Ques 1: How do the principles of Jainism influence Indian thinking?
Ans: Influence of Jainism on Indian thinking:
Jainism is an ancient religion and it has its own philosophy which has been influencing Indian thought. Jainism thinks that the world is real, and the spirit is also real. It has a theory of karma which explains the interaction between soul and nature. It also preaches Ahimsa (nonviolence) and aparigraha (non-storage).
It has also influenced the Shaiva and Vaishnava cults. Jainism preaches intellectual tolerance and has a practical appreciation of all living. Jainism has never believed in miracles and has tried to give practical solutions. In the sphere of arts and culture also the Jains have contributed a lot. The Jain authors wrote their books in Ardhamagadhi and were instrumental in popularizing local languages. Jains also spread vegetarianism.
Ques 2: How did Naths and Jogis gain ground in the north India during fourteenth and fifteenth centuries?
Ans: Nath/Jogi in the 14th century:
Nath sampradaya was founded by Matsyendranath and was spread throughout India by the eight Nathas who followed him. The most prominent among them was Gorakhnath who popularized laya yoga. He wrote a book on it and composed many songs which are popular to this date. Gorakhnath wandered throughout India and composed songs in many languages. There were mutts established by nathas.
Jogi is a corrupt form of Yogi. The word nathjogi is redundant. The yogis are called jogis. From 11th century the jogis wandered throughout India. Their needs were minimum, they begged and remained engaged in spiritual practices. The arrival of Sufis must have influenced the Nathjogis. Later this cult culminated in Bhakti Movement which gripped the whole India in the middle ages.
Ques 3: Archaeologists have no proper response for the central authority of the Harappans? Substantiate.
Ans: Archaeologists have no response for the central authority in Harappa.
Archaeologists found many things in Harappa, There was a lot of damage because the bricks were used for Ac railway project and also by the locals for their housing needs. They could find out about the city planning. They were astonished by the drainage system. They found two parts in Ac town well separated.
They found the seals and they came to know about the script. But the script remains undeciphered. The archeologists are in the dark about the social structure or the central authority of Harappa. As weapons are very few the people were apparently peace loving. Whether they were ruled democratically or autocratically could not be ascertained because the script remains undeciphered.
Ques 4: Mughal history provides accounts of diplomatic relationship and conflicts with the neighbouring political powers? Explain with examples.
Ans: Mughal history is about the diplomatic relations and conflicts about neighbouring states.
The Mughal emperors appointed authors to write the history of their times. They recorded the events. In addition to that they collected vast information about the neighbouring kingdoms and their relations and conflict with the Mughals. These histories were called chronicles. These chronicles were painstakingly written.
When Akbar commissioned Abul Fazal he requested his aunt to give her memories of the earlier times of Babar and Humayun. Babar himself was a poet and a keen observer. In Akbarnama and Badshahnama we come to know about the events in the lives of these emperors, the battles they fought as well as their relations with the neighbours.
Ques 5: What was the ryotwari system? Why did the ryots turn violent? Explain three reasons.
Ans: The British wanted to devise new methods of revenue collection because they needed money to meet their expenses. In the south territories this was tried in a small scale by Captain Alexander Read. This was further developed by Munro. This was called Ryotwari system. In this the zamindars were neglected because they felt that there were no zamindars in the south, the settlement was done direct with the ryot. The land was to be carefully surveyed and assessment was done for the revenue.
But it did not work well. In order to get more revenue the assessment was wrongly done and the ryot turned violent because they were unable to pay.
The ryot working in the indigo plantations turned violent. They refused to pay the rent and beat the lathiyals (Men welding lathis). The resistance was so strong that the British had to send troupes to pacify the situation.
The Three Reasons for me revolt in the indigo plantations. The indigo system was oppressive. After the indigo crop, he land could not be used for other crops.
The planters were not happy with rising power w me ryot and they tried to bully the ryot with lathiyals. The ryot felt that government was with them.
Ques 6: Examine the strengths and weaknesses of Ain-i-Akbari.
Examine the Panchayat system of the Mughal Empire.
Ans: Ain-i Akbari: Ain-i Akbari is the third part of Akbarnama written by Abul Fazal who was in Akbar's court and was commissioned to write the chronicle of Akbar's times.
Aine Akbari is divided in five parts. The first two parts tell about the emperor, his family, his court, his officers and their duties and also about their salary.
In the third part judiciary and accounts are detailed.
In the fourth part the descripdon of India and its people. Abul Fazal has given a detailed account of the Hindus and their culture.
The fifth part is a compilation of quotations i-rom famous poets and verses and idioms or adages.
Ain-i Akbari is almost a reference manual and Akbarnama is used by scholars as a reference book for the Mughal history.
The panchayat system of the Mughals:
The panchayats are also called gramsabhas. They have been, in existence since Vedic times. They are local self-governments. Some elderly and experienced people were selected to act as panch and many of these made the panchayat. In Hindu caste system, different castes had their own panchayats to look after the welfare of their community The Gram panchayats were financially independent and were also judiciaries in a small scale. They also collected the revenue and gave a part to the state.
The Mughals appointed one more middleman called Jagirdar. Jagirdars were landed property owners who collected taxes and maintained strongmen.
This disturbed the status of panchayats. Their financial status was no longer independent. Sometimes there were clashes between jagirdars and Panchayats.
But despite this the panchayats played their roles significantly in the Mughal times.