Ques 1: Why was Mauryan Empire regarded as a major landmark in the early Indian history?
Ans: 1. The Mauryan Empire was the first Empire in the early Indian history which was based on mutual harmony and religious tolerance.
2. Many historians maintained that the messages on Ashokan inscriptions were very different from that of most other rulers.
Ques 2: Name the major anthology compiled by the Alvars which is also described as the Tamil Veda. How did various chiefdoms in the Tamil region help them in the early first millennium CE?
Ans: (1) The major anthology compiled by the Alvars was the Nalayira Divya Prabandham, it is also describe as the Tamil Veda.
(2) There were many significant chiefdoms in the Tamil region in the early first millennium CE. They got occasional royal patronage.
Ques 3: Explain how the conversion of Census data into convenient statistical data by the Britisher in India riddled with ambiguities in the late nineteenth century.
Ans: (1) The census commissioners made categories for classifying different section of the population.
(2) However, this classification was usually arbitrary and failed to hold the fluid and overlapping identities of people.
Ques 4: How have historians provided new insight into the subsistence strategies of the Harappan culture?
Ans: (1) The Harappans consumed a wide range of plant and animal products, including fish.
(2) The archaeologists have reconstructed dietary habits from finds of charred grains and seeds. These dietary practices have been extensively studied by archacobotanists.
(3) Wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea, seasame and millets have been found from various Harappan sites.
(4) Animal bones of cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig have been found. Various studies done by archaeo-zoologists indicate that all these animals were domesticated.
Ques 5: Critically examine the limitations of the inscriptional evidences in understanding political and economic history of India.
Ans: (i) Letters are very faintly engraved, and thus reconstructions are uncertain.
(ii) Inscriptions may be damaged or letters missing.
(iii) It is not always easy to be sure about the exact meaning of the words used in inscriptions.
(iv) Not all inscriptions have been deciphered.
(v) Many inscriptions have not been translated or published.
Ques 6: 'The Mahanavami Dibba in the Royal Centre of Vijayanagara has been assigned name on the basis of its form of buildings as well as functions.' Elaborate.
Ans: (i) The name comes from the shape of the platform and the Mahanavami festival which was observed here.
(ii) It had two of the most impressive platforms, the Audience Hall and the Mahanavami Dibba.
(iii) The entire complex was surrounded by high double walls with a street running between them.
(iv) The Mahanavami Dibba was a massive platform rising form a base of about 11,000 sq. ft. to a height of 40 ft.
(v) Ritals associated with the structure have conceded with Mahanavami of the ten day Hindu festival during the autumn months of September and October known variously as Dussehra, Durga Puja and Navaratri or Mahanavami.
(vi) The ceremonies performed on the occasion included worship of image, keen worship of the state horse, and the sacrifice of buffaloes.
(vii) Dance, wrestling matches, and processions of caparisoned horses, elephants and chariots and soldiers as well as ritual presentations before the king and his guests by the Chief Nayaks and subordinate kings marked the occasion.
(viii) Nayakas brought gifts and tribute for the king.
Ques 7: 'The heat of the Mughal Empire was its capital city.' Explain with examples.
Ans: (1) Undoubtedly, the heart of the Mughal Empire was its capital city, where the court assembled. During the 16th and 17th centuries the capital cities of the Mughals usually shifted e.g., Babur took over Agra by his court was frequently on the move.
(2) Akbar decided to build a new capital at Fatehpur Sikri in the 1570s. However, in 1585 the Mughal Capital was transferred to Lahore. Its main purpose was to bring the north-west under control.
(3) Shah Jahan moved the court, army and household from Agra to Shahjahanabad in 1648. Shah Jahan followed sound fiscal policies and accumulated sufficient money for building activities.
(4) Shahjahanabad was a new addition to the old residential city of Delhi. It had the Red Fort, the Jama Masjid, Chandni Chowk and spacious homes for the nobility.
Ques 8: Explain how the East India Company subdued the authority of the zamindars in Bengal during 18th century.
Ans: (1) Though the East India Company had recognized the zamindars yet it wanted to control and regulate them. The company subdued their (zamindars) authority and restricted- their autonomy.
(2) The troops of the zamindars were disbanded by the company and custom dudes were abolished. Their cutcheries (courts) were brought under the supervision of a collector appointed by the East India Company.
