Ques 1: How did Magadha become the most powerful mahajanpada between sixth to fourth century BCE? Give two reasons.
Ans: (i) Magadha was a region where agriculture was especially productive.
(ii) Iron mines were accessible and provided resources for tools and weapons.
Ques 2: Who were Alvars and Nayanars? Mention the support they got from the Chola rulers.
Ans: Alvars and Nayanars led the Bhakti movement in Tamil Nadu. Alvars were devotede to Bhakti of Lord Vishnu while Nayanars were devoted to bhakti of Lord Shiva. Chloa kings built temples devoted to Lord Shiv and Lord Vishnu which recreated the visions of these saints. E.g: Gangaikonda Cholapuram.
Ques 3: How did changes occur in the building pattern of colonial cities after the revolt of 1857? Cite any two examples.
Ans: (i) The British felt that cities needed to be better defended and white people had to live in more secure and segregated enclaves.
(ii) To ward off the threat of the natives pasture lands and agricultural fields around the older towns were cleared, and new urban spaces known as Civil Lines were set up.
Ques 4: 'The drainage system in Harappan civilization indicates town planning.' Support the statement with examples.
Ans: The drainage system in Harappan cities indicates town planning because:
(i) The roads and streets were laid out along an approximate grid pattern.
(ii) The streets and drains were laid out first and then houses were built along them. All domestic waste water had to flow into the streets, every house needed to have at least one wall along the street.
(iii) Every home was connected to street drains. The main channels were made of bricks set in mortar and were covered with bricks that could be removed for cleaning.
(iv) House drains first emptied into a sump or cesspit into which solid matter settled, while waste water flowed into street drains.
(v) Very long drainage channels were provided at intervals with sumps for cleaning. It is important to note that drains were found in smaller settlements too, such as Lethal.
Ques 5: Describe the factors that led to the growth of Puranic Hinduism in India during 6th century BCE.
Ans: The growth of Puranic Hinduism in India is mainly connected with prevalent stories and the idea of salvation that growing along with Buddhism. There were two Puranic Hindu sects, one Vaishanav, who were devoted to bhakti of Lord Vishnu and other Shaiva, who were devoted to bhakti of Lord Shiva.
In case of Vaishnavism, cults developed around stories and avatars of Lord Vishnu. Purans talk of ten avatars of Lord Vishnu, 10th yet to come, who will come as savior of people to destruct evil.
At the same time there was growth of temple architecture and many temples were built in this period. This reinforced the versions and visions of Puranic Hinduism, thus giving it long lasting and tangible form.
Ques 6: Mention any two features of gotra as per the Brahminical practice. What evidences do we get from the Satavahanas inscriptions regarding the inheritance of gotra? Explain.
Ans: (i) Every gotra was named after a Vedic seer. AU those who belonged to the same gotra were considered as his descendants.
(ii) Women were expected to give up their fathers gotra and adopt that of their husband on marriage and members of the same gotra could not marry.
(iii) Many inscriptions of the Satavahanas have been recovered, which allow historians to trace family bonds.
(iv) Some of the women who married Satavahana rulers had names of their fathers gotras that is Gotama and Vasistha. They retained these names instead of adopting names derived from their husband's gotra.
Ques 7: 'Vijayanagara was characterized by a distinctive building style.' Support this statement with the sacred architectural examples of Vijayanagara.
Ans: Virupaksha Temple: The temple was built over centuries may be to the ninth-tenth centuries as suggested in the inscriptions. It was substantially enlarged with the establishment of the Vijayanagara. It is dedicated to Lord Virupaksha, the gaurdian diety of the Kingdom. It was recognised as a form of Shiva. The Vijayanagara kings claimed to rule on behalf of the god Virupaksha. The hall in front of the main shrine was built by Krishnadeva Raya to mark his accession. This was decorated with delicately carved pillars. He is also credited with the construction of the eastern gopuram. The additions meant that the central shrine came to occupy a relatively small part of the complex.
The halls in the temple were used for a variety of purposes. In some places the images of gods were placed to witness special programmes of music, dance drama, etc. Others were used to celebrate the marriages of deities, and some other were meant for the deities of swing in Special images, distinct from those kept in the small dentral shrine, were used on these occassions.
