were insensitive to the feelings of women and complexities of human relationships. Believing them to be on die wrong side of the border, women were torn away from their new relatives.
According to one estimate 30,000 women were recovered overall, 22,000 Muslim women in India and 8000, Hindu and Sikh women in Pakistan in an operation that ended as late as 1954.
(ix) Dishonouring women of a community was seen as dishonouring the community itself and as a mode of revenge. For virility- it was believed lay in the ability to protect your possession - zan (women) and zamin (land).
(x) Many women were killed under the notion of saving honour of women.
(xi) Women were not allowed to voice their opinion.
(xii) Fear that their women would be violated, drove many to force their women to commit suicide.
Ques 14: Read the following extracts carefully and answer the questions that follows:
In praise of Samudragupta
This is an excerpt from the Prayaga Prashasd:
He was without an antagonist on earth; he, by the overflowing of the multitude of (his) many good qualities adorned by hundreds of good actions, has wiped off the fame of other kings with the soles of (his) feet; (he is) Purusha (the Supreme Being), being the cause of the prosperity of the good and the destruction of the bad (he is) incomprehensible (he is) one whose tender heart can be captured only by devotion and humility (he is) possessed of compassion; (he is) the giver of many hundred-thousands of cows; (his) mind has received ceremonial initiation for the uplift of the miserable,. the poor, the forlorn and the suffering; (he is) resplendent and embodied kindness to mankind;, (he is) equal to (the-gods) Kubera (the god of wealth), Varuna (the god of the ocean), Indra. (the god of rains) and Yama (the god of death)...
(i) Who wrote the above Prashasti? State the importance of Prashasti.
(ii) Mention any three qualities of the ruler described in the excerpt.
(iii) How far are these values, shown by the rulers, relevant in the contemporary society?
Why kinfolk quarreled
This is an excerpt from the Adi Parvan (literally, the first section) of the Sanskrit Mahabharata, describing why conflicts arose amongst the Kauravas and Pandavas: The Kauravas were the ... sons of Dhritarashtra, and the Pandavas... were their cousins. Since Dhritarashtra was blind, his younger brother Pandu ascended the throne of Hastinapura, ... However, after the premature death of Pandu, Dhritarashtra became king, as the royal princes were still very young.
As the princes grew up together, the citizens of Hastinapura began to express their preference for the Pandavas, for they were more capable and virtuous than the Kauravas. This made Duryodhana, the eldest of the Kauravas, jealous. He approached his father and said? You yourself did not receive the throne, although, it fell to you because of your defect.
If the Pandava receives the patrimony from Pandu, his son will surely inherit it in turn, and so will his son, and his. We ourselves with our sons shall be excluded from the royal succession and become of slight regard in the eyes of the world, lord of the earth?
(i) Explain about the worries of Duryodhana. That he expressed to his father.
(ii) Mention the criteria for becoming king as suggested in the excerpt.
(iii) Why did the citizens of Hastinapur express their preference for the Pandavas?
Ans: (i) The Prayaga Prashasti (also known as the Allahabad Pillar Inscription) was composed in Sanskrit by Harishena.
This Prashasti said that Samudragupta was without an antagonist on earth, and was adorned by hundreds of good actions.
(ii) (a) The ruler should be powerful with plethora, of good qualities.
(b) The ruler should bring prosperity.
(c) The ruler should have compassion, and should try for the uplift of the miserable, the poor and the forlorn.
(iii) (a) The values shown in the above mentioned passage are relevant in the contemporary society to a great extent. The rulers ought to have positive attitude for the welfare of his countrymen.
(b) He should try incessantly to bring prosperity and equality in all walks of life.
(i) Duryodhana was worried that people of Hastinapur were showing preference for Pandavas as rightful kings. Pie was concerned that in such case, sons of Pandvas and then their sons will inherit the throne of Hastinapur and the Kauravas will be forgotten by the world and there will be less respect for them.
(ii) The excerpt suggested that the criteria for becoming the king was mostly hereditary and patrilineal that is, the son would inherit the throne from his father and then his son would inherit from him and so on.
