Ques 1: Explain how different methods of irrigation were developed for agriculture in the Harappan sites.
Answer: Canals and wells were constructed for irrigation. Traces of canals have been found in all the Harappan sites.
Ques 2: Why did the Santhals rebel against Zamindars and Colonial Power? Give two reasons.
Ans: (i) Santhals were settled in Raj Mahal area.
(ii) Moneylenders charged the high rate of interest and took over their land when they were unable to pay die money. So they revolted against the exploitation by zamindars.
Ques 3: Describe the contribution of John Marshall in the Indian archaeology.
Ans: John Marshall is a famous archaeologist who studied Harappan civilization. Marshall tended to excavate along regular horizontal units, measured uniformly through the mound, ignoring the straight lines of the site. This meant that all the artefacts recovered from the same unit were grouped together, even they are found at different layers. As a result valuable information about the contexts of these findings have been found. There are also evidences of seals, toys, games, and stringed musical instruments in Indus valley. This shows that society at that time was civilised.
Ques 4: 'The nobility was recruited consciously by the Mughal rulers from diverse ethnic and religious groups.' Justify.
Ans: One of the most important pillar of Mughal state was its corps of officers, known as nobility. Nobility was created from diverse ethnic and religious groups which ensured that no faction was large enough to challenge the authority of state. They were as one bouquet of flowers held together by loyality to the Emperor. There were Rajputs, Indian Muslims, Turanis and Iranians also.
All holders to the government offices held ranks or mansabs having designation of Zat it was the indication of the position in the imperial hierarchy and the salary of Mansabdar, and the second one was of Sawar indicating the number of horse men required to maintain in. service.
The nobles participated in military campaigns and also served as officers of the empire in provinces.
Ques 5: 'In the late 12th Century, the Chishtis adapted to the local environment and adopted features of Indian devotional traditions.? Explain.
Answer: Chistis were a part of Sufi's hospices of Khanqah. There were small rooms & halls for students to live and pray.
They adapted features of Indian devotional traditions.
(i) They converted Hindus to Islam.
(ii) They used the language of people to propagate their religious ideas.
(iii) They spread Islam among lower class of society.
(iv) Sultan also granted them free lands to the Khanqahs.
(v) Shaikh Moinuddin Chishti called the Khawaja was the first saint of Chishti order.
(vi) Three most famous Dargah setup by Chishti Order are Nizamuddin (Delhi), Fatehpur Sikri (Agra) and Ajmer.
Ques 6: Examine why Quit India Movement was started and how do you think the Quit India Movement was genuinely a mass movement.
'Oral testimonies and memories are the important sources for constructing the history of partition of India.' Examine the statement.
Ans: Quit India Movement was started in 1942 because:
(a) Cripps Mission was failed.
(b) The entry of the Axis power Japan in India during the Second World War.
(c) Defeat of British in Second World War.
(d) Gandhiji launched "Quit India Movement" against the British rule.
(e) It was a mass movement bringing into the ambit, hundred of thousands ordinary Indians.
(f) It especially energised the young who in large number left their college and joined Congress, whose leaders captivated in jails.
Oral narratives and memories are the important sources for constructing the history of partition of India.
(a) Memories and Experiences: Millions of people viewed Partition in terms of the suffering and challenges of times. For them it was no more constitutional divisions or just the party politics of the Muslim League, Congress and others. For them, it meant the unexpected alterations in life as it is unfolded between 1946 and 1950 and beyond requiring psychological, emotional and social adjustments. Memories and experiences shape the reality of an event.
(b) Oral Narration: Oral history allows historians to broaden, the boundaries of their discipline by rescuing from oblivion, the lived experience of the poor and the powerless. The oral history of partition has succeeded in exploring the experiences of those men and women whose experience has hitherto been ignored, taken for granted or mentioned only in passing in mainstream history.