Ques 1: How have the Prashastis drawn the factual information about the Gupta rulers?
Ans: Factual information from prashastis about the Gupta rulers:
(i) Histories of the Gupta rulers have been reconstructed from Literature, coins and inscriptions, including prashastis, composed in praise of kings by poets.
(ii) While historians often attempt to draw factual information from such compositions, those who composed and read them treasured them as works of poetry rather than as accounts.
(iii) The Prayaga Prashasti (also known as the Allahabad Pillar Inscription) composed in Sanskrit by Harishena, the court poet of Samudragupta is a good example.
Ques 2: The Lingayats disapproved certain practices of the Dharmashashtras. Cite any two such practices.
Ans: Lingayats and Dharmashashtra:
(i) They worship Shiva in his manifestation as a linga. They do not practice funerary rituals such as cremation, prescribed in the Dharmashashtra. Instead, they bury their dead bodies.
(ii) The Lingayats challenged the idea of caste and pollution attributed to certain groups by Brahmans.
(iii) They questioned the theory of rebirth.
(iv) They encouraged practices e.g.: post puberty marriage, widow remarriage which were not approved in the Dharmashashtra.
Ques 3: Name the region where the Lottery Committee initiated town planning during the 18 century. Mention any one feature of it.
Ans: Lottery Committee
(i) Lottery committee initiated in Calcutta.
(a) It collected funds for town improvement which were raised through public lotteries.
(b) The Lottery Committee commissioned a new map of the city so as to get a comprehensive picture of Calcutta.
(c) The Committee's major activities were road building in the Indian part of the city and clearing the river bank of 'encroachments.
(d) Removing huts for cleaner city and displacing the labouring poor who were pushed to the outskirts of Calcutta.
Ques 4: Why were the water resources of the Vijayanagara Empire developed? Give reasons.
Ans: Water resources of Vijayanagara
(i) The natural basin formed by the Tungabhadra which flows in a north - easterly direction hills surrounds this and a number of streams flow down to the river from these hills.
(ii) Embankments were built along the streams to create reservoirs of varying sizes.
(iii) As Vijayanagara was in one of the most arid zones of the peninsula, elaborate water arrangements had to be made to store rain water and conduct it to the city.
(iv) Kamalapuram tank not only irrigated fields nearby but water was also conducted through a channel to the royal centre.
(v) One of the most prominent was the Hiriya canal. It drew water from a dam across the Tungabhadra and irrigated the cultivated valley which separated the sacred centre from the urban core.
Ques 5: Examine the policies adopted by the British towards the Paharias during early 18 century in Bengal.
Ans: Policies adopted by the British towards the Paharias
(i) In the 1770s the British embarked on the brutal policy of extermination, hunting the Paharias down and killing them.
(ii) By die 1780s, Augustus Cleveland, proposed a policy of pacification.
(iii) Paharia chiefs were given an annual allowance and made responsible for the proper conduct of their men.
(iv) Many Paharia chiefs refused the allowances, those who accepted lost authority within the community and came to be known as Stipendiary chiefs.
(v) The Paharias withdrew deep in the mountains insulating themselves from hostile forces and carrying on a war with the outsiders. The brutal repression shaped their perception of British infiltration into the area.
(vi) British put Santhals in their areas which led to conflict between them.
Ques 6: Explain the strategies for procuring materials by the Harappans for the craft production.
Ans: Procuring materials by Harappans
(i) The Harappans procured materials tor craft production in various ways. They established settlements such as Nageshwar and Balakot m areas where shell was available.
(ii) Other sites like Shortughai, in far off Afghanistan, the best source of lapis lazuli, a blue stone that was highly valued.
(iii) From Lothal and Bharuch-carnelian was procured, steatite from South Rajasthan and North Gujarat.
(iv) Another strategy for procuring raw material may have been to send expeditions to areas such as Khetri region of Rajasthan for copper and South India for Gold.
(v) Recent Archaeological finds suggest that Harappans procured material from other countries like - they got copper from Oman a region called Magan in Mesopotamian texts. It is likely that communication with Oman, Bahrain or
Mesopotamia was by sea.
