Ques :1 Who was James Princep? Mention any one of his contributions in the development of Indian epigraphy.
Ans: James Prinsep was an officer in the mint of the East India Company. He deciphered Brahmi and Kharosthi scripts used in the earliest inscriptions and coins.
Ques 2: Mention any two features of Neo-Gothic style of architecture in Bombay.
Ans: Neo-Gothic architectural style was characterised by high-pitched roofs, pointed arches and detailed decoration. An impressive group of buildings facing the seafront including the Secretariat, University of Bombay and High Court were all built in this style.
Ques 3: Explain how did Harappans maintain contact with distant lands.
Ans: The Harappans were advanced traders and had economic contacts with various parts within Indian Sub - continent as well as Saudi-peninsula. There are evidences of ship-buildings as Lothal dockyard. They used ships to trade across seas.
For procuring raw materials they sent expeditions to areas such as the Khetri region of Rajasthan (for copper) and South India (for gold).
They used seals to maintain authenticity in the trade and thus trade flourished. They used to procure material from far flung areas such as Copper was brought from Oman.
Harappan seals, weights, dice and beads etc are found in far off places such as Mesopotamia which ascertain this type of trade.
Ques 4: 'The central story of Mahabharata reinforced the idea of kinship and succession.' Explain.
Ans: The central story of Mahabharata reinforced the idea of kinship and succession because whole of Mahabharata story runs around this common thread.
The war is the central theme of Mahabharata and the main cause of war is fight for succession among the fraternal kins. The Kauravas and Pandavas are cousins. Pandu, father of Pandavas succeeded on throne in place of Dhrtirastra as the latter was blind. Thus there was tussle among the Pandavas and Kauravas for throne.
Pandavas emphasized that their father was king and hence they are rightful heir to the throne whereas Kauravas said that the rightful king was their father and that King Pandu was only a care - taker king. Thus the whole story runs around succession. Also, the armies for war were also organized, on the kinship lines and born rook help from their extended kins.
Ques 5: Mention any two -architectural traditions that inspired the architects of Vijayanagara. How did they transform these traditions into temple architecture? Explain.
Ans: The main architectural traditions were as follows:
(i) Fortification of the empire
(ii) Large gate ways
Thus these two traditions influenced the architects of Vijayanagara and they built large gopurams for the temples. Also the temples were spacious with large mandapas in them which was inspired by the spaciousness of fortification.
Temple Architecture: The temple architecture of Vijayanagara is a rich addition to temple architecture of India. By this period certain new features were in evidence. These included structures of immense scale that must have been a mark of imperial authority, best exemplified by the ray a gopurams or royal gateways that often dwarfed the towers on the central shrines, and signalled the presence of the temple from a great distance.
Other distinctive features include mandapas or pavilions and long, pillared corridors that often ran around the shrines within the temple complex. Vijayanagara temples are usually surrounded by a strong enclosure. Small shrines consist simply of a garbhagriha and a porch.
This architecture is best exemplified in the Virupaksha temple and the Vitthala temple.
Ques 6: Why did the British not have an easy time in putting down the rebellion of 1857? Give reasons.
Ans: The British did not have easy time suppressing the rebellion because of following reasons:
(i) Sepoys turned against the British and thus army of British was reduced,
(ii) Even peasants and villagers in Awadh etc. helped the sepoys and they also participated in the revolt giving it a colour of limited mass movement.
(iii) The revolt broke-out at various places such as Awadh, Kanpur, Lucknow, Arrah, Jhansi etc,
(iv) The Zamindars and Kings of certain aggrieved kingdoms revolted against the British.
These kings used to be savior of British in earlier peasant and tribal revolts.
(v) There was a lot of Hindu-Muslim unity and British could not divide them despite many efforts.