(3) Consequently the zamindars lost their authority to organize local Justice and the local police.
(4) Now, the collectorate emerged as an. alternative centre of power. The authority of the zamindars was severely curtailed.
Ques 9: Analyse the provisions of the Cabinet Mission of 1946.
Ans: (1) The Cabinet Mission -recommended a weak three-der confederation. However, India was to remain united.
(2) A weak central government was proposed. It could control only foreign affairs, defence and communications. The then provincial assemblies were grouped into three sections to elect the Constituent Assembly. Sections A was for the Hindu majority provinces and Sections B and C were for the Muslim majority provinces of the north-west and the north-east.
(3) In the beginning, all the major parties accepted the provisions of the Cabinet Mission. However, the agreement was short lived. It was based on mutually opposed explanations of the plan.
(4) The Muslim League wanted the grouping to be compulsory with the right to secede from the union in the future. On, the other hand, the Congress wanted that provinces be extended the right to join a group. As a result of these contradictions neither the Congress nor the League accepted the Cabinet Mission's provisions.
Ques 10: Read the following passage and answer the question that follows:
'The nationalist movement in the twentieth century drew its inspiration from the events of 1857. A whole world of nationalist imagination was woven around the Revolt. It was celebrated as the First War of Independence in which all sections of the people of India came together to fight against imperial rule.?
'The Revolt of 1857 marked first nationalist challenge to the English in India.' Explain giving examples the values imbibed and practiced by the rebels to set the beginning for it.
Ans: The Revolt of 1857 was truly secular in its action and perception. The rebels appealed time and again to all sections of population irrespective of their caste, religion and creed.
Hindus and Muslims made a bridge of mutually accepted sentiments and the same was supported by the pillars of the Hindu-Muslim unity.
The rebellion was considered as a war in which both Hindus and Muslims had equally to lose or gain.
The British tried to create cracks in the Hindu-Muslim unity, but such cracks were hardly noticeable.
Ques 11: Explain the structural and sculptural features of the Sanchi Stupa.
Ans: Structural features:
(i) The Stupas were built on the relics of Buddha and hence were considered sacred.
(ii) The stupa originated as a semi-circular mound of earth, later called Anda.
(iii) "The Stupa evolved in.ro a more complex structure, balancing round and square shapes.
(iv) A balcony like structure represented the adobe of the Gods was placed above- the Anda.
(v) Arising from the Harmika was a. mast called the yashti.
(vi) The Harmika was surmounted by a chhatri or umbrella.
(vii) Around the mound was railing, separating the sacred space from me secular world.
(viii) Sanchi Stupa had stone railing which resembled a bamboo or wooden fence.
(ix) The gateways of Sanchi were richly carved and installed at the four cardnal points.
(x) Any other relevant point.
(i) Stories from Jataka tales are made in the form of sculptures on the gateways.
(ii) The empty seat to indicate the mediation, of the Buddha.
(iii) The Stupa was meant to represent the mahaparinibbana.
(iv) Another frequently used symbol was the wheel, it stood for the first sermon given by Buddha at Sarriath,
(v) The shalabhanjika motif suggest that many people who turned to Buddhism enriched it with their own pre Buddhist and even non-Buddhist beliefs, practices and ideas.
(vi) Jatakas tales contain many animal stories of e.g. elephants. Horses, monkeys and cattle. Elephants signified strength and wisdom.
(vii) A motif of a woman surrounded by lotus and elephants is called Maya, the mother of the Buddha and others think that it is Gajalakshmi, the Goddess of good fortune.
(viii) Serpents have been depicted on the pillars of Stupas. They are a part of popular traditions.
Some other sculptures at Sanchi were probably not directly motivated by Buddhist ideas e.g. beautiful women swinging from the edge of the gateway holding on to a tree. Here, we .find some of the finest depictions of animals such as elephants, horses, monkeys and cattle. Animals were generally depicted as symbols of human qualities e.g., elephants were depicted to glorify strength and wisdom.
Other motifs are that of a woman encircled by lotuses and elephants and the serpent which is found on many pillars.
Ques 12: Examine the role of Panchayat as the main constituent of the Mughal village community.
