Ques 1: 'The burials in Harappan sites reveal the economic and social differences amongst the people living within a particular culture.' Give two evidences in support of your answer.
Ans: The evidences that reveal the social and economic differences in Harappan sites are:
(i) Burials: From the site, it is found that few DEADS were laid down in ordinary pits whereas few others were laid down in proper lined and hollowed out spaces with brick coverings. In some graves pottery, ornaments were also found indicating the belief that these could be used by the life after death.
(ii) Luxuries: Objects of daily use - stone or clay pottery, needles, flesh rubbers were found throughout settlement by Archaeologists. Distribution of rare artefacts of valuable material were concentrated in large settlement of Mohenjodaro and Harappan culture.
Ques 2: Examine why Bernier was against the idea of crown ownership of land in Mughal India.
Ans: Bernier saw that the crown ownership of land is harmful for both the state and its people. The crown owner distributed the land among his nobles which had disastrous consequence for economy and society as it led to the ruination of agriculture, excessive oppression of peasantry and continuous decline in the living standard. This was the reason Bernier was against the idea of crown ownership of land in Mughal India.
Ques 3: Why were many Zamindaris auctioned after the Permanent Settlement in Bengal? Give two reasons.
Ans: (i) The initial fixed revenue demand was very high. Prices of agricultural produce were low. Sunset law was applied. The Zamindari powers were limited and could not collect rent in time.
(ii) Due to non-payment of revenues in time, Zamindari lands were auctioned. Problems were created by the Jotedars. The rise of Jotedars weakened the zamindari authority.
Ques 4: What evidences have been put forward to explain the collapse of the Harappan Civilization?
Ans: Several evidences have been put forward to explain the collapse of Harappan civilization:
(i) Climatic change.
(iii) Excessive floods.
(iv) The shifting and drying up of rivers.
(v) Overuse of landscape.
The archaeologists observed that most of the mature Harappan sites shifted to new settlements in Gujarat, Haryana etc. Other causes may be strong unifying element, perhaps the Harappan states came to an end which is evident by the disappearance of seals, distinctive beads and pottery, the script, and the decline and abandonment of cities.
Ques 5: Explain the sources used by historians to reconstruct the history of the Mauryan Empire.
Ans: Variety of sources have been uoee1 w historians to reconstruct the history of the Mauryan Empire. There Megasthenes who was a greek ambassador to the court of Chandragupta Maurya. Another source which is used, is the Arth Shastra, parts of which were probably composed by Kautilya or Chanakya, minister of Chandragupt Maurya, The maurayans are also mentioned later on by Buddhist, Jaina and Puranic literature as well as in Sanskrit literature.
The other valuable sources are the inscription, of Ashoka Chakra on rocks and pillars.
Ques 6: 'Kabir was and is to the present a source of inspiration for those who questioned entrenched social institutions and ideas in their search for divine'. Explain.
Ans: (i) Kabir's philosophy was synthesis of many religion with the underlying always being supreme and deep abiding love for the lord. He accepted the Hindu concept of law and karma and re-incarnating along with the Muslim affirmation of a single God and rejected the rigid caste system and strict idol worship, thus amalgamating the bhakti and sufi tradition.
(ii) His philosophy to all as it was and is relevant to even present situations that surrounded the daily lives of people.
Ques 7: 'The nobility was recruited consciously by the Mughal rulers from diverse ethnic and religious groups.' Justify.
Ans: One of the most important pillar of die Mughal state was its Corps of officers also referred to by historians collectively as the nobility. Mughals were described as a bouquet of flowers herd together by loyalty to the emperor. Turani and Iranian nobles were the earliest in Akbar's imperial services. Aurangzeb appointed the Rajputs to high positions and Marathas accounted for a sizeable number within the body of officer. Raja Bharmal of Kachhwaha dynasty, a small kingdom of Amber Jaipur), was the father-in-law of Akbar.
Ques 8: Examine the circumstances that led to the passing of 'Limitation Laws' by the British in 1859.
Ans: In 1859, British passed a limitation law that stated that the loan bonds signed between moneylenders and Ryots would have validity for only three years for the following reasons:
(i) Being unable to back the loan to moneylenders, the survival of Ryots became difficult.
(ii) The moneylenders were powerful and were violating the customary norms that regulated the relationship between moneylenders and Ryots.
(iii) Moneylenders were unwilling to give the loan to Ryots without legal bonds. This way ryots faced unjustice in the hands of moneylenders.
