Ques 1: First Gulf War was fought against _________ in which troops from _________ countries fought.
Ans: First Gulf War was fought against Iraq in which troops from 34 countries fought.
Ques 2: What does the word 'hegemony' imply?
Ans: Hegemony means the domination or control by one country or state over a group of others.
Ques 3: Correct the following statement and rewrite:
Eight temporary members of the U.N. Security Council are elected by the General Assembly for a period of three years.
Ans: Ten temporary members of the U.N. Security Council are elected by the General Assembly for a period of two years.
Ques 4: What is the highest functionary of the U.N. called?
Ans: The highest functionary of the U.N. is called General Secretary.
Ques 5: What was the basis of the report of the States Reorganization Commission?
Ans: The States Reorganization Commission accepted that the basis of organization of new states should be languages.
Ques 6: In which year did the Congress Party win 415 seats in the Lok Sabha? Who became the Prime Minister then?
Ans: Congress party won 415 seats in 1984 and Sh. Rajiv Gandhi became the Prime Minister.
Ques 7: Name the leaders who gave the following slogans:
(i) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan
(ii) Garibi Hatao
Ans: (i) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan - Sh. Lal Bahadur Shastri
(ii) Garibi Hatao - Smt. Indira Gandhi
Ques 8: Which theoretical argument did Rammanohar Lohia give in defence of non-Congressism?
Ans: Ram Manohar Lohia said that Congress rule was undemocratic and opposed to the interest of ordinary poor people, therefore the coming together of the non-Congress parties was necessary for reclaiming democracy for the people.
Ques 9: What was the Anti-Arrack Movement?
Ans: Anti-Arrack Movement was started in Andhra Pradesh and demanded prohibition on the sale of arrack (alcohol).
Ques 10: Mention any two incidents of violence against the minority community which are a threat to democracy?
Ans: Demolition of Babri Masjid in 1992 and Gujarat riots in 2002 are a threat to democracy.
Ques 11: Mention any two characteristics of the Soviet Political System.
Ans: 1. The Soviet system was based on communist principles.
2. Soviet system of government was based on federalism.
Ques 12: For how many years did the civil war continue in Tajikistan? When did it come to an end?
Ans: The civil war in Tajikistan continued for almost 10 years and it was ended in 1997.
Ques 13: In the European Union flag, what does the symbol of 'twelve gold stars in a circle' signify?
Ans: In European Union flag the circle of twelve gold stars stands for solidarity and harmony between the people of Europe. It was twelve stars, as the number twelve is traditionally the symbol of perfection, competence and unity.
Ques 14: What was the 'Operation Infinite Reach' Ordered by President Clinton?
Ans: In 1998, there was bombing on the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar-es-salaam in Tanzania by Al-Qaeda, a terrorist organization. President Clinton ordered Operation Infinite Reach in which AT Qaeda terrorist targets in Sudan and Afghanistan were attacked America did not bother about the U.N. Sanction in this regard.
Ques 15: Mention any two political consequences of globalization.
Ans: Following are the main political consequences of globalization:
1. Globalization has shifted the power to regulate certain activities from governments to international institutions.
2. The international organizations like World Trade Organization framed rules and regulations for all countries.
Ques 16: Mention any two challenges that India faced just after Independence.
Ans: 1. First challenge was to unite India.
2. Integration of princely states was a very big problem. The second challenge was the establishment of democracy.
Ques 17: What were the fears of tribal population of Orissa and environmentalists about setting up industries in the tribal district?
Ans: The tribal population feared that the setting up of industries would mean displacement form their home and livelihood. The environmentalist feared that mining an industry would pollute the environment.
Ques 18: Why did India not join either of the two camps during the Cold War?
Ans: During Cold War era India's foreign policy was based on the principal of Non-alignment. Therefore, India did not join either of the two superpower camps during the cold war.
Ques 19: List any four activities conducted by Bharatiya Kisan Union to pressurize the state for accepting its demands.