Vittala Temple: It was one of the other important shrines. The principal deity was Vittala, a form of Vishnu generally worshipped in Maharashtra. Another indication of the ways in which the rulers of Vijayanagara drew on different traditions to create an imperial culture was the introduction of the worship of the deity in Karnataka.
This temple too has several halls and a unique shrine designed as chariot. A characteristic feature of the temple complexes is the chariot streets that extended from the temple gopuram in a straight line. These streets were paved with stone slabs and lined with pillared pavilions in which merchants set up their shops.
Ques 8: How were the subsistence and commercial production closely intertwined in an average peasant's holding during the Mughal period in 16th and 17th centuries? Explain.
Ans: (i) Agriculture in medieval India was not only for subsistence, we find the term Jins-i-kamil (perfect crops) in our sources.
(ii) The Mughal state also boosted peasants to cultivate such crops as they generated more revenue. Example: Cotton, sugarcane etc.
(iii) Cotton was grown over a Vast Swathe of territory spread over Central India and the Deccan Plateau and Bengal was famous for its sugar. These cash crops would include oil seeds and lentils also.
(iv) During the 17th century many new crops from different parts of the world reached the Indian subcontinent. For example, maize (makka) came from Africa and Spain. Vegetables and fruits like potatoes, tomatoes, chilies and pineapple and papaya were introduced from the new world. It clearly shows that subsistence and commercial production were closely intertwined in an average peasant's holding.
Ques 9: Critically examine the experiences of the ryots on the refusal of moneylenders to extend loans to them after 1830.
Ans: (i) In the 1920s, the first revenue settlement in the Bombay Deccan was made. The revenue that was demanded was so high that in many places peasants deserted their villages and migrated to new places.
(ii) In the areas of poor soil and fluctuating rainfall the problem became critical, when rains failed and harvests were poor. The peasants found it impossible to pay the revenue. By the 1830 the problem became very acute. The prices of agricultural produces touched a new low after 1832. This meant a furter decline in peasants income.
The ryots failed to pay the revenue and borrowed a loan from a moneylender. But once a loan was taken, the ryot could not pay it back.
Consequently, the debt mounted and loans remained repaid. Peasants dependence on moneylenders became greater. The overall economic situation became so worse that they required loans even to buy their everyday needs.
Ques 10: 'The relationship of the sepoys with the superior white officers underwent a significant change in the years preceding the uprising of 1857.' Support the statement with examples.
Ans: (i) Certainly, the relationship of the sepoys with their superior white officers underwent a significant change in the years preceding the uprising of 1857.
(ii) White officers made it a point in 1920s to keep cordial relations with the sepoys. They would participate in their leisure activities, they wrestled with them, fenced with them and went out hawking with them.
(iii) Many of white orricers could speak and understand Hindustani language fluently. They were also familiar with the customs and culture of the country.
(iv) In the 1840s, this fabric of friendly relationship began to change. The white officers developed a sense of superiority and began treating the sepoys as their racial inferiors, riding roughshod over their sensibilities. Then abuse and physical violence became common and thus the distance between sepoys and officers grew.
Trust was replaced by doubt. The episode of the greased carnages was a classic example of this increasing suspicion.
Ques 11: (i) 'The rebel proclamation of 1857 emphasized the values of coexistence amongst different communities under Mughal Empire.' Explain.
(ii) Suggest two ways to bring peaceful coexistence and fraternity in the contemporary Indian society.
Ans: (i) The proclamation that was issued under the name of Bahadur Shah appealed to the people to join the fight under the standards of both Muhammad and Mahavir. It was remarkable that during the uprising religious divisions between Hindus and Muslim were hardly noticeable despite British attempts to create such divisions.
In Bareilly in western Uttar Pradesh, in December 1857, the British spent Rs 50,000 to incite the Hindu population against the Muslims but the attempt failed.
Thus we can say that there were accepted and prevalent values of coexistence in Mughal period.