Ques 9: Highlight the measures taken to ensure unity among the rebels of 1857.
Ans: Following measures were taken to ensure unity among rebels:
(i) Both Hindus and Muslims requested Bahadur Shah Zafar for Leadership.
(ii) The proclamation issued during the revolt appealed to all sections equally.
(iii) The sentiments of both communities were respected and cared.
(iv) The posters glorified the pre-British unity.
Ques 10: Read the following passage and answer the question that follows:
'For the success of democracy one must train oneself in the art of self-discipline. In democracies, one should care less for himself and more for others. There can't be any divided loyalty. All loyalties must exclusively be centered round the state. If in a democracy, you create rival loyalties or you create a system in which any individual or a group, instead of suppressing his extravagance cares not for larger or other interests, then democracy is doomed."
In the light of the above passage highlight the values which a loyal citizen of a democratic country should uphold.
Ans: Loyal citizen of a democratic country should:
(i) Train himself in the art of self-discipline.
(ii) Careless for himself and more for others.
(iii) Understand there can't be any divided loyality.
(iv) Create a system in which any individual or a group, instead of suppressing his extravagance cares not for his larger interests, but for nation.
Ques 11: 'The Mahabharata is a story of kinship, marriages and patriliny.' Examine the statement.
'Because of the diversity of the Indian subcontinent there have always been populations whose social practices were not influenced by the Brahminical ideas during 600 BCE-600 CE.' Examine the statement.
Ans: Mahabharata is a story of kinship, marriages and patriliny:
(i) Family which is a unit and is part of large networks of people, is defined as relatives.
(ii) System of patriliny was prevalent in north India.
(iii) Blood relations of two groups of cousins - the Kauravas and Pandavas.
(iv) Under patriliny, sons could claim the resources of their father when the latter died.
(v) After marriage, woman had to give up father's gotra and opt husband?s gotra on marriage.
(vi) Man and woman who are members of same gotra could not marry. They will be considered as brother and sister.
(vii) According to Sutras only Kshatriya could be a king.
Sixth century BCE is regarded as major turning point in early Indian History.
(i) It was the era associated with the growing population and emerging new cities.
(ii) It witnessed growth of diversified system of thoughts including Buddhism and Jainism.
(iii) It is also associated with the emergence of sixteen Mahajan Padas.
(iv) Magadh was known as best Mahajanpad and became the most powerful. The population in that area were attracted towards new power centre having new policies rather than prevailing south Indian Brahminical ideas.
(v) Chandragupta Maurya, who founded the empire extended control as far northwest as Afghanistan and Baluchistan.
(vi) There were five major political centres in the empire - the capital city Pataliputra, Taxila, Ujjayini, Tosali and Suvarnagiri.
(vii) These reflects that centre of knowledge shifted from South India to North India.
Ques 12: Identify the rituals and practices associated with the Mahanavami Dibba, a structure in the Royal Centre of Vijayanagara Empire.
Outline the distinctive features of the Virupaksha temple and the Vitthala temple in the Royal Centre of Vijayanagara Empire.
Ans: The Mahanavami Dibba is located on one of the highest points in the city. It is a very large platform rising from a base of about 11000 feet to a height of 40 feet. It seems that it supported the wonder structure.
Rituals and Practices:
(i) Rituals associated with the structure must have coincided with Mahanavami of ten day hindu festival during the autumn months of September and October, known variously as Dushehra (North India), Durga Puja (West Bengal) and Navratri (Peninsular India).
(ii) Ceremonies performed on the occasion included worship of image, worship of state horse, and the sacrifice of buffaloes and other animals.
(iii) Dances, wrestling, procession of horse elephants and chariots as ritual presentation before the king.
(iv) On the last day of festival, the king inspected his army and armies of nayaks in a grand ceremony in an open field.
Features of Virupaksha and Vitthala temples:
(i) It is built over centuries, may be during ninth or tenth centuries as suggested in the inscription.
(ii) It is dedicated to Lord Virupaksha, the guardian diety of kingdom.
(iii) It is decorated with carved pillars.
(iv) There are many big halls which are used for marriages, social programmes and other social occasions.
(i) The Principal deity of this important shrine is Vitthala, a form of Lord Vishnu.
(ii) Temple has several halls and a unique shrine designed as chariot.
(iii) A feature of temple complexes is the chariot streets that extended from temple gopuram in a straight line.
