Ques 1: Why is James Princep's contribution considered as the historic development in the Indian epigraphy?
Ans: James Princep, was an officer in the mint of the East India Company.
His contribution in the development of Indian Epigraphy was that he was able to decipher Brahmi and Kharosti Scripts used in the earliest inscriptions and coins.
Ques 2: Analyse how did the introduction of the railways by the British prove advantageous for the Indians in the late nineteenth century.
Ans: (1) The introduction of the railways changed the scope and area of economic activities from traditional towns to new cities which were linked to railways.
(2) The country side from where raw materials and labour were drawn became linked to these port cities. Areas of social and economic mobility enhanced.
Ques 3: Jotedars inevitably weakened zamindars in Bengal, by the end of the 18th century.' Give arguments to support the statement.
Ans: In an early nineteenth Century, Jotedara were a class of rich peasants. They acquired vast areas of land and controlled local trade as well as money lending. Thus exercising immense power over the poorer cultivators of the region.
A large part of their land was cultivated through share croppers who brought their own ploughs, labourers in the field, and handed over half the produce to Jotedars after the harvest.
More effective than that of Zamindars:
Within the villages, the power of Jotedars was more effective than that of Zamindars. The Zamindars who often lived in Urban areas whereas the Jotedars were located in the villages and exercised direct control over a considerable section of poor villagers.
They forcefully resisted efforts by zamindars to increase the Jama of the village, prevented zamindars officials from executing their duties, mobilised ryots, who were dependent on them, and deliberately delayed payments of revenue to zamindar. When the estates of the zamindars were auctioned for failure to make revenue payment, Jotedars were often the purchasers.
So the rise of Jotedars inevitably weakened zamindari authority.
Ques 4: Explain the distinctive features of the residential buildings of the Mohenjodaro.
Ans: (1) The Lower Town at Mohenjodaro gives instances of residential buildings. Several of these buildings were situated on a courtyard with rooms on all sides.
(2) It seems that the courtyard was the centre of various activities e.g. Weaving and Cooking. However, there were no windows in the walls along the ground level. Moreover, the main entrance does not provide a direct view of the courtyard.
(3) Every residential building comprised of its own bathroom-paved with bricks. Drains were connected through the wall to the street drains.
(4) Some buildings had remains of staircases to reach a second story or the roof of the house. In several houses, wells have been found, usually in a room that could be approached from the outside. Probably, it could be used by passers-by.
Ques 5: 'One important pillar of the Mughal administration was the nobility.' Justify.
Ans: One of the most important pillar of the Mughal state was its corps of officers, also referred to by historians collectively as the nobility.
The nobility was recruited from diverse ethnic and religious groups, which ensured that no faction was large enough to challenge the authority of the state. This corps of the Mughals was described as a bouquet of flowers held together by loyalty to the emperor.
Turani and Iranian nobles were the earliest in Akbar's imperial service. Many had accompanied Humayun and others migrated later to the Mughal Court.
From 1560 onwards, two ruling groups of Indian origin entered the imperial service, the Rajputs and the Indian Muslims. The first to join was a Rajput chief, Raja Bahrmal Kachhwaha of Amber, to whose daughter Akbar got married. Iranians joined high offices under Jahangir as his politically influential queen Nur Jahan was an Iranian. Aurangzeb appointed Rajputs to high positions and under him the Marathas accounted for a sizeable number within the body of officers.
All holders of the government offices held. Rank or man sabs having designation of Zat, it was the indication or position in the imperial hierarchy and the salary of the Mansabdar, and the second on was of Sawar indicating the number of horsemen he was required to maintain in service.
The nobles participated in military campaigns and also served as officers of the empire in provinces.
Ques 6: Analyse the impact of partition of India on Pun jab and Bengal.
Ans: (1) Impact of partition of India on Punjab: Impact of partition was horrible. It destabilized the foundation of mankind. People had to face harrowing experiences. The results of partition were most destructive and bloody in the Punjab.
Almost complete displacement of Hindus and Sikhs eastwards into India from west Punjab and or almost all Punjabi - speaking Muslims to Pakistan created untold stories of horror.
(2) Impact of partition of India on Bengal: In Bengal the overall situation was equally serious and horrible.
Here the process of migration was more protracted with people moving across a porous border. However, in Bengal the exchange of population was not near total. Consequently several Bengali Hindus remained in East Pakistan while several Bengali Muslims continued, to remain in West Bengal.
In East Pakistan Jinnah?s two-nation theory was rejected by the Bengali Muslims.
Ques 7: 'The Amar-Yanaka system was the major political innovation of the Vijayanagar Empire.' Elaborte.
Ans: Amara Nayakas: Amara Nayaka system was a major political innovation of the Vijayanagara Empire. The Amara-Nayakas were military commanders who were given territories to govern by the raya. They collected taxes and other dues from peasants, crafts persons and traders in the area and retained part of the revenue for personal use and for maintaining a stipulated contingents of horses and elephants.
The contingents provided the Vijayanagara Kings with an effective fighting force with which they brought the entire southern peninsula under their control. Some of the revenue was also used for the maintenance of temples and irrigation works.