(ii) We can adopt the following two strategies to bring about peaceful coexistence and fraternity in the contemporary Indian society:
1. Teaching tolerance of diversity in our Indian culture with respect to religion, culture, language etc. from the very start of school education.
2. Political will to do away with casteism as a means to mobilize people.
Ques 12: Explain the role of zamindars in Mughal India during 16th 17th century.
Explain the chief characteristics of provincial administration of the Mughal Empire. Why has Mughal nobility been considered as an important pillar of the Mughal state? Explain.
Ans: 1. The Zamindars in the Mughal period were the class of those people who lived off agriculture but did not take part directly in me processes of agricultural production. The Zamindars were landed proprietors who had some social and economic privileges due to their superior status in rural society.
2. The factor of caste hierarchy was also responsible for the higher status of Zamindars. They also per- formed certain services (Khidmat) for the state.
3. The Zamindars had extensive personal lands termed milkiyat. This milkiyat land was cultivated for the personal use of the Zamindars, generally with the help of hired labour.
4. The Zamindars were at liberty to sell, mortgage these lands as and when they desire. They could often collect revenue on behalf of the state. For this service they were compensated financially by the state.
5. The other source of Zamindars power was their control over military sources. Most of
them had fortresses. They also had armed contingent comprising units of infantry, cavalry and artillery.
6. If we think of social relations in the Mughal countryside as n pyramid, zamindars make its yen narrow apex. In this context Abul Fazi's account tells us an Upper caste Brahmana-Rajput combine had already made solid control over rural society. This account also gives a fairly good representation from intermediate castes along with a liberal sprinkling of Muslim Zamindars.
7. The popular way of expanding the Zamindars system was to disposes the weaker people by a powerful military chieftain. In northern India the Rajputs and the Jats followed the strategies to firm up their control over extensive swathes of territory.
8. The Zamindars led the colonisation of agricultural land and assisted in settling cultivators by giving them the means of cultivation, including cash loans.
Undoubtedly, Zamindars were an exploitative class. However, their relationship with the pleasantry had a touch of reciprocity, paternalism and patronage. That is why, Zamindars often, got the support of the peasantry in their conflict against the state.
The chief charecterstics of Provincial administration are as follows:
1. The head of the provincial administration was the governor (subadar) who reported directly to the emperor.
2. Subas were divided in sarkars and the)" often overlapped with the jurisdiction of faujdars who were deployed with contingents of heavy cavalry and. musketeers in districts.
3. The local administration was looked after at the level of the pargana by three semi-hereditary officers, the qanungo, the chaudhuri and the qazi.
4. Each department of administration maintained a large support staff of clerks, accountants, auditors, messengers, and other functionaries who were technically qualified officials, functioning in accordance with standardized rules and procedures, and generating copious written orders and records.
5. Persian was made the language of administration throughout, but local languages were used for village accounts.
In order to organize his military personnel, Akbar devised a system of ranks, or mansabs, based on the "decimal system of army organization used by the early Delhi sultans and the Mongols. Although they fell under the jurisdiction of the rnirbakhshi, each owed direct subordination to the emperor.
The nobles participated in military campaigns with their armies and also served as officers of the empire in the provinces. Each military commander recruited, equipped and trained the main striking arm of the Mughal army, the cavalry. The troopers maintained superior horses branded on the flank by the imperial mark.
The emperor personally reviewed changes in rank, titles and official postings for all except the lowest-ranked officers. Akbar, who designed the mansab system, also established spiritual relationships with a select band of his nobility by treating them as his disciples.
Thus under Akbar, for members of the nobility, imperial service was a way of acquiring power, wealth and the highest possible reputation.
Ques 13: Describe the different sources from which we can reconstruct the political career of Gandhiji and the history of the nationalist movement.
Describe the strengths and weaknesses of oral history. Mention any four sources from which the history of partition has been constructed.
Ans: (i) We have many resources to reconstruct the political career of Mahatma Gandhi and the history of National Movement of India. These are personal writings, autobiographies, official records, etc. The writings of Mahatma Gandhi and his contemporaries play an important role in understanding the view of Mahatma Gandhi. In this magazine The Harijan, Gandhiji published those letters that others wrote to him. The autobiography of Mahatma Gandhi. The Experiment with Truth7, similarly gives us of information about Gandhiji and freedom movement.