(iv) These streets were paved with stone slabs and lined with pillared pavilions in which merchants set up their shops.
Ques 13: Explain how Non-Cooperation Movement made Gandhiji a national leader.
Explain why some scholars see partition of India as the culmination of communal politics.
Ans: About Non-Cooperation Movement, Louis Fisher wrote, it became the name of epoch in the life of India, the land of Gandhiji Non-Cooperation Movement was negative for British ruler but at the same time was peaceful and positive enough to be effective. It was in South Africa, he first focussed in distinctive technique of non-violent protest known as Satyagrah and promoted harmony between religion.
(i) He successfully organised Satyagraha at Champaran (1917), Ahmedabad and Khera (1918). This was the beginning of Gandhiji?s popularity among the public.
(ii) After Jallianwala Bagh massacre, he called for a campaign of non-cooperation with British rule and joined hands with Khilafat movement.
(iii) Gandhiji became popular amongst Indians because he dressed like them, lived like them and spoke their language.
(iv) When he was in prison in 1924, he devoted himself in constructive work like promotion of home spun khadi clothes, abolition of untouchability, Hindu-Muslim unity.
Most of the scholars agree that Partition of India was the culmination of communal policies of then British rulers as:
(i) Provinces and princely states were re-organised on the basis of religion and language.
(ii) Gandhiji moved from the villages of Noakhali in East Bengal to the villages in Bihar and riot turned slums to Calcutta in an effort to stop killing of Hindus and Muslims by each other to re-assure the minority community.
(iii) In 1946, Muslims in East Bengal targeted Hindus. Gandhiji visited the villages on foot and persuaded local Muslims to guarantee the safety of Hindus and restore communal harmony.
(iv) On 28th Nov. 1947, on the occasion of Guru Nanak Birthday, there were no Muslims on the Chandni Chowk road. Gandhiji condemned the mentality of Hindus who wanted to drive out every Muslim from the city to Pakistan.
(v) After this, there were no communal riots.
(vi) Refugees were settled down by Indian Government.
Ques 14: Read the following excerpt carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The world beyond the palace
Just as the Buddha's teachings were compiled by his followers, the teachings of Mahavira were also recorded by his disciples. These were often in the form of stories, which could appeal to ordinary people. Here is one example, from a Prakrit- rexi known as the Uttaradhyayana Sutta, describing how a queen named Kamalavati tried to persuade her husband to renounce the world:
If the whole world and all its treasures "were yours, you would not be satisfied, nor -would all this be able to save you. When you die. 0 king and leave all things behind, dhamma alone, and nothing else, will save you. As a bird dislikes the cage, so do I dislike (the world). I shall live as a nun without offspring, without desire, without the love of gain, and without hatred.......
Those who have enjoyed pleasures and renounced them, move about like the wind, and go wherever they please, unchecked like birds in their flight......
Leave your large kingdom........ abandon what pleases the senses, be without attachment and property, then practice severe penance, being firm of energy ....
(i) Who compiled the teachings of Buddha and Mahavira?
(ii) Explain how did the queen try to convince her husband to renounce the world.
(iii) Describe any three principles of Jainism.
Ans: (i) Teachings of Buddha and Mahavira were compiled by their followers and disciples.
(ii) The queen Kamlawad tried to persuade her husband to renounce the world. She said The treasures of whole world will be able to save you. When you die, 0 King and leave all things behind, dhamma alone, and nothing else, will save you. As a bird dislikes the cage, I do dislike the world. I shall live like a nun without offspring, without desire, without the love of gain, and without hatred.
(iii) The three principles of Jainism are:
A. Life exists even in rocks and stones normally considered as non-living.
B. The principle of non-violence is practised in extreme form in Jainism. No harm should be caused to anyone including non-living.
C. The cycle of birth and re-birth is shaped through karma, one must practice ascetism and penance. It is possible when one renounces the world. So one has to live in monastery to attain salvation.
D. Jain monks have to take vows to observe the following:
(i) Not to kill anyone.
(ii) Not to steal anything.
(iii) Not tell lies.
(iv) Not to possess property.
(v) To observe celibacy.
Ques 15: Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Irrigating trees and fields
This is an excerpt from the Baburnama that describes the irrigation devices the emperor observed in Northern India:
The greater part of Hindustan country is situated on level land. Many though its towns and cultivated lands are, it nowhere has running waters. For water is not at all a necessity in cultivating crops and orchards. Autumn crops grow by the downpour of the rains themselves; and strange it is that spring crops grow even when no rains fall. (However) to young trees water is made to flow by means of buckets or wheels....