Ques 7: Historians have used avariety of sources to reconstruct the history of the Mauryan Empire. State any four such sources.
Ans: Historians have used following of sources to reconstruct the history of the Mauryan Empire. These include:
(i) Archaeological finds, especially sculpture.
(ii) The account of Megasthenes which survive in fragments.
(iii) The Arthashastra, parts of which were probably composed by Kautilya or Chanakya.(iv) Buddhist, Jaina and Puranic literature, as well as Sanskrit literary works.
(v) The inscriptions of Ashoka (c. 272/268-23) on rocks and pillars.
Ques 8: Identify the distinctive features of the imperial household of the Mughal Empire.
Ans: The imperial household of the Mughal
(i) The Mughal household consisted of the emperor's wives and concubines, his near and distant relatives and female servants and slaves.
(ii) Polygamy was practiced widely.
(iii) Distinction was maintained between begams and aghas.
(iv) The concubines occupied the lowest position in the hierarchy.
(v) The lineage based family structure was not entirely static. Motherhood played important roles in elevating status.
(vi) Slave eunuchs worked as guards, servants and also as agents for women dabbling in commerce.
(vii) Mughal queens and princesses began to control significant financial resources.
(viii) Control over resources enabled important women of the Mughal household to commission buildings and gardens.
(ix) Women also played an important role in resolving conflicts in the imperial household.
Ques 9: Critically examine Lord Dalhousie's policy of annexation in Awadh.
Ans: Dalhousie's policy of annexation of Awadh
(i) Dalhousie described the kingdom of Awadh as a cherry that will drop into our mouth one day.
(ii) The conquest happened in stages. The Subsidiary Alliance had been imposed on Awadh in 1801.
(iii) By the terms of this alliance the Nawab had to disband his military force, allow the British to position their troops within the kingdom, and act in accordance with - die advice of the British Resident who was attached to the court. Thus the Nawab became dependent on British.
(iv) The British were keen to acquire Awadh as its soil was good for growing Indigo and cotton and was ideally located for trade.
(v) Annexation of Awadh would complete the territorial annexation by the British beginning with that of Bengal a century earlier.
(vi) It was annexed on the grounds of maladministration.
The British wrongly assumed that the Nawab Wajid Ali Shah was an unpopular ruler, on the contrary he was widely loved.
Ques 10: Read the following passage and answer the question that follows:
Dr. Khushdeva Singh describes his work as 'humble efforts I made to discharge my duty as a human being to fellow human beings.'
'Love is stronger than hate.' How true is this value which was proved at the time of the partition of India' What are the values one needs to instill and nurture to avoid hatred'
'The Revolt of 1857 marked first nationalist challenge to the English in India? Explain giving examples the values imbibed and practised by the rebels to set the beginning for it.
Ans: This value is true as historians have discovered numerous stories of how people helped each other during the partition. For eg: Dr Khushdeva Singh won the hearts of people of different communities by his service to them.
The values one needs to instill and nurture to avoid hatred are:
(a) Integrity and feeling of oneness.
(b) Respect for all religions equally.
(c) Secularism and Democracy.
(d) Peaceful coexistence.
(e) Equality before Law.
(f) Humanist feeling.
(g) Social Justice.
(j) Kindness and compassion
(k) Sharing and caring
Ques 11: 'The Salt March of 1930 was the first event that brought Mahatma Gandhi to world attention.' Explain the significance of this movement for Swaraj.
Ans: Salt March of Gandhiji
(i) On 12th March 1930- Gandhiji began the march from Sabarmad and broke the salt Law by making salt at Dandi and broke the monopoly of the salt.
(ii) Parallel salt marches and protests were also conducted in other pans of the country. Peasants, factory workers, lawyers, students and local officials joined the march.
(iii) During the March Gandhiji told the upper castes that if they want Swaraj they must serve untouchables. Hindus, Muslims, Parsis and Sikhs have to unite and these are the steps towards Swaraj.