Autobiographies are based on memories and whatever the author writes largely depends on his memory. From the fortnightly report of police we also get invaluable information about the national movement and Gandhiji. These reports were written on the basis of the information received from the local people. According to the report at the time of the Salt Satyagrah it is clear that Home Department was not willing to accept that Mahatma Gandhi was receiving large support of people. In the report, the Salt March was being painted as a drama of hopeless people.
(ii) Another vital source is newspapers published in English language and in other Indian languages which also provide valuable information about Gandhiji and the national movement. Newspapers monitored the movement of Gandhiji, News related to Gandhiji were published in these newspapers. They also helped in understanding the view of the people regarding Gandhiji. It would be justified to say that these information received from the different sources are read unbiased, they may be important source of information about Mahatma Gandhi and National Movement of India.
Strengths of oral history:
(i) Oral history helps us grasp experiences and memories in detail. It also enables historians to write richly textured, vivid accounts of what happened to people during partition.
(ii) It is impossible to get this kind of information from government documents.
(iii) Oral history also allows historians to broaden the boundaries of their discipline by rescuing from oblivion the lived experiences of the poor and the powerless.
Weaknesses of oral history:
(i) Oral data seem to lack concremess and the chronology they yield may be imprecise. Historians argue that the uniqueness of personal experience makes generalization difficult, a large picture cannot be built from such micro evidence and one witness is not witness.
(ii) Oral accounts are concerned with tangential issues.
(iii) The small individual experiences which remain in memory are irrelevant to the unfolding of larger processes of history.
Following are the four sources from which the history of partition has been constructed:
(i) Diaries: It helps us grasp experiences and memories in detail. It enables historians to write richly textured, vivid accounts of what happened to people during Partition. It is not possible to extract this kind of information from government documents. The latter deals with the policy and party matters and various state sponsored schemes. In case of partition, government reports and files as well as the personal writings of high level functionaries throw ample light on negotiations between the British and the major political parties about the future of India or rehabilitation of refugees.
(ii) Memories and experiences: Millions of people viewed partition in terms of the suffering and challenges of the times. For them it was no mere constitutional divisions or just the party politics of the Muslim league, Congress and others. For them it meant the unexpected alterations in life as it unfolded between 1946 and 1950 and beyond requiring psychological, emotional and social adjustments. Memories and experiences shape the reality of an event.
(iii) Oral narration: Oral history allows historians to broaden the boundaries of their discipline by rescuing from obligion, the lived experiences of the poor and the powerless. The oral history of partition has succeeded in exploring the experiences of those men and women whose experience has hitherto been ignored, taken for granted or mentioned only in passion in mainstream history.
(iv) Family histories: The accounts of family histories tell us about the agonies faced by the members of the families, their sufferings and trauma during the partition.
First hand written accounts are also important sources to understand the experience of those who lived through those traumatic times.
Ques 14: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The Sudarshana (beautiful) Lake in Gujarat
The Sudarshana lake was an artificial reservoir. We know about it from a rock inscription (c. second century CE) in Sanskrit, composed to record the achievements of the Shaka ruler Rudradaman.
The inscription mentions that the lake, with embankments and water channels, was built by a local governor during the rule of the Mauryas. However- a terrible storm broke the embankments and water pushed out of the lake. Rudradaman, who was men ruling in the area, claimed to have got the lake repaired using his own resources, without imposing any tax on his subjects.
Another inscription on the same rock (c. fifth century) mentions how one of the rulers of the Gupta dynasty got the lake repaired once again.
(i) Mention about the irrigation system of the Mauryan Empire.
(ii) Explain about the achievements of Rudradaman during the 2nd century CE.
(iii) Mention the values demonstrated by Rudradaman that can be seen from the passage.
Draupadi is supposed to have asked Yudhisthira whether he had lost himself before staking her. Two contrary opinions were expressed in response to this question.
One, that even if Yudhisthira had lost himself earlier, his wife remained under this control, so he could stake her. Two that an unfree man (as Yudhisthira was when he had lost himself) could not stake another person.