In Lahore, Dipalpur (both in present-day Pakistan) and those other parts, people water by means of a wheel. They make two circles of rope long enough to suit the depths of the well, fix strips of wood between them, and on these fasten pitchers. The ropes with the wood and attached pitchers are put over the wheel-well. At one end of the wheel-axle a second wheel is fixed, and close to it another on an upright axle. The last wheel the bullock turns; its teeth catch in the teeth of the second (wheel), and thus the wheel with the pitchers is turned. A trough is set where the water empties from the pitchers and from this the water is conveyed everywhere.
In Agra, Chandwar, Bayana (all in present-day Uttar Pradesh) and those parts again, people water with a bucket. At the well-edge they set up a fork of wood, having a roller adjusted between the forks, tie a rope to a large bucket, put the rope over a roller, and tie its other end to the bullock. One person must drive the bullock, another empty the bucket.
(i) Explain the irrigation technology as observed by the Emperor.
(ii) What was the necessity of irrigation?
(iii) Explain any three factors which are responsible for the expansion of agriculture in India.
Ans: (i) The Emperor observed that technology used for irrigation was that people water by means of a wheel. They make two circles of rope to suit the depth of the well, fix strips of wood between them, and on this fasten pitchers (Earthen pot Ghara). Such ropes are put over the wheel-well. At one end of the wheel axle, a second wheel is fixed. And close to it another on an upright axle. The last wheel the bullock turns and thus the wheel with pitchers is turned. A trough is set where the water empties from the pitchers and from this water is conveyed everywhere.
(ii) Most of Hindustan country is situated on level land. This had many towns and cultivated lands, but nowhere has running water. As per Baburnama, water was not at all a necessity in cultivating crops and orchards. Autumn crops are grown by downpour of rains themselves; and spring crops grow even in absence of rainfall.
(iii) (a) During Mughal reign, India was basically an agricultural country. A limited type of crop was produced.
(b) Mughals encouraged peasants to cultivate variety of crops which brought in revenue, especially cotton and sugarcane.
(c) Cotton was mainly grown in vast area which was spread over Central India and the Deccan plateau, whereas in Bengal mainly sugarcane was produced.
(d) Many variety of cash crops such as oilseeds including mustards and lentils
(e) An average peasant of that time grew both commercial and subsistence crops.
Ques 16: Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Escaping to the countryside
This is how the famous poet Mirza Ghalib described what the people of Delhi did when the British forces occupied the city in 1857.
Smiting the enemy and driving him before them, the victors (i.e., the British) overran the city in all directions. All whom they found in the street they cut down..... For two to three days every road in the city, from the Kashmir Gate to Chandni Chowk, was a battlefield. Three gates the Ajmeri, the Turcoman and the Delhi were still held by the rebels ... At the naked spectacle of this vengeful wrath and malevolent hatred the colour fled from men's faces, and a vast concourse of men and women..... Took to precipitate flight through these three gates. Seeking the little villages and shrines outside the city, they drew breath to wait until such time as might favour their return.
(i) Who was Mirza Ghalib' What did he describe'
(ii) Why did British attack Delhi? Give two reasons.
(iii) How did the people escape from Delhi and where did they take shelter?
Ans: (i) Mirza Ghalib the famous Urdu poet who described what the people of Delhi did when the British forces occupied the city in 1857.
(ii) (a) To control the rebellion in the army, after the mutiny broke out in East India and became a mass uprising in many parts of country.
(b) A group of rebellions entered Delhi and after a little fighting, they took control over the red fort and wanted to crown Bahadur Shah Zafar. In order to control these rebellions, British army entered Delhi and for two to three days killed everyone whoever was seen on road from Kashmir gate to Chandni Chowk.
(iii) As the three gates, the Ajmeri Gate, Turkman gate and Delhi gate were in control of rebels, the people who saw with naked spectacle of this vengeful wrath and malevolent hatred, a vast concourse of men and women fled through these three gates. Seeking the little villages and shrines outside the city, wherever they could found safe shelter.
Ques 17: (i) On the given outline political map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols:
(a) Ajmer, a territory under Mughals.
(b) Gwalior, a centre of the Revolt of 1857.
(ii) On the same map three places related to the mature Harappan sites has beenb marked as A, B, C. Identify them and write their names correctly on the lines drawn near them.