Ans: (1) Rallies (2) Demonstrations (3) Sit-ins (4) Jail Bharo Andolan.
Ques 20: What was the change in the electoral performance of the Congress Party and BJP from 1984 - 2004?
Ans: In 1984, Congress Party secured 415 seats in Lok Sabha. But in 1989 Congress Party secured 197 seats. In May-June 1991 Congress Party secured 225 seats, in 1996 only 141 seats, in 1998 secured 142 seats and in 1999, Congress Party secured 144 seats. In the 14th Lok Sabha elections held in April-May 2004, Congress Party secured 145 seats.
In the Lok Sabha election in December, 1984 the BJP secured only two seats. But after 1984 BJP's performance was much better. In 1989 BJP secured 66 seats in the Lok Sabha. In the tenth Lok Sabha election, BJP secured 119 seats. In the 12th Lok Sabha elections held in 1998, BJP secured 182 seats. In 1999, BJP secured 182 seats and NDA formed the government. In 14th Lok Sabha elections held in 2004, BJP secured only 138 seats and lost the power in the centre.
Ques 21: Name any two founders of Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). The first NAM Summit was the culmination of which three factors?
Ans: The two founders of Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) were as follows:
1. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru of India
2. Josep Broz Tito of Yugoslavia.
The first Non-aligned Summit was held in Belgrade in 1961. The first NAM Summit was the culmination of following three factors.
1. Increasing cold war tension and its widening areas.
2. Many new decolonised African countries became the members of NAM.
3. Co-operation among five countries.
Ques 22: Despite the mixed record of democratic experience, the people of all the countries of South Asia share the aspirations of democracy? Explain.
Ans: The various countries in South Asia did not have the same kind of political system. Despite many drawbacks and problems, democratic system is working successfully in India and Sri Lanka. But Pakistan and Bangladesh have experienced both democratic and military system. After the end of the Cold War, the democratic government was established under the leadership of Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif which did not last for a long time.
It suffered a military coup in 1999 and the power was captured by General Pervez Musharraf which lasted till the beginning of 2008. In Bangladesh, movement for the restoration of democracy was started by students in 1991 and military ruler General H.M. Ershad was forced to resign. General elections were held in 1991 and democratic system was established.
In Nepal, there was a constitutional monarchy till 2005. But on February 1, 2005 King Gyanendera Bir Bikram Shah Dev took all executive powders into his hands and established absolute monarchy. But in 2006, successful popular uprising led to the restoration of democracy and reduced the king to nominal head. In June 2005, multi-party system was introduced on Maldives.
On the basis of experience of Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal, we can say that democracy is becoming an accepted form of government in the entire region of South Asia because the people in all these countries share the aspirations.
Ques 23: List any four steps suggested by the member-states of the U.N. in 2005 in order to make the United Nations more relevant.
Ans: Following steps were suggested by the member states of the U.N. in 2005 in order to make the U.N. more relevant:
1. Creation of a peace building commission.
2. Acceptance of responsibility of the international community in case of failure of national government to protect their own citizens from atrocities.
3. Establishment of a Human Rights Council (since 2006)
4. Creation of democracy fund.
Ques 24: Explain in brief any four components of India's security strategy.
Ans: 1. India has built up its military strength and its capabilities.
2. India has strengthened international institutions, international norms, international law, etc.
3. India adopted a firm policy to deal with militant, separatist and other rebel groups of Mizoram, Nagaland etc.
4. Construction on socio-economic development is another component of India?s Security system.
Ques 25: What is meant by 'Global Commons' Suggest any two steps for the protection of 'Global Commons'
Ans: Global Commons are those areas, objects or resources of the world which are not a part of the exclusive jurisdiction of any one country. Examples of Global Commons are earth's atmosphere, the oceans, air space, Antarctica. Global Commons are also called world heritage because they are passed on by the present generation to the next generation and so on. Global environment is also a Global Common and World Heritage.