The matter remained unresolved: ultimately, Dhritarashtra restored to the Pandavas and Draupadi their personal freedom.
(i) How has Draupad's status as a wife been shown in the passage?
(ii) Explain the two contrary opinions expressed.
(iii) Was the challenge given to Yudhisthira by Draupadi justified? Support your answer with two reasons.
Ans: (i) (a) Irrigation was done through wells and tanks.
(b) Canals were also used for irrigation.
(ii) (a) A terrible storm broke the embankments and water gushed out of the lake,
(b) Rudradaman claimed to have got the lake repaired.
(iii) (a) Rudradaman adopted positive attitude towards his subjects. It is a good example of public welfare.
(b) He got the lake repaired using his own resources without imposing any tax.
(i) Draupadi's status as wife has been depicted as that was prevalent in that period whereby the wife was considered under the control of husband. But at the same time, Draupadi is depicted as a bold lady who has power of reason and she was given a lot of respect by her husbands.
(ii) The first view is that even though Yuddhisthira lost himself to Duryodhan, he could stake Drapaudi, his wife, as wife is considered under the control of her husband and his property.
Second opinion was contrary to first one that if Yuddisthira had lost his freedom then he was not free anymore and he could not stake another person.
(iii) Yes the challenge given by Draupadi was justified because.
1. She wanted to know if Yuddhisthira had staked her as a freeman or as a loser of himself.
2. She had a lot of self - respect and thus was trying to question the very essence of husband - wife and men - woman relationship as controller - slave relation.
Ques 15: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The Child Sati
This is perhaps one or me most poignant description by Bernier.
At Lahore I saw a most beautiful young widow sacrificed who could not, I think have been more than twelve years of age. The poor little creature appeared more dead than alive when she approached the dreadful pit: the agony of her mind cannot be described; she trembled and wept bitterly; but three or tour of the Brahmanas, assisted by an old woman who held her under the arm, forced the unwilling victim towards the fatal spot, seated her on the wood, tied her hands and feet, lest she should run away, and in that situation the innocent creature was burnt alive. I found it difficult to repress my feelings and to prevent their bursting forth into clamorous and unavailing rage........
(i) How has Bernier described the 'practice of sati'
(ii) Describe the feelings of Bernier that he has expressed in the passage.
(iii) Explain how Bernier has highlighted the treatment of women as a crucial marker of difference between Western and Eastern societies.
Born in 1754, Colin Mackenize became famous as an engineer, surveyor and cartographers. In 1815 he was appointed the first Surveyor General of India, a post he held till his death in 1821. He embarked on collecting local histories and surveying historic sites in order to better understand India?s past and make governance of the coolly easier. He says that "it struggled long under the miseries of bad management...before the South came under the benign influence of the British government? By studying Vijayanagara, Mackenzie believed that the East India Company could gain ?much useful information on many of these institutions, laws and customs whose influence still prevails among the various Tribes of Natives forming the general mass of the population to this day?
(i) Who was the first Surveyor General of India? What was his mission in India?
(ii) What was the purpose behind Colin Mackenzie studying the Vijayanagara Empire?
(iii) Explain how Mackenzie has described the British government as a benign influence on the Vijayanagara Empire.
Ans: (i) (a) A beautiful young widow, not more than 12 years of age, was being sacrificed
(b) The poor little creature appeared more dead than alive when she approached the dreadful pit.
(c) The young widow was trembling and weeping bitterly and was being held by 3 or 4 Brahmanas assisted by an old woman. They forced her towards the fatal spot and made her seated on the wood. Her hands and feet were tied. She was burnt alive in the horrible situations.
(ii) (a) It was a terrible scene that moved Bernier?s feelings.
(b) It was an inhuman system in which as innocent young widow was being burnt alive.
(c) Bernier found it difficult to repress his feelings.
(iii) In the western societies sad system is not found. However, this system was in vogue in the eastern societies till 20th century.
(i) Colin Machenzie was first Surveyor general of India from 1815 to 1821.
His mission was to study the past of India so as to know better the country which would make it easier to govern. He studied various archeological sites and histories.