(iv) The salt march of Gandhiji was reported in the American news magazine, Time. In its 1st report on the march the magazine was deeply skeptical of the salt march reaching its destination. But shortly it changed its view" and saluted Gandhi as a saint and statesman
(v) Salt March was notable for three reasons: Firstly this event brought Gandhiji to world attention. It was widely covered by the European and American Press. Secondly it was the 1st nationalist activity in which women participated in large numbers. Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay the socialist activist persuaded Gandhiji not to restrict the protest to men alone. She herself courted arrest by breaking salt and Liquor Laws.
Thirdly the most significant aspect of the Salt March was that it forced the British the realization that their Raj would not last forever, and they would have to devolve some powder to the Indians.
(vi) To that end British Government convened a series of Round Table Conferences in London. First meeting was held in Nov 1930 without any pre-eminent political Indian leader and was futile. When Gandhiji was released from jail in Jan 1931, many meetings were held with the Viceroy and it culminated in the Gandhi Irwin Pact by which civil disobedience would be called off and all prisoners were released and salt manufacture allowed along the coast. Gandhiji represented the congress at Second Round Table Conference at London.
Ques 12: 'The architecture in colonial Bombay represented ideas of imperial power, nationalism and religious glory.' Support the statement with examples.
Ans: Architecture in colonial Bombay:
(i) As Bombay's economy grew in mid-19th century the British developed new administrative structures. Many new buildings were constructed in European style to reflect the culture and confidence of the rulers. To symbolise their power, their superiority, which would also mark a difference between colonial masters and their Indian subjects.
(ii) For public buildings British adopted three architectural styles. The 1st was Neo-classical which were geometrical structures fronted with lofty pillars.
(iii) Its original style was that of ancient Rome, the British considered it ideal to express their glory of imperial India. eg: The Town Hall in Bombay built in 1833 , Elphinstone Circle later named Horniman Circle which was inspired from models in Italy . It made innovative use of covered arcades to shield shoppers and pedestrians from sun and rain of Bombay.
(iv) Another style was Neo Gothic characterized by high pitched roofs pointed arches and detail decoration.
(v) The Gothic style had its roots in buildings, especially churches built in North Europe during medieval period.
(vi) The Neo Gothic style was revived in mid -19th century in England and the Victoria Terminus is the most spectacular example of this style.
(vii) Towards the 20th century a new hybrid architectural style developed called Indo-Saracenic. Europeans used Saracen term to designate Muslim and Indo was Shorthand for Hindu. The inspiration came from medieval buildings in India - domes, chhatris, jalis and arches. Example of Indo-Saracenic is Gateway of India and Taj Mahal Hotel.
(viii) By integrating India and European styles the British wanted to prove that they were legitimate rulers of India.
Ques 13: Describe the life of forest dwellers in the Mughal era.
Ans: Forest dwellers of Mughal India
(i) Forest dwellers were termed Jangli in contemporary texts. Being jangli, however did not mean an absence of civilization. The term described those whose livelihood came from gathering forest produce, hunting and shifting agriculture.
(ii) These activities were season specific which perpetuated mobility.
(iii) For the state, the forest was a place of refuge for troublemakers.
(iv) External forces entered the forest in different ways. The state required elephants for the army so the peshkash levied from forest people often included a supply of elephants.
(v) The hunt symbolized the overwhelming concern of the state to ensure justice to all its subjects and paintings were also done on it.
(vi) The spread of commercial agriculture was an important external factor that impinged on the life of forest dwellers.
(vii) Forest products-like honey, beeswax and gum lac - were in great demand and became major items of overseas export from India.
(viii) Elephants were captured and sold. Trade involved exchange through barter system. Lohanis tribe from Punjab were involved in overland trade between India and Afghanistan.
(ix) Social factors too affected their lives. Tribal chiefs who became zamindars and even Kings, required an army and recruited people from their lineage groups or demanded that their fraternity provide military service, eg: Tribes from Sind region had armies consisting of cavalry and infantry, In Assam, the Ahom kings had their paiks.
(x) Sufi saints played a major role in spread of Islam among these people.
