Ques 1: Explain the techniques of craft production, especially bead making at the Harappan sites of Lothal and Chanhudaro.
Answer: Technique of making beads:
(a) Stealite is a very soft stone, was easily worked. Some beads were moulded out of a paste made with stealite powder. Then they were made in variety of shapes. Microbeads were also made of stealite.
(b) Red colour of carnelian was obtained by firing the yellowish raw material and heads at various stages of production.
(c) Nodules were clipped into rough shapes and then finely flaked into final form. Grinding, polishing and drilling completed the process.
Ques 2: Describe the drainage system of the Harappan cities.
Ans: The most distinctive feature of Harappan cities was the carefully planned drainage system. In the lower town the roads and streets were laid out along an approximate grid pattern, intersecting at right angles. If the domestic waste water has to flow into street drains, every house needed to have atleast one wall along a street.
Every house was connected to the street drains. The main channels were made of bricks set in mortar and were covered with loose bricks or lime stones that could be removed for cleaning. House drains were first emptied into a sump or cess pit into which solid matter settled while waste water flowed out into the street drains. Very long drainage channels were provided at intervals with sumps for cleaning. Drainage systems were not unique to the larger cities but were found in smaller settlements as well.
Ques 3: 'Islam and is principles Permeated far and wide through the sub-continent.' Explain the statement.
Answer: Islam and its principles were permeated far and wide through the sub-continent due to the following:
(a) Islam said that there is one God, Allah and Prophet Mohammad its messenger.
(b) Offering the prayers five times a day (Namaz/Salat)
(c) Giving arms (Zakat).
(d) Pasting during the month of Ramzaan (Sawn).
(e) Performing the pilgrimage to Mecca (Haj).
Ques 4: Critically examine 'The Fifth Report' of late Eighteenth Century.
Answer: Fifth report was submitted 10 British Parliament in 1813 about administration activities of East India Company.
(i) There were many groups in Britain who were opposed to the monopoly of trade that East India Company had with India and China. These groups wanted revocation against this rule for lifting monopoly.
(ii) Many political groups argued that the trade by East India Company was benefitting them only and not the British nation as whole.
(iii) The private traders wanted a share in Indian trade and the British Industrialist were keen to open up the Indian market for British manufacturers.
(iv) Information about company misrule and maladministration was hotly debated in Britain and incidence of the greed and corruption of company officials was widely publicised in the press. The British parliament passed a series of acts in late 18th century to regulate the control of company rule in India and appointed committees to enquire into the affair of the company. The fifth report was one such report produced by a select committee.
Ques 5: Examine why did Gandhiji start the Salt Satyagrah. Why was Salt Satyagrah a notable event?
Examine the outcome of the provincial elections of 1937 and explain the role of Congress ministries and Muslim League on it.
Ans: (i) On 12th March 1930, Gandhiji began his famous march to Dandi alongwith selected followers to break the salt law. Throughout the march, at every step and stage, villagers flocked to greet Mahatma Gandhi and his followers, with flowers, cheers and national slogan.
(ii) Thus the masses were prepared for the impending struggle. The act of Mahatma Gandhi and his followers was a signal for breaking of salt laws all over the country. The government resorted to merciless repression. The government responded by detaining the dissenters. Nearly 60,000 Indians were arrested along with Gandhi Ji. The American news magazine TIME was deeply sceptical about the salt march, it claimed that Gandhi Ji? Sank to the ground at the and of second day's walking. Bur within a week the magazine had to change its mind. The massive popular following that the march had garnered, wrote TIME had made the British rulers desperately anxious. The march was extensively covered by European and American press.
(i) In 1931 election to the provisional legislature were held for the first time. The congress did well and won election by absolute majority in five out of eleven provinces and forming government in seven of them. It did badly only in the constituency reserved for Muslims. But the Muslim League also faired badly, polling out 4.4% of the total Muslims east in the election.
(ii) In united provinces the Muslim league wanted to form, a joint government with congress. The congress has won the absolute majority so they rejected the offer.