(ii) Colin Mackenzie studied Vijayanagara empire because it was a great empire during 1500s in southern India and thus wanted to learn about the customs and norms of the south Indian society by studying the history of this great empire, which he believed still existed among the native tribes. He believed that this would help the East India Company in better governance and prolonging its colonial rule.
(iii) He said that after the fall of Vijayanagara empire, south India was under bad management under various rulers and thus people of Vijayanagara empire suffered. He said that now since British were ruling this area, he was hopeful of better management and thus better political stability and life for native people.
Ques 16: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The Jotedars of Dinajpur
Buchanan described the ways in which the Jotedars of Dinajpur in North Bengal resisted being disciplined by the zamindar and undermined his power:
Landlords do not like this class of men, but it is evident that they are absolutely necessary, unless the landlords themselves would advance money to their necessitous tenantry....
The Jotedars who cultivate large portions of lands are very refractory, and know that the zamindars have no power over them. They pay only a few rupees on account of their revenue and then fall in balance almost every kist (instalment), they hold more lands than they are entitled to by their pottahs (deeds of contract). Should the zamindars officers, in consequence, summon them to the cutcherry, and detain them for one or two hours with a view to reprimand them, they immediately go and complain at the Fouzdarry Thanna (police station) for imprisonment and at the munsiff's (a judicial officer at the lower court) cutcherry for being dishonoured and whilst the causes continue unsettled, they instigate the petty ryots not to pay their revenue consequently.....
(i) Mention the various ways in which the Jotedars of Dinajpur resisted the authority of zamindars.
(ii) Describe the ways in which the Jotedars undermine the power of zamindars.
(iii) Mention how the zamindars reprimanded the defiant Jotedars.
"The British element is gone, but they have left the mischief behind".
Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel said:
It is no use saying that we ask for separate electorates, because it is good for us. We have heard it long enough. We have heard it for years, and as a result of this agitation we are now a separate nation..... Can you show me one free country where there are separate electorates? If so, I shall be prepared to accept it. But in this unfortunate country if this separate electorate is going to be persisted in; even after the division of the country, woe betide the country; it is not worth living in.
Therefore, I say, it is not for my good alone, it is for your own good that I say it, forget the past. One day, we may be united..... The British element is gone, but they have left the mischief behind. We do not want to perpetuate that mischief. (Hear, hear). When the British introduced this element they had not expected that they will have to go so soon. They wanted it for their easy administration. That is all right. But they have left the legacy behind. Are we to get out of it or not?
CAD, Vol. V
(i) Explain Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel's views on the issue of separate electorate system.
(ii) In what ways did Sardar Patel explain that 'The British element is gone, but they have left the mischief behind?
(iii) Mention the reasons behind Sardar Patel urging the assembly members to get rid of separte electorate.
Ans: (i) The Jotedars resisted the authority of Zamindars in following ways:
1. They paid only few rupees as revenue.
2. They held more land than what was given them as pattas.
3. In case of summoning, they approached police-station against officials of Zamindar.
(ii) The Jotedars undermined power of Zamindars in following ways:
1. They had money power and thus had more influence over the villagers.
2. They instigated ryots to not pay the revenue in case they have any grievance against the Zamindars.
(iii) The zamindars reprimanded them by taking them to cuchehary and detaining them for some hours.
(i)(a) Patel condemned the separate electoral system outrightly.
(b) This was an unfortunate system which was introduced by the British as they always wanted to follow the policy of divide and rule.
(ii)(a) The idea of separate was a political conspiracy.
(b) The British wanted to have a fractured country for their easy administration.
(c) Their nefarious designs forced Patel to say that, The British element is gone but they have left the mischief behind.
(iii)(a) Patel opined that there was not one free country where there was separate electorate.
(b) For the good of the country we must burry the idea of separate electorate once for all.
Ques 17: (i) On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following:
(ii) On the same outline map of India, three places related to the centres of the Revolt of 1857 have been marked as 1, 2 and 3. Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them.
(a) The place where Gandhiji called off Non-Cooperation Movement.
(b) Agra, the imperial capital of Mughal.
Ans: (i) Lothal and Bodhgaya are located and labelled on the above map.