Protection of Global Commons:
1. The Global Commons should be utilized in a limited way. Global Commons should be restricted to scientific research and commercial exploitation should be banned.
2. Awareness should be created in the public about the importance of Global Commons.
Ques 26: Define Globalization, Explain any three causes of Globalization.
Ans: Globalization is a process by which the planet earth is considered to be one single unit where social and economic interaction among the people are based on interdependence. The world is considered to be a global village with global issues and problems, likely to be talked with global efforts and co-operation.
Causes of Globalization:
1. Modem technology: The invention of the telegraph, telephone and die microchip in recent times has developed the communication among different countries of the world. Due to technology whole world has become a Global Village.
2. Expansion of industrialization and multi-national comparisons is also responsible for the development of globalization.
3. Establishment of worldwide institutions is also responsible for the development of globalization. For example, U.N.O was established in 1945. It is an international system of states committed to the cause of universal welfare and upliftment. United Nations tries to fight against natural calamities as well as man-made problems.
4. Competitive economy is another important cause of globalization. The developing countries are trying to complete with the developed countries.
5. The declining relevance of geographical distance and the insignificance of territorial boundaries are also important cause of globalization.
Ques 27: Match the following:
(a) Ch. Charan Singh
(b) P.C. Mahalanobis
(c) Bihar Famine
(d) Varghese Kurien
Ans: Ch. Charan Singh - Farmers
P.C. Mahalanobis - Industrialization
Bihar famine - Zoning
Verghese Kurien - Milk-Cooperatives.
Ques 28: What was the Tibet issue? How did it cause tension between India and China? Explain.
Ans: India's policy of contentment crossed limits when India gave its extra-territorial rights enjoyed in Tibet, to China by signing a trade-agreement on 29tn April, 1954. Both the countries at the time of agreement expressed their faith in the principles of Panchsheel. In 1958, there was uprising in Tibet against China's occupation. Chinese forces suppressed the movement. In 1959, the Dalai Lama crossed over the Indian border and sought asylum which was given by the Indian government. Large number of Tibetan had sought refugee in India. Hence Tibet became an issue of tension between India and China.
Study the cartoon given above carefully and answer the following questions:
(i) Identify and name the person holding in his hand, the placed Save Democracy?
(ii) In your opinion, the group of five persons belongs to which political party?
(iii) According to the group of five, what are the intentions of the person sitting on ?Dharna?
(iv) Which issues responsible for the downfall of democracy are highlighted in the cartoon?
Ans: (i) Jaya Prakash Narayan.
(ii) Congress Party
(iii) Jaya Prakash Narayan is trying to subvert democracy, create chaos, grab power.
(iv) Corruption, lawlessness, violence are the issues responsible for downfall of democracy.
Ques 30: When and why did a long phase of coalition politics begin in India?
Ans: Since 1989 the era of coalitions began as no party could form a government at the centre with a majority of its own. Following reasons led to the emergence of coalition era in the Indian democratic system.
1. Coalition era came in Indian democratic system with the split and failure of Congress in winning majority.
2. To build up a strong front against Congress, several political parties met which led to the formation of coalition government.
3. The greed for power and position led to the emergence of the coalition era.
4. Dispute between centre and state also caused for the emergence of coalition era in Indian democracy.
Ques 31: How did the 'New International Economic Order' come into being? Which reforms were proposed by UNCTAD in its report in 1972?
Explain any six factors which helped the Soviet Union in becoming a Super-Power after the Second World War.
Ans: Since early 1970's the issue of new international economic order has been the frontal issue in international relations involving the developing countries (Third World) on one side and the developed countries (first two worlds) on the other side. Developing countries of the third world made persistent demand for the establishment of new international economic order (NIEO).
While the South again and again makes a demand for NIEO, the North resists it. The third world countries regard the restructuring of the existing international economic order as the only way to get out of the present problems related to poverty, scarcity, unemployment, underdevelopment and economic problems. NIEO stands for making the international system fair, just and equitable by adopting a code of conduct for the developed countries and by accepting the due rights of the underdeveloped countries.
