Ques 1: How did Kushana rulers exemplify themselves with the high status?
Ans: Kushana Rulers
(1) One means of claiming high status was to identify with a variety of deities.
(2) The nation of Kingship they wished to project are seen in their coins and sculptures.
(3) Colossal statues of Kushana rulers were installed in Mathura and Afghanistan.
(4) They projected themselves godlike.
(5) They adopted the title of devaputra or Son of God.
Ques 2: The message of Guru Nanak Devji was based on divinity? Mention any two aspects of it.
Ans: Guru Nanak Dev's Divinity
(1) He advocated nirguna bhakti.
(2) He rejected sacrifices, ritual baths, image worship, austerities and the scriptures of both Hindus and Muslims.
(3) For him the Absolute w dub had no render or form.
(4) He proposed a simple wav to connect to the Divine by remembering and repeating the Divine name.
(5) He expressed his ideas through hymns called Shabad.
Ques 3: Why did the imperial power of Vijayanagara decline after the death of Krishnadeva Raya?
Ans: Vijayanagara declined after the death of Krishnadeva Raya:
(1) After Krishnadeva Rava's death in 1529 his successors were troubled by rebellious nayakas or military chiefs.
(2) By 154.2 control at the centre shifted to the Aravidu lineage.
(3) The military ambitions resulted in shifting alignments.
(4) This led to an. alliance of the Sultanates against Vijayanagara.
(5) In 1565 Rama Raya, the chief minister of Vijayanagara, led the army into the battle at Rakshasi - Tangadi (Talikota), where he was defeated by Bijapur, Ahmadnagar and Golconda.
(6) The victorious armies sacked the city of Vijayanagara. The city was totally abandoned within a few years.
Ques 4: Analyse the impact of cotton boom in India during the American Civil War.
Ans: Impact of cotton boom in India during the American civil war:
(1) When the American Civil War broke out in 1861, a wave of panic spread in Britain.
(2) As cotton prices soared export merchants in Bombay were keen to meet the British demand.
(3) They gave advances to urban sahukars who in turn extended credit to rural moneylenders who promised to secure the produce.
(4) The ryots in the Decoan villages suddenly found limitless credit.
(5) While the American crisis continued, cotton production in the Bombay Deccan expanded. By 1862 over 90 percent of cotton imports into Britain were coming from India.
(6) As the Civil war ended, cotton production in America revived and Indian cotton exports declined.
Ques 5: Explain the exclusive features of the craft production in Chanhudaro.
Ans: Features of the craft production in Chanhudaro:
(1) It was exclusively-devoted to craft production, including bead - making, shell-cutting, metal-working, seal-making and weight -making.
(2) The variety of materials used to make beads was stones like carnelian, jasper, crystal, quartz and steatite, metals like copper .bronze and gold, faience and terracotta or burnt clay.
(3) Some beads were made of two or more stones, cemented together or with gold caps.
(4) The shapes were numerous - disc shaped, cylindrical, spherical, barrel-shaped and segmented.
(5) Some were decorated by incising or painting and some had designs etched onto them.
(6) Techniques for making beads differed according to the, material. Steatite a very soft stone was easily worked. Carnelian was obtained by firing raw material and beads at various stages of production.
(7) Nodules were chipped into rough shapes, and then finely flaked into the final form.
(8) Grinding, polishing and drilling completed process.
(9) It is likely that finished products such as beads from Chanhudaro were taken to large urban centres such as Mohenjodaro and Harappa.
Ques 6: Historians have provided accounts of diplomatic relationships and conflicts with the neighbouring political powers of the Mughal Empire Elaborate.
Ans: Diplomatic relationship and conflicts with the neighbouring political power of the Mughal Empire.
(1) Tension and political rivalry between them was due to regional interests.
(2) The political and diplomatic relations between the Mughals and Iran and Turan hinged on the control of the Hindukush mountains.
(3) A constant aim of Mughal policy was to control strategic outposts -Kabul and Qandahar.
(4) Qandahar was a bone of contention between the Safavids and the Mughals.
(5) In 1613 Jahangir sent a diplomatic envoy to the court of Shah Abbas to plead for retaining Qandahar, but the mission failed.
(6) In the winter of 1622 a Persian army besieged Qandahar. The Mughal garrison was defeated and had to surrender the fortress and the city to the Safavids.
(7) The relationship between the Mughals and the Ottomans was marked by the concern to ensure tree movement for merchants and pilgrims where the important pilgrim centres of Mecca and Medina were located.
(8) The Mughal emperor usually combined religion and commerce by exporting valuable merchandise to Aden and Mokha both Red Sea Ports.
Ques 7: Examine the repressive measures adopted by the British to subdue the rebels of 1857.
Ans: Repressive Measures adopted by the British to subdue the rebels of 1857:
(1) Before sending out troops to reconquer North India the British passed a series of Laws to help them quell the insurgency.
(2) By a number of Acts, the whole of North India was put under Martial Law.
(3) Military officers and even ordinary Britons were given the power to try and punish Indians suspected of rebellion.
(4) Ordinary processes of Law and trial were suspended and it was put out that rebellion would have only one punishment-death.
(5) Reinforcements were brought in from Britain. British mounted a two-pronged attack. One force moved from Calcutta and another from Punjab to reconquer Delhi.
(6) In the Gangetic plains the forces had to reconquer the area, village by village.
(7) The British other than using military power, also tried to break up the unity between the landholders and peasants.
(8) Rebel Landholders were dispossessed and loyal rewarded. Many Landholders died fighting the British or they escaped into Nepal.