(iii) People of Hastinapur expressed preference for Pandavas because Pandavas were deemed to be more capable and virtuous than Kauravas by the people. Also, people thought Pandavas were rightful heir of the throne after Pandu's death.
Ques 15: Here is an excerpt from Ibn Battuta's account of Delhi, often spelt as Delhi in texts of the period:
The city of Delhi covers a wide area and has a large population ... The rampart round the city is without parallel. The breadth of its wall is eleven cubits; and inside it are houses for the night sentry and gatekeepers. Inside the ramparts, there are store-houses for storing edibles, magazines, ammunition, ballista's and siege machines.
The grains that are stored (in these ramparts) can last for a long time, without rotting ... In the interior of the rampart, horseman as well as infantrymen move from one end of the city to another. The rampart is pierced through by windows which open on the side of the city, and it is through these windows that light enters inside.
The lower part of bricks. It has many towers close to one another. There are twenty eight gates in this city which are called darwaza, and of these, the Budaun darwaza is the greatest; inside the Mandwi darwaza there is a grain market; adjacent to the Gul darwaza there is an orchard ... It (the city of Delhi) has a fine cemetery in which graves have domes over them, and those that do not have a dome, have an arch, for sure. In the cemetery they sow flowers such as tuberose, jasmine, wild rose, etc.; and flowers blossom there in all seasons.
(i) Why has Ibn Battuta described Delhi as a vast city?
(ii) Mention the measures taken to protect Delhi from the invasion during 14th century.(iii) Why was Ibn Battuta impressed with the architectural features of the city? Explain.
King and Traders
Krishnadeva Raya (ruled 1509-29), the most famous ruler of Vijayanagara, composed a work on statecraft in Telugu known as the Amuktamalyada. About traders he wrote: A king should improve the harbours of his country and so encourage its commerce that horses, elephants, precious gems, sandalwood, pearls and other articles are freely imported ... He should arrange that the foreign sailors who land in his country on account of storms, illness and exhaustion are looked after in a suitable manner. ... Make the merchants of distant foreign countries who import elephants and good horses be attached to yourself by providing them with daily audience, presents and allowing decent profits. Then those articles will never go to your enemies.
(i) Explain the responsibilities of king mentioned by Krishnadeva Raya.
(ii) In what ways had Krishnadeva Raya protected articles from going to his enemies?
(iii) Explain the measures taken by the king to improve the conditions of his country.
Ans: (i) Ibn Battuta has described Delhi as vast city because of its area and population. There wee 28 gates around the city rampart and there are innumerable granaries to store grains etc. The rampart is wide and even infantry can walk on these ramparts. The city is spacious and infantry walks form one end to another. There are markets in the city. Therefore he sees that the city of Delhi is a vast city.
(ii) During the 14th century Delhi faced threat from western sides such as Afghanistan, Persia etc. Therefore vast ramparts were built around the city with strong gates. The wall was made of stones at the bottom so that it is strong. Also there was use of efficient postal system which facilitated the Sultan to get timely information from the spies.
(iii) IbnBattuta was impressed by the architectural grandeur of Delhi. He had travelled extensively but nowhere did he find such architectural features such as domes and arches on cemetry. The gates of wall were huge and string such as Buland Darwaza. The warehouses for storing the grains were made with such techniques so that there is enough air to keep them fresn yet moisture could not enter these and thus grains were stored for long without rotting. Thus he was astonished by the rich architecture of Delhi.
(i) (a) A king should improve the harbours of his country.
(b) He should encourage commerce and horses elephants, precious gems, sandalwood, pearls and other articles should also be freely imported.
(c) He should also arrange that the foreign sailors who had to land in his country on account of storms, illness and exhaustion were looked after in a proper manner.
(ii) (a) He made the merchants of distant foreign countries who imported elephants and good horses be attached by providing them with daily audience.
(b) He gave precious presents to the merchants and made extensive arrangements so that they could get decent profits.
(iii) (a) The king should protect borders from his enemies.
(b) He should take all necessary steps to improve economic condition of his countrymen.