Ans: (i) Structure: The village panchayats were an assembly of elders. However, in mixed-caste villages the panchayats were usually a heterogenosu body. The panchayats were headed by a headman known as muqaddam or Mandal. Headmen used to hold their respective offices as long as they enjoyed the confidence of the village elders, failing which they could be dismissed by the village elders. The main function of the headman was to supervise the preparation of village accounts, assisted by the patwari of the panchayat.
(ii) Collection of funds: The panchayat derived its funds from contributions made by individuals to a common financial pool. These funds were used for meeting the costs of entertaining revenue officials who visited the village from time to time. Expenses for community welfare activities such as tiding over natural calamities were also met from these funds. The funds were also deployed in construction of a bund or digging a canal.
(iii) Regarding caste boundaries: One of the most important function of the panchayat was to ensure that caste boundaries among the various communities inhabiting the village were upheld. In eastern India all marriages were held in the presence of the mandal. The duty of the village headman was to oversee the conduct of the members of the village community so as to prevent any offence against their caste.
(iv) Authority to levy fines: The Panchayats had the authority to levy fines and inflict more serious forms of punishment like expulsion from the community. These meant that the person was forced to leave the village and become an out caste and he lost the right to practice his profession. Such a measure was taken as a violation of caste norms.
Ques 13: 'Gandhiji encouraged the communication of the nationalist, message in the mother tongue rather than in the language of the ruler.' Examine how he knitted the Non-Cooperation Movement with his philosophy.
Ans: Gandhiji was a practical leader. His idealism of non-violence or Ahimsa was based on mass appeal. He genuinely linked himself with the masses. His simple life style mesmerised the masses. His appeal among the poor and farmers in particular was increased by his ascetic way of living. He glorified the symbols of Charkha and Dhoti very wisely. Basically, Gandhiji was the first national leader who felt the pulse of the masses as the doctor of politics. Gandhiji appeared not just look like the masses but he understood them and, related to their day-to-day lives.
He changed the character and structure of the Congress party and brought the party from conference rooms to the fields and factories. The network of the Congress was spread out in every nook and cranny of the country.
To make the Congress party's aims more practical, Gandhiji encouraged the communication of the nationalist message in the mother tongue, rather than in the language of the rulers. Prior to Gandhiji's arrival on the national scene the Congress party was a party of the classes. With his mass appeal and magnetic touch it became the party of the masses. Gandhiji was a unique confluence of different streams. Among Gandhiji's admires and followers were both poor peasants and industrialists. In this way, Gandhiji brought together different ideologies and interests.
Gandhiji infused his philosophy into the Non-Cooperation Movement. People from all walks of life such as peasants, workers, students, tribes and educated Indians actively participated in this movement. According to Louis Fischer Mahatma Gandhi became an epoch in the life of India and of Gandhiji. Non-Cooperation was negative enough to be peaceful but positive enough to be effective. It entailed denial renunciation and self-discipline. It was training for self-rule.
Ques 14: Some scholars see partition of India as a culmination of communal politics that started developing in the opening decades of the twentieth century/ Elucidate.
Ans: (i) In United provinces the Muslim league wanted to fun joint part with congress which on rejected by congress, When make Muslims think that portion of India is must if they want to join political power.
(ii) Jinnah insistence that the league be recognised as a one spokesman of Muslim.
(iii) On 23 March, 1940 the league marked a resolution demanding a measure of autonomy for Muslim majority areas of subcontinent.
(iv) The order pack Mohammad Iqbal raised the demand for Pakistan. In Ills presidential addresses in Muslim league m1930.
(v) Quit India movement which started in 1942 compelled the Britishers to open disagree when Indian parries for transfer of power.
(vi) In 1946 personnel election congress sweft the general constitution and league won are 30 rescue committee.
(vii) Muslim league announced 10 August, 1946 on direct action day for winning its demand for Pakistan for withdrawn support to cabinet mission.
(viii) By man 1947 violence spread to my parts of North India.
(ix) Gandhiji's valiant efforts at rising command normally bore fun.
(x) Mount batten plan endorsed a separate nation for Muslims and Partitioned India.
(xi) Hindu Muslim riots after partition of India.
Ques 15: Read the following paragraph carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Draupadi is supposed to have asked Yudhisthira whether he had lost himself before staking her. Two contrary opinions were expressed in response to this question.
