Ques 1: Who was R.E.M. Wheeler? Mention any one of his contribution in the field of Archaeology.
Ans: R.E.M. Wheeler was mainly a British archaeologist. He was the Director General of Indian Archaeology from 1944-48. He did a lot in the Harappa excavations. Main contribution involves the use of scientific method in archaeology and cartision coordinate system.
Ques 2: Point out any two similarities between the philosophy of Kabir and Guru Nanak Dev?
Ans: Kabir and Guru Nanak Dev both believe in practice of Nam-Simran. Both were against the polytheism and idol worships.
Ques 3: The problems of Archaelogical interpretation are perhaps most evident in the attempts to reconstruct religious practices of Harappans. Explain?
Ans: The objects found in the excavation in Harappa seem like Hindu God and Goddesses. Archaeologists used the concept of knewn to unknown that is present to past and they relate the things with Hindu deities. Some examples are:
(1) Terracotta figurines of women, heavy jewelled some with elaborate head dresses.
(2) Stone statuory of Men which is seated with one hand on the knee - such as priest king.
(3) Great Bath and fire altars found in the Kalibangaa and Lothal.
(4) Some animals depicted on seals such as, unicorn ? one horned animal seem to be mythical, composite creatures.
(5) Some scales showing the figure of cross-legged in a logic posture surrounded by animals regarded as depiction of proto Shiva.
(6) Rudra in the Rigveda neither depicted as Pashupati not as a yogi. This depiction does not match with Shiva.
So these statutory bodies were not the men or women, some scholars suggest that they would be Shaman possibly.
Ques 4: The village panchayat during the Mughal period regulated rural society.? Explain the statement.
Ans: Village panchayat during the Mugha period was an assembly of Elders, people of village with hereditary property rights. Diversity in panchayat also' found in the mixed caste villages. Decisions made by these Panchayats were binding on the members. Panchayat was headed by a headman known as Muqaddam or Mandal Sources suggest that headman was chosen through the consensus or the village elders and this choice is ratified by Zamindar. Headman was to supervise the preparation of village accounts, assisted by the accountant or 'patwari of the panchayat.
Panchayat derived its funds from contributions made by individuals to a common financial pool. These funds were used for defraying the cost of entertaining revenue officials who visited the village from time. These funds were used to combat flood like situations and making dams, digging out the canal. Important function of Panchayat was to ensure the caste-boundaries among the various communities inhabiting the village were upheld. Its headman's duty was to oversee the conduct of the members of village community chiefly to prevent any offence against their caste.
Panchayats also have the authority to levy fines and inflict more serious forms of punishment including expulsion from the village and caste. Such a measure was intended as a deterrent to violation of caste norms. In addition to the village panchayat each caste or jati had its own jati panchayat. These panchayats wielded considerable power in rural society. These panchayats kept an eye on the marriages, land claims that were happened according to the caste boundaries.
The most of the cases, except in matters of criminal justice, the state respected the decisions of the jati panchayats. Archival records from Western India contain petitions presented to the panchayat complaining about extortionate taxation or the demand for unpaid labour (Begar) imposed by the superior castes or officials of the state. These petitions were usually made by villagers, from the lowest rungs of rural society often petitions were made by group of people protesting against the elite groups.
These include the excessive tax demands in time of drought and other calamities. They regarded the village panchayat as the court of appeal that would ensure that the state carried out its moral obligations and guaranteed Justice.