Ques 1: Who was Cunningham? Mention any one source he collected to understand the Harappa culture.
Ans: Cunningham was the first Director General of Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Cunnigham used the accounts left by Chinese Budhist pilgrims who had visited the subcontinent between the fourth and seventh centuries to understand the Harappan culture.
Ques 2: Point out the difference and one similarity between Be-shari'a and Ba-shari'a Sufi traditions.
Ans: The Sharia is the law governing the Muslim community The Sufi traditions which were anti-sharia are called Be-sharia while the tradition of Sufi Vichar pro Sharia are called Ba-sharia. Similarity between these two is that both are related with Sufi traditions.
Ques 3: Why do archaeologist and historians find Harappan script enigmatic? Explain reasons.
Ans: Harappan script is an enigmatic script because of following reasons:
(1) Most inscriptions are short and the longest one containing about 26 signs.
(2) These scripts were not alphabetical as it has too many signs (between 375 to 400).
(3) The script was written from right to left as some seals show a wider spacing on the right and cramping on the left.
(4) Harappan seals have a line of writing probably containing the name and title of the owner.
(5) The motif generally an animal conveyed a meaning those who could not read.
(6) The writing has been found on variety of objects as seals, copper tools, rims of jars, copper and terracotta tablets, jewellary and bone rods.