Ques 1: Why were the Europeans during the nineteenth century interested in the Stupas? Give two reasons.
Ans: The European Interest in Stupa:
There are several reasons. The main reason was the gold artifacts found near the stupas.
The second reason was to trace the history of Buddhist India.
According to the letter written by Cunningham, about his interest in stupas:
(1) One reason was numismatics as he fould several gold coins and artifacts while excavating stupas.
(2) Second reason was he wanted to trace the history of Buddhism, compare it with Brahminism and wanted to make the task of the missionaries easier.
Ques 2: How did Karaikkal Ammaiyar become the greatest figure of Nayanar tradition? Explain.
Ans: Karaikkal Ammaiyar is one of the three female Nayanars. She is reverentially called Amma which means mother. Her real name was Punithavathi. She was a great devotee of Shiva from her childhood. She cared for all Shaivites like a mother. She was married. Once her husband had sent her two mangoes for himself. She gave one to a Shaiva.
When her husband came and asked for mangoes, she produced the mangoes by miracle. From that day he mother. There are depictions of her in the form of mother goddess and there is a temple dedicated to her. She probably lived during the sixth century. When she visited Kailas she walked on her hands. This was in reverence to Shiva. In this way she became the greatest of the Naynars. In this way. She became the greatest figure of the Naynars.
Ques 3: One of the most distinctive features of the Harappan cities was the carefully planned drainage system? Elaborate.
Ans: The Drainage system of Harappa:
The Harappans were very keen on health and sanitation. Every house had its own soak pit which was drained into the sewers in the main street. This sewer had inspection taps at regular intervals. They knew that the drains were not to be kept open. Main sewer was 1.5 meters deep. It was made of bricks. The housewives probably knew about what is to be thrown in the drains. Such a drainage system is not seen anywhere in the world even today.
Ques 4: What was the Limitation Law? Why was this considered as a symbol of oppression against the ryots of the 19 century? Give three reasons.
Ans: Limitation Law: In 1859 the British passed a limitation law that stated that the loan bonds signed between the moneylenders and ryots would have validity for only three years. The law was meant to stop the interest over time. The moneylender turned the law. They made the ryot to sign a new bond on the unpaid with its iterest. They wrote figures and finally acquired the land and the property of the ryot and it became the symbol of oppression for the ryot. Which resulted in the revolt of the ryot which is known as Deccan Riots.
The ryot in large number attacked the shops and demanded Vahi Khata and the account books were burnt. Sahukars were attacked and debt bonds were burnt down. This spread to an area of 6000 kilometers.
The British were frightened because of 1857 memories were still strong. It took several months to bring the situation under control.
Ques 5: The keeping of the exact and detailed record was the major concern of the Mughal administration? Support the statement with examples.
Ans: The Record of Mughal Administration:
The Mughals took the administrative system from Shershah Suri. It was given perfection during the times of Akbar. Raja Toradmal fixed the revenue for different crops and types of land. The Mughals issued documents called Patta and cultivation and the state's share. Patta was given to the cultivators and Qubuliyat was retained by the state. The administration was divided into several units and each unit had to give a detailed report to the emperor. It is said that the manasabdari system had all the exact and detailed reports which can help us to trace the history of Mughals.
Ques 6: Assess the role played by Panchayats in the villages during Mughal period.
Examine the status and role played by the women in the agrarian society during Mughal period.
Ans: Role of Panchayats under Mughals:
The village panchayats were very strong in the earlier times but the Mughals introduced Jahagirdari system. The Panch was selected from the community depending on his experience and wisdom. The body of several such men was called Village Panchayat which had been effective from the Vedic times. The Jahagirdars were landed property owners who were allowed to collect the revenue.
This was a new power pattern. It weakened the self-governing panchayat system. The Panchayats used to be financially independent and it was also a kind of court where petty matters were decided. The Jahagirdars system affected badly but scholars think that despite the Panchayats did play a good role in the administration of the village.
The women were considered an important resource in the agrarian society because they were child bearers in a society - dependent on labour. At the same time there were often shortage of wives due to malnutrition, frequent pregnancies and death during child birth. This led to the emergence of social customs in peasant and artisan communities that were distinct from those prevalent amount elite groups. Marriage in many rural communities required the payment of bride price rather the dowry to the bride's family Remarriage was considered legitimate both among divorce and widowed women.
Women had the right to inherit property. Instances from Punjab showed that women including widows, actively participated in the rural land market zamindaris which they were free to sell or mortgage. Women zamindars were known in 18th Century Bengal.