One, that even if Yudhisthira had lost himself earlier, his wife remained under his control, so he could stake her. Two, that an unfree man (as Yudhisthira was when he had lost himself) could -not stake another person. The matter remained unresolved; ultimately, Dhritarashtra restored to the Pandavas and Draupadi their personal freedom.
(i) How did Draupadi's, question unsettle everyone in the assembly?
(ii) What was the implication of her question?
(iii) What makes Draupadi's question admirable?
Ans: (i) Draupadi's question certainly unsettled everyone when she asked Yudhisthira whether he had lost himself before stoking her.
(ii) Draupadi asked whether an unfree man (Yudhisthira) could stake a person. It was certainly a logical query. Finally, Dhritarasthra restored to the pandavas and Draupadi their personal freedom.
(iii) Draupadi's question was not only logical bur also analytical. It had a touch of morality and equality.
Ques 16: Read the following paragraph carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The Poor Peasant
An excerpt from Bernier's description of the peasantry ion the countryside:
Of the vast tracts of country constituting the empire of Hindustan, many are little more than sand, or barren, mountains, badly cultivated, and thinly populated. Even. A considerable portion of the good land. .Even a remains unfilled for want of labourers; many of whom perish in consequence of the bad treatment they experience from Governors.
The poor people, when they become incapable of discharging the demands of their rapacious lords, are not only often deprived of the means of subsistence, but are also made to lose their children, who are carried away as slaves. Thus, it happens that the peasantry, driven to despair by so excessive a tyranny, abandon the country.
In this instance, Bernier was participating in contemporary debates in Europe concerning the nature of state and society, and intended that his description of Mughal India would serve as a warning to those who did not recognize the merits of private property.
(i) Name the book written by the Francois Bernier on the critical insight and reflection on the empire of Hindustan.
(ii) What description Bernier has given on the condition of Indian peasantry during the Mughal Empire?
(iii) Which fundamental differences he found between Mughal India and Europe during 16th and 17th century?
Ans: (i) Francois Bernier's book name was. Travel in the Mughal Empire.
(ii) (a) Bernier gave a subdued description on the condition of Indian peasantry during the Mughal Empire.
(b) The poor and resource less peasants became in capable of discharging the demands of their greedy owners.
(c) Peasants were not only deprived of the means, of subsistence, but were also made to lose their children, who were carried away as slaves.
(iii) (a) According to Bernier, one of the fundamental differences between Mughal India and Europe was the shortage of private property in land in the Mughal India.
(b) Bernier was a staunch supporter of private property. He felt that in the Mughal Empire the emperor owned all the land and distributed the same among his nobles. However, it had disastrous results for the economy and society.
(c) Bernier opined that there was no middle state in India. On the other hand, none of the Mughal official documents suggest that the state was the only owner of land.
Ques 17: Read the following paragraph carefully and answer the questions that follow:
'No space for divided loyalty'
Govind Ballabh Pant argued that m order to become loyal citizen's people had to stop focusing only on the community and the self.
For the success or democracy one must train himself in the art of self - discipline.
In Democracies one should care less for himself and more for others. There 'cannot be any divided loyalty. All loyalties must exclusively be centred round the states. If in a democracy you create rival loyalties, or you, create a system, in which any - individual or group, instead of suppressing his extravagance, cares nought for larger or other interests, then democracy is doomed.
(i) 'Why did Govind Ballabh Pant lay more stress on the art of self-discipline?
(ii) What was considered important for the success of democracy?
(iii) 'In Democracies one should care less for him - self and more for other?. Give your views on this philosophy.
Ans: (i) Govind Ballabh Pant laid more stress on self-discipline. Without democratic discipline we cannot sustain the lofty ideals and values of democracy.
(ii) (a) For the success of democracy one should have loyalty towards the state,
(b) There is no room tor, internal differences and divided loyalties in a democratic system
(c) All the citizens should be committed to national unity and integrity
(iii) (a) The philosophy of democracy is based on the dictum, of One should care less for himself and more others.
(b) We should take care of other people's rights and there should be total commitment towards secular and democratic values.
Ques 18: (i) On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols:
(b) The area where Krishna Deva Raya ruled.
(ii) On the same outline map of India three places related to the Indian National Movement have been marked as A, B and C. Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them.