Ques 14: How did Sutta - Pitaka reconstruct the philosophy of Buddhism? Mention about Buddhist Tipitaka.
Ans: Sutta Pitaka reconstructed the philosophy of Buddhism.
(i) Buddha's teachings have been reconstructed from stories found mainly in the Sutta Pitaka. These stones describe his miraculous powers and reason rather than display of supernatural power.
(ii) The world is transient and constantly changing; it is also soulless as there is nothing permanent.
(iii) Sorrow is intrinsic to human existence.
(iv) It is by following the path of moderation between severe penance and self-indulgence that human beings can rise above these worldly troubles.
(v) In the earliest form of Buddhism existence of god was irrelevant. Buddha regarded the social world as the creation of humans rather than of divine origin.
(vi) He advised kings to be humane and ethical.
(vii) Individual effort was expected to transform social relations.
(viii) The Buddha emphasized individual agency and righteous action as a means to escape from the cycle of rebirth and attain self-realization and nirvana.
(ix) The extinguishing of the ego and desire would thus end the cycle of suffering.
(x) The importance attached to conduct and values rather than claims of superiority based on birth, die emphasis placed on fellow feeling and karuna for weaker.
(xi) The Buddhist developed an alternative understanding of social inequalities and institutions required to regulate social conflict.In a myth found in Sutta Pitaka they suggest that originally human beings did not have fully evolved bodily forms, nor was the world of plants fully developed.
(xii) All beings lived in idyllic state of peace, taking from nature only what they needed.
(i) It means three baskets which hold three types of texts. They were first transmitted orally and then written and classified according to the subject matter.
(ii) The Vinaya Pitaka included rules and regulations for those who joined the sangha or monastic order.
(iii) The Sutta Pitaka which contains the teachings of Buddha and the Abhidhamma Pitaka dealt with philosophical matters.
Ques 15: Read the following paragraph carefully and answer the questions that follow:
'Proper' social roles
Here is a story from the Adi Parvan of the Mahabharata Once Drona, a Brahmans who taught archery to the Kuru princes, was approached by Ekalavya, a forest-dwelling nishada (a hunting community). When Drona, who knew the dharma, refused to have him as his pupil, Ekalavya returned to the forest, prepared an image of Drona out of clay, and treating it as his teacher, began to practise on his own. In due course, he acquired great skill in archery. One day, the Kuru princes went hunting and their dog, wandering in the woods, came upon Ekalavya. When the dog smelt the dark nishada wrapped in black deer skin, his body caked with dirt, it began to bark. Annoyed, Ekalavya shot seven arrows into its mouth. When the dog returned to the Pandavas, they were amazed at this superb display of archerty. They tracked down Ekalavya, who introduced himself as a pupil of Drona.
Drona had once told his favourite students Arjuna, that he would be unrivalled amongst his pupils. Arjuna now reminded Drona about this. Drona approached Ekalavya, who immediately acknowledge and honoured him as his teacher. When Drona demanded his right thumb as his fee, Ekalavya unhesitatingly cut it off and offered it. But thereafter, when he shot with his remaining fingers, he was no longer as fast as he had been before.
Thus, Drona kept his word: no one was better than Arjuna.
(i) Why did Drona refuse to nave Ekalavya as his pupil?
(ii) How did Ekalavya react to the demand of his Guru?
(iii) Mention two versions of Guru - Shishya Parampara mentioned in the given extract.
Ans: Source Based Question
(i) Guru Drona refused to have Ekalavya as his pupil because:
1. He was a forest dweller and belonged to nishada (a hunting community).
2. Drona was a Brahman and followed his dharma because according to Dharmashashtra, Brahmans were not to teach the lower community.
(ii) Ekalavya's Reaction:
1. Ekalavya acknowledged Drona demand and honored his Guru.
2. When Drona den-landed his right Thumb as his fee or guru dakshina, Ekalavya unhesitatingly cut it off and offered it.
(iii) Guru - Shishya Parampara;
1. Drona kept his promise for Arjuna as Drona had once told his favorite student Arjuna that he would be unrivalled amongst his Pupils.
2. Drona for keeping his promise for Arjuna compelled Ekalavya to cut off his thumb and offer it to himself as guru dakshina.
3. Ekalavya acknowledged and honored him as his guru and following the guru Shishya Parampara, gave his thumb as guru dakshina to him.
Ques 16: Read the following paragraph carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The Child Sad
This is perhaps one of the most poignant descriptions by Bernier:
At Lahore, I saw a most beautiful young widow sacrificed, who could not, I think, have been more than twelve years of age. The poor little creature appeared more dead than alive when she approached the dreadful pit: the agony of her mind cannot be described; she trembled and wept bitterly; but three or four of the Brahmana's, assisted by an old woman who held her under the arm, forced the unwilling victim toward the fatal spot, seated her on the wood, tied her hands and feet, lest she should run away, and in that situation the innocent creature was burnt alive. I found it difficult to repress my feelings and to prevent their bursting forth into clamorous and unavailing rage...
(i) Why did Bernier consider this treatment as a crucial marker of the difference between western and eastern societies?
(ii) What role did the Indian patriarchal society play towards this social evil?
(iii) Compare the condition of the women of the era mentioned above to that of today.
Ans: (i) Bernier considered this treatment as a crucial marker of difference between western and eastern society because:
1. In the western societies women took part in administration but in the eastern societies women were exploited badly.
2. Women enjoyed rights in the western society while no rights were given to them in the eastern society.
3. Women received education in the west but in the eastern society there was no education and many social evils like sad, purdah system and child marriages existed.
4. Eastern societies were male dominated unlike the western.
(ii) Indian patriarchal society
1. It was a male dominated society where women had no rights, were ill-treated, discriminated and confined to the house.
2. Social inequalities were prominent and thus led to these social evils.
(iii) Comparison of condition of women
1. In medieval era women had no rights but today sati, slavery has been prohibited.
2. Today's women are well educated and assertive.
3. In this era there is women empowerment.
4. She has social .economic and political rights.
Ques 17: Read the following paragraph carefully and answer the questions that follow:
'British element is gone but they have left the mis-chief behind'
Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel said:
It is no use saying that we ask for separate electorates, because it is good for us. We have heard it long enough. We have heard it for years, and as a result of this agitation we are now a separate nation ... Can you show me one free country where there are separate electorates? If so, I shall be prepared to accept it. But in this unfortunate country if this separate electorate is going to be persisted in, even after the division of the country, woe betide the country; it is not worth living m. Therefore, I say, it is not for my good alone it is for your own good that I say it, forget the past. One day we may be united ... The British element is gone, but they have left the mischief behind. We do not want to perpetuate that mischief (Hear. hear). When the British introduced this element they had not expected that they will have to go so soon. They wanted it for their easy administration. That is all right. But they have left the legacy behind. Are we to get out of it or not?
(i) Why are separate electorates considered as a mischief?
(ii) State the arguments given by Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel for building political unity and forging a nation.
(iii) How did the philosophy of separate electorates result in a separate nation?
Ans: (i) Separate electorate was considered as a mischief
1. It was like a poison that had entered into politics.
2. The demand had turned one community against another.
3. It caused bloodshed, civil war riots.
4. It divided the nation.
(ii) Building political unity and forging a nation
1. He considered separate electorate as a poison.
2. For the goodness of the country it should not be followed.
3. It was necessary for maintenance of peace that this system is not followed.
4. In order to build a strong nation every individual must be moulded as a citizen and assimilated within the nation.
5. For political unity assimilation is a must but not separatist feelings.
(iii) Philosophy of Separate electorate
1. It turned one community against another and caused lot of bloodshed.
2. Separatist feelings were cultivated by the British for their selfish ends.
3. Communal hatred led to the tragic partition.
4. It led to the isolation of minorities and eventual partition.
Ques 18: (i) On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols:
(b) Agra - the capital city of Mughals
(ii) On the same outline map of India, three centres related to the Revolt of 1857 have been marked as A, B and C. Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them.