The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development brought out a report in 1972 entitled towards a new trade and policy for development. The report proposed a reform in the global trading system as follows:
(i) The developing countries should be given the control over their natural resources which are exploited.
(ii) The least developing countries should be given access to western markets so that they can sell their products and therefore, make trade more useful for the poorer countries.
(iii) Reduced the cost of technology of the western countries.
(iv) LCDCS should be provided role in international economic institutions.
After the Second World War, Soviet Union became a superpower and U.S.S.R. became the leader of the socialist countries. Following were the factors which helped the Soviet Union in becoming a superpower after the Second World War.
1. In U.S.S.R. economy, was planned and completely controlled by the states.
2. Soviet Union had adequate natural resources.
3. It had modern means of transportation and telecommunication.
4. Citizens of Soviet Union enjoyed all basic needs for public life.
5. It had a powerful and large army.
Ques 32: Explain any three constraints on the American Power.
The conflict of 1962, in which India suffered military reverses, had long-term implications for India-China relations. Diplomatic relations between the two countries were downgraded until 1976. Thereafter, relations between the two countries began to improve slowly. After the change in China's political leadership from the mid to late 1970s, China's policy became more pragmatic and less ideological. So it was prepared to put off the settlement of contentious issue while improving relations with India. A series of talks to resolve the border issue were also initiated in 1981.
Study the paragraph given above carefully and answer the following questions:
(i) Why did India suffer military reverses as a result of the conflict of 1962?
(ii) When did the relation between India and China slowly improve?
(iii) What was the change in the policy of China in the seventies?
(iv) Which efforts were made to resolve the border issue between India and China?
Ans: At the beginning of 21s1 century the United States was a superpower. But history tells that empires decline because they decay from within. Similarly the biggest constraint to American hegemony is from within. Broadly, there are three constraints on American power.
1. The first constraint is institutional architecture of the American state itself. American system is based on division of power between three organs of government i.e., legislature, executive and judiciary. These organs put may restrictions on military powers.
2. The second constraint on American power is the open nature of the American society.
3. The third constraint on American power is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
Out of these three constraints, third constraint on American power is most important in the future. NATO is the only organization in the world which can put some check on the American power. NATO will be successful in moderating the U.S, hegemony.
(i) India suffered military reverses in 1962 due to lack of military preparedness and non-seriousness of leadership.
(ii) Relations between the two countries began to improve from 1976.
(iii) China's policy became more pragmatic and less ideological after the change in political leadership in the seventies.
(iv) To resolve the border issue between India and China a series of talks were initiated in 1981.
Ques 33: Evaluate any three factors that helped the Congress to continue to dominate the Indian political scenario for almost three decades after independence.
What was Green Revolution Mention it's any two positive and any two negative consequences.
Ans: After independence the Congress Party dominated the political scene at the centre as well as in states before 1967. Congress secured 364, 371, 361 and 283 seats in the election of 1952, 1957, 1962 and 1967 respectively. The dominance of the Congress was due to many reasons.
(1) The Congress Party was established in 1885 and it played a very important role in National Movement. In fact, history of national movement is almost the history of the Congress Party. Congress Party. Congress Party wholeheartedly fought for Indians independence and did not worry about the sacrifices.
(2) Congress provided able leadership to the Indian masses from 1883 to 194?n The Congress party was led by great personalities Mahatma Gandhi, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Patel, Mrs. Indira Gandhi etc.
(3) The Congress Party was a well-organised party and no other political party had a well-knir organization.
In 1960's, India was facing a food crisis due to many reasons. India was dependent on LISA for food and U.S.A. was putting many limitations on Indian's policies. Indian. Government decided to make India self-sufficient in food. Hence the government adopted a new strategy for agriculture practices that were gradually replaced by modem technology.