Ques 16: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
A News Paper Report
The following report, tided 'The ryot and the moneylender', appeared in the Native Opinion (6 June, 1876), and was quoted in Report of the Native Newspapers of Bombay:
They (the ryots) first place spies on the boundaries of their villages to see if any Government officers come, and to give timely intimation of their arrival to the offenders.
They then assemble in a body and go to the houses of their creditors, and demand from them a surrender of their bonds and other documents, and threaten them in case of refusal with assault and plunder. If any Government officer happens to approach the villages where the above is taking place, the spies give intimation to the offenders and the latter disperse in time.
(i) Describe how ryots took control over the moneylenders?
(ii) Explain the measures taken by the ryots to save themselves.
(iii) Explain why ryots resorted to robbing the moneylenders.
'We are not just going to copy'
We say that it is our firm and solemn resolve to have an independent sovereign republic. India is bound to be sovereign, it is bound to be independent and it is bound to be a republic ... Now, some friends have raised the question: 'Why have you not put in the word 'democratic' here' Well, I told them that it is conceivable, of course, that a republic may not be democratic but the whole of our past is witness to this fact that we stand for democratic institutions.
Obviously we are aiming at democracy and nothing less than a democracy. What form of democracy, what shape it might take is another matter. The democracies of the present day, many of them in Europe and elsewhere, have played a great part in the world's progress. Yet it may be doubtful if those democracies may not have to change their, shape somewhat before long if they have to remain completely democratic.
We are not going just to copy, I hope, a certain democratic procedure or an institution of a so-called democratic country. We may improve upon it. In any event whatever system of government we may establish here must fit in with the temper of our people and be acceptable to them. We stand for democracy. It will be for this House to determine what shape to give to that democracy, the fullest democracy, I hope.
The House will notice that in this Resolution, although we have not used the word "democratic" because we thought it.is obvious that the word "republic" contains that word and we did not want to use unnecessary words and redundant words, but we have done something much more than using the word.
We have given the content of democracy in this Resolution and not only the content of democracy but the content, if, I may say so, of economic democracy in this Resolution. Others might take objection to this Resolution on the ground that we have not said that it should be a Socialist State. Well, I stand for Socialism and, I hope, India will stand for Socialism and that India will go towards the Constitution of a Socialist State and I do believe that the whole world will have to go that way.
- Constituent Assembly Debates (Cad), Vol. I
(i) Explain why Nehru diet not mention, the word democratic in the resolution.
(ii) Mention the three basic features of the Constitution given in the above passage.
(iii) On what kind of socialism did Nehru give stress to?
Ans: (i) The ryots used to take control over moneylenders by their numerical strength. Since ryots were large in number and demand the moneylenders to surrender the bonds and threatened them of assault and plunder.
(ii) The ryots had their spies deputed at the outskirts of village who would inform the ryots of arrival of any British officials.
In case the officials were to approach the place where the agitation against moneylenders was taking place, the spies would inform them mime hand and the ryots disperse before the coming of officials.
(iii) Ryots resorted to robbing the moneylenders because ryots were under extreme pressure of paying the rents even though the prices of cotton was very low. The ryots could hardly manage and they used to borrow from moneylenders but now seeing the incapai city of ryots to pay back, moneylenders refused to lend them. And even if they lent, the moneylenders charged high interest rates and indulged in fraudulent practices.
(i) Nehruji made it clear, the whole of our past is witness to this fact that we stand for democratic institutions. Obviously, we are aiming at democracy and nothing less than democracy.
(ii) (a) The Constitution should have democratic principles.
(b) It should be written and unambiguous.
(c) The Constitution should give equal rights to all the citizens without any discrimination.
(iii) (a) Nehruji was an ardent supporter of democratic socialism.
(b) He wanted economic democracy.
(c) He opined that India would go towards the Constitution of a socialist India.
Ques 17: (i) On the political outline map of India, locate and label the following:
(a) Dholavira (b) Lumbini
(ii) On the same outline map of India three places related to the Indian National Movement have been marked as 1, 2 and 3. Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them.
Ans: (i) In the above outline map of India Dholavira and Lumbini are located as a & b and label.
(ii) (1) Amritsar