Class 12 Political Science Solved Paper (2012 Delhi Set-III) Notes | EduRev

Political Science Class 12

Humanities/Arts : Class 12 Political Science Solved Paper (2012 Delhi Set-III) Notes | EduRev

The document Class 12 Political Science Solved Paper (2012 Delhi Set-III) Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course Political Science Class 12.
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Q.1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:
First Gulf War was fought in which troops from countries fought.
Ans: 
First Gulf War was fought against Iraq in which troops from 34 Countries fought.

Q.2. Why did the magazines like ‘Seminar’ and ‘Mainstream’ choose to close down after the declaration of emergency in 1975?
Ans:
The magazines like ‘Seminar’ and ‘Mainstream’ chose to close down in view of a ban on the means of publication and censorship imposed on them in the wake of the proclamation of emergency.

Q.3. Correct the following statement and rewrite:
Eight temporary members of the UN Security Council are elected by the General Assembly for a period of three years.
Ans:
Ten temporary members of the UN Security Council are elected by the General Assembly for a period of two years.

Q.4. What is the highest functionary of the UN called?
Ans:
The highest authority of the UN is called the Secretary-General.

Q.5. What was the basis of the report of the States Reorganisation Commission?
Ans:
The basis of the report of the States Reorganisation Commission reflected the redrawing of the boundaries of the states on the basis of language.

Q.6. In which year did the Congress Party win 415 seats in the Lok Sabha? Who became the Prime Minister then?
Ans: 
In the 1984 Lok Sabha election, the Congress Party won 415 seats in the Lok Sabha. Rajiv Gandhi became the Prime Minister of India. In the same year, the then prime minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated.

Q.7.Name the leaders who gave the following slogans:
(i) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan
(ii) Garibi Hatao
Ans:
Leaders (i) Jai Jawan Jai Kisan – Lai Bahadur Shastri in 1965
(ii) Garibi Hatao-Indira Gandhi in 1970.

Q.8. How many founder-states signed the United Nations Charter in 1945?
Ans: 
In 1945, on 26th October, 51 states signed the United Nations Charter.

Q.9. What was the Anti-Arrack Movement?
Ans: 
Anti-Arrack movement was a movement of rural women in remote villages of the state of Andhra Pradesh to fight a battle against alcoholism, against the mafia, and against the government of that period.

Q.10. Mention any two incidents of violence against the minority community which are a threat to democracy.
Ans: 
Ayodhya Dispute of 1992 and Gujarat Riots in 2002 saw large-scale violence against the minority community which is a threat to democracy.

Q.11. Mention any two characteristics of the Soviet Political System.
Ans: 
Features of the Soviet society: “Soviet society” gave primacy to the state and the institution of the party. The Soviet political system centered around the communist party and no other political party or opposition was allowed. In Soviet society, the economy was planned and controlled by the state. Hence, Soviet society became a powerful society after the Second World War.

Q.12. Who signed the Tashkent Agreement and when?
Ans: 
The Tashkent Agreement was signed by the Indian Prime Minister Lai Bahadur Sastri and Pakistan’s General Ayub Khan in January 1996.

Q.13. In the European Union Flag, what does the symbol of ‘twelve gold stars in a circle’ signify?
Ans: 
The European Union established in 1992 has its own flag, anthem, founding date, and currency. The flag signifies the objectives of the European Union.
(a) The circle of gold stars stands for solidarity and harmony between the people of Europe.
(b) Its twelve stars symbolize perfection, completeness, and unity.
(c) In the same way, the foundation of the European Union was laid for a common foreign and security policy, cooperation injustice, and home affairs.
(d) The European Union has tried to expand areas of cooperation while acquiring new members, especially from the erstwhile Soviet bloc.
All these examples justify the statement that the peace and prosperity of countries lie in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organizations.