Use of high-yielding variety seeds and the increased use of fertilizers and irrigation are simply called Green Revolution (or) modern agricultural technology. As a result of Green revolution area under improved seeds has gone up from about 15 million hectares during 1970-71 to nearly 75 million hectares, in 1995-96.
The new varieties were of a short-term duration and consequently, instead of growing one crop, two crops and sometimes even three crops were grown. The major benefits oi the Green Revolution were experienced mainly in northern and north-western India. Unprecedented enthusiasm has prevailed among farmers in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan and Western UP. For new wheat variety seeds, a situation developed in which the demand for seeds by farmers exceeded the supply.
Positive consequence of the Green Revolution:
(1) The major achievement of the Green Revolution was to boost the production of major cereals viz. wheat and rice.
(2) As a result of the Green Revolution, the crop pattern in India has undergone significant changes.
Two negative consequences of Green Revolution:
(1) Green Revolution has led to the concentration of wealth in the hands of top 10 percent of the rural population. Green Revolution had widened the gap between poor and small farmers and rich landlords.
(2) Green Revolution has proved to be a benefit to the medium category peasants because they could receive the advantage of mediation between small farmers and rich landlords.
Ques 34: Explain any six factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi government in the early 1970s.
'The 1977 elections for the first time saw the opposition coming to power at the centre'. Examine any six reasons for this change.
Ans: After the death of Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri, Smt. Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister of India in 1966. In the beginning. Smt. Indira Gandhi was not a very strong and popular Prime Minister but with the Government" in the early l970's.
1. Charismatic personality: Smt. Indira Gandhi became popular due to her charismatic personality. Like Jawaharlal Nehru, Smt. Indira Gandhi possessed an unparallel personality.
2. Socialistic policies of Indira Gandhi Government: Socialist policies of Indira Gandhi's government made her very popular among the masses. Mrs. Indira Gandhi launched a series of initiatives to give the Government policy a left orientation. Smt. Indira Gandhi pursued a vigorous policy in 1969 or land reform and placed a ceiling on personal income, private property and corporate profits.
3. Garibi hatao: The fifth general elections to the Lok sabha were held in February 1971. indira Gandhi gave a very popular slogan Garibi Hatao rhrough this slogan she got the support of backward classes, unemployed youth, minorities, women and schedule castes and scheduled tribes.
4. Strong hold of party: Smt. Indira Gandhi had a strong hold on her party.
5. Polarization of votes in 1971: The polarization of votes in 1971's fifth general election went in the favour of Indira Gandhi.
6. Weak opposition: Another reason to popularity of Indira Gandhi was that the opposition was weak.
In the election of 1977, both to the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies the: Congress Party lost its dominance. Not only did it lose dominance, it got a crushing defeat at the hands of the newly emerged Janata Party. The following factors were responsible for the defeat of the Congress or the victory of the Janata Party in the 1977 election:
1. Imposition of Internal emergency: For the first time in the history of free India, internal emergency was imposed by Mrs. Indira Gandhi. Immediately after the imposition of emergency, the leaders of all the opposition parties including J.P. Narayan were thrown behind the bars. The declaration of emergency was made so that Indira Gandhi could retain the position of the Prime Minister.
2. Excess during emergency: Basic liberties of the people were suppressed. No individual or party could utter a word against the imposition of emergency or the excess committed by the government.
3. Sanjay Gandhi as the extra constitutional centre of power: During emergency, Sanjay Gandhi appeared as the extra constitutional centre of power. It was he who controlled the administration of India.
4. Imposition of black acts like MISA: During Emergency, various black Acts were passed by Indira Gandhi Government. The people that were suspected of doing anything against the government could be arrested and thrown behind the bars without any trial under the MISA.
5. Constitutional amendments: Indira government lowered the position of the judiciary through the 42nd amendment. In fact, judiciary was subordinated to the executive. The scope of judicial review was limited to a great extent.
6. Compulsory sterilisation: At the instance of Sanjay Gandhi various states particularly Haryana resorted to compulsory sterilization.