Ques 1: How were the coins used in the first century CE? Give two examples.
Ans: (1) The first gold coins were issued in the first century CE by the Kushanas which were identical in weight with those issued by contemporary Roman Kings and Parthian rulers of Iran. Its wide spread use indicated network of trade.
(2) Coins were issued by tribal republics of Yaudheyas of Punjab and Haryana in 1st century (c. first century CE).
(3) Several thousands of copper coins have been unearthed issued by Yaudheyas pointing to their interest in economic exchanges.
Ques 2: Kabir Bijak and Kabir Granthavali are the two distinct but overlapping traditions. How are they preserved?
Ans: Kabir Bijak and Kabir Granthavali are preservedas:
(1) Kabir Bijak is preserved by the Kabir Panth (the path or sect of Kabir) in Varanasi and elsewhere in U.P.
(2) Kabir Granthavali is associated with the Dadupanth in Rajasthan.
Ques 3: Why was Vitthala temple of the Vijayanagara unique?
Ans: Features of Vitthala temple of the Vijayanagara
(1) The principal deity was Vitthala, a form of Vishnu generally worshipped in Maharashtra.
(2) The introduction of the worship of the deities in Karnataka drew on different traditions to create an imperial culture.
(3) This temple too has several halls and a unique shrine designed as a chariot.
(4) A characteristic feature of the temple complexes is the chariot streets that extended from the temple gopuram in a straight line.
(5) These streets were paved with stone slabs and lined with pillared pavilions in which merchants set up their shops.
(6) Nayakas have supported these temples.
Ques 4: What was the other name of Bombay Deccan revenue system of 1820s? Mention any three features of it.
Ans: Another name of Bombay Deccan revenue system was the Ryotwari System.
(1) The revenue was directly settled with the ryots.
(2) The average income from different types of soil was estimated.
(3) The revenue-paying capacity of the ryot was assessed. A proportion of it fixed as the share of the state.
(4) The lands were re surveyed every 30 years and the revenue rates increased.
(5) The revenue demand was no longer permanent.
Ques 5: Describe the opinions of the archaeologists over the central authority of the Harappan civilization.
Ans: Various opinions of the archeologists over the central authority of the Harappa civilization:
(1) A large building found at Mohenjodaro was labelled as a palace by archaeologists but no spectacular finds were associated with it.
(2) A stone statue was labelled and continues to be known as the priest-king.
(3) Some archaeologists are of the opinion that Harappan society had no rulers, and that everybody enjoyed equal status.
(4) Others feel there was no single ruler but several that Mohenjodaro had a separate ruler, Harappa another, and so forth.
(5) Others argue that there was a single state, given the similarity in artefacts, the evidence for planned settlements, the standardised ratio of brick size, and the establishment of settlements near sources of raw materials. The last theory is the most plausible, as it is unlikely that entire communities could have collectively made and implemented such complex decisions.
Ques 6: The keeping of exact and detailed records was a major concern of the Mughal administration? Justify.
Ans: The keeping of exact and detailed record was a major concern of the Mughal administration
(1) The Mir Bakhshi supervised the corps of court writers who recorded all applications and documents presented to the court, and all imperial orders (farman).
(2) Agents or wakils of nobles and regional rulers recorded the entire proceedings of the court under the heading News from the Exalted court (Akhbarat with the date and time of the session.
(3) The Akhbarat contained all kinds or information such as attendance at the court, grant of offices and titles diplomatic missions, presents received, or the enquires made by the emperor about the health of an officer.
(4) It was valuable for writing the history of the public and private lives of kings and nobles.
(5) News reports and important official documents travelled across the length and breadth of the regions under imperial post.
(6) Round - the-clock relays of foot-runners carried papers rolled up in bamboo containers.
(7) The emperor received reports from even distant provincial capitals within a few days.
(8) Agents of nobles posted outside the capital and Rajput princess and tributary rulers copied these announcements and sent their contents by messenger back to their masters. The empire was connected by a surprisingly rapid information loop for public news.
Ques 7: Examine the provisions of Subsidiary Alliance System devised by Lord Wellesley in 1798 for India.
Ans: Following point examine the provision of Subsidiary Alliance System
(1) The British would be responsible for protecting their ally from external and internal threats to their power.
(2) In the territory of the ally, a British armed contingent would be stationed.
(3) The ally would have to provide the resources for maintaining this contingent.
(4) The ally could enter into agreements with other ruler or engage in warfare only with the permission of the British.
(5) The ally had to keep the resident who was the representative of the Governor General and was not under direct British rule.