Q.14. What was the role of Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS) in the enactment of the Right to Information Act?
Ans:
(i) The Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangthan [MKSS] started a movement in 1990. It demanded records of famine relief work and accounts of laborers.
(ii) In 1994 and 1996, the MKSS organized Jan sunwais or public hearings where the administration was asked to explain its stand in public.
(iii) In 1996, MKSS, formed a national council for people’s right to information in Delhi to raise RTI to the status of a national campaign.

Q.15. Mention any two political consequences of globalization.
Ans: 
As far as cultural consequences are concerned, it would be a mistake to assume that the cultural consequences of globalization are only negative. Actually, culture is not a static thing. All cultures accept outside influences all the time, some external influences are negative because they reduce our choices. But sometimes external influences simply enlarge our choices and sometimes they modify our culture without overwhelming the traditional norms. For example, the burger is no substitute for a masala dosa and therefore does not pose any real challenge. In the same way, blue jeans can go well with a homespun khadi kurta. Here the outcome of outside influences is a new combination, that is unique. This clashing combination has been exported back to the country. So we can safely say that globalization broadens our cultural outlook and promotes cultural homogenization. Cultural globalization leads to a fear that this process poses a threat to cultures in the world. The rise of a uniform culture is not the emergence of globalization or global culture. What we have in the name of a global culture is the imposition of western culture on the rest of the world.
(i) The culture of the politically and economically dominant society leaves its imprint on a less powerful society, and the world begins to look more like a dominant power wishes it to be.
(ii) This is dangerous not only for the poor countries but for the whole of humanity for it leads to the shrinking of the rich cultural heritage of the entire globe.

Q.16. Mention any two challenges that India faced just after independence.
Ans:
Immediately after independence there were many challenges or problems in Independent India that needed a solution. These challenges can be categorized as:
(i) A challenge to shape a nation.
(ii) A challenge to establish democracy and,
(iii) A challenge to ensure the development and well-being of the entire society.
(i) To Shape a Nation: The first and foremost challenge was the political unification and integration of the territory. India is a land of continental size and diversity. There were around 600 states of varying sizes and populations. The partition of the country appeared to prove everyone’s worst fears. Hence there was a serious question about the future of India, i.e., would India survive as a unified country? Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel took upon himself the task of integrating these princely states, which was sometimes completed in stages.
(ii) To Establish Democracy: Another challenge was to develop democratic practices in accordance with the Constitution, i.e., India opted for representative democracy, based on the parliamentary form of government.
(iii) To Ensure the Development and Well being of the Society: The third challenge was to evolve effective policies for economic development and eradication of poverty and unemployment. The Indian constitution set out in the Directive Principles of state policy the welfare goals that democratic polities must achieve.
All these challenges required a deliberate effort that India put in by accommodating social differences, establishing a welfare state, and democratizing political institutions.

Q.17. What were the fears of the tribal population of Orissa and environmentalists about setting up industries in the tribal districts?
Ans: 
The key points of conflict in Odisha are as follows: As the iron ore resources lie in some of the most underdeveloped and predominantly tribal districts, so, the tribal population fears that the setting up of industries would mean displacement from their home and livelihood. The environmentalists fear that mining and industry would pollute the environment.

Q.18. Why did India not join either of the two camps during the Cold War?
Ans:
India did not join either of the two camps during the cold war because of the following reasons;
(a) Being the founder member of NAM, India always kept away from military alliances and helped to maintain international peace and harmony.
(b) India believes in the policy of coexistence at the national and international levels which prompted India to keep away from the two power blocs.

Q.19. How has technological advancement affected globalization?
Ans:
Rapid improvement in information and communication technology has been one of the major factors that have stimulated the globalization process. There is no doubt that the invention of the telegraph, the telephone, and the microchip in. Recent times have revolutionized communication between actors in different parts of the world. The ability of ideas, capital commodities, and people to move more easily from one part of the world to another has been made possible largely by technological advances. In the present Global Era, technology has affected the way we think of our personal as well as our collective lives.

Q.20. What was the change in the electoral performance of the Congress Party and BJP from 1984-2004?
Ans: 
There was a classic change or the electoral performance of the Congress Party and the BJP from 1984 to 2004;

  • Congress Party got a massive victory in the Lok Sabha elections held in 1984 by winning 415 seats.
  • But the 1989 elections were the period of defeat in which the Congress won only 197 seats. This marked the end of the “Congress system”. Although the Congress improved its performance in 1991 Lok Sabha lost the kind of centrality it earlier enjoyed in the party system.
  • Thus the elections of 1989 marked the beginning of the coalition era. In 1989 both the left and the BJP supported the National Front Government because they wanted to keep the Congress out of power.
  • This did not succeed for long as the BJP continued to consolidate its position in the elections of 1991 and 1996. It emerged as the largest party in the 1996 election.
  • In 1998, the BJP came to power by leading a coalition government from 1998 to June 1999 and later completed the full term under the leadership of Atal Behari Vajpayee.
  • The trend of coalition continues with the UPA led by the Congress party forming a coalition government. (Any four)

Q.21. Match the following:
Class 12 Political Science Solved Paper (2012 Delhi Set-III) Notes | EduRev
Ans: (i) Operation flood – 1970
(ii) Bombay plan – 1944
(iii) First five-year plan – 1951
(iv) Third five year Plan – 1961

Q.22. How far is it correct to say that after 1990 India’s foreign policy has shifted to a Pro-U.S. strategy? Explain.
Ans: 
In the post-Cold War era, India and the US are sharing very ‘harmonious relations’ — based on mutual cooperation and understanding. During the Cold War years, India’s closest friendship was with the Soviet Union. But after the collapse of the Soviet Union, India suddenly found itself friendless in an increasingly hostile international environment. During these years India introduced New Economic Policy to liberalize its economy and integrate it with the global economy. The liberal economic policy and India’s impressive economic growth rate in recent years have made the country an attractive economic partner for a number of countries including the US.
Technological dimension Role of Indo-American Diaspora
These two factors are so interrelated that it gives the interdependency to Indo-US relations like:

  • The US absorbs about 65 percent of India’s total exports in the software sector.
  • On the other side, 35 percent of the technical staff of Boeing is estimated to be of Indian origin.
  • More than 300,000 Indians work in Silicon Valley.

Q.23. List any four steps suggested by the member-states of the UN in 2005 in order to make the United Nations more relevant.
Ans: 
With the completion of 60 years of its existence the members of the UN met in September 2005 to review the situation and suggested some significant steps to make it more relevant in the changing context.

  • Creation of a Peacebuilding Commission.
  • Acceptance of the responsibility of the international community in case of failures of national governments to protect their own citizens from atrocities.
  • Establishment of a Human Rights Council [operational since 19 June 2006]
  • Agreement to achieve the Millennium Development goals.
  • Condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
  • Creation of a Democracy Fund.
  • An agreement to wind up the Trusteeship Council.
  • It is hard to see that these are equally contentious issues for the UN and raise the following questions. What should a peacebuilding Commission do? There are a number of conflicts all over the world. Which one should it intervene in? Can there be agreement on a definition of terrorism? How shall the UN use funds to promote democracy and so on?

Q.24. Explain in brief any four components of India’s security strategy.
Ans: 
I. Strengthening military capabilities: India tried to strengthen its military capabilities because it has been involved in conflicts with its neighbors and has full-fledged wars with Pakistan in 1947-48,1965,1971 and 1999 and with China in 1962. Since it is surrounded by nuclear-armed countries in the south Asian region India’s decision to conduct nuclear tests in 1998 was justified in terms of safeguarding national security.
II. Strengthening international Norms and institutions: The second area of India’s security strategy is to strengthen international norms and institutions to protect its Security interests.
(a) India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru supported the cause of Asian solidarity, decolonization, disarmament, and the UN as a forum in which international conflicts could be settled.
(b) It argued for an equitable New International Economic Order (NIEO). Most importantly, it used “non-alignment” to help carve out an area of peace outside the bloc politics of the two superpowers.
(c) India also joined Kyoto Protocol to check Global warming. Besides, the follow-up to cooperative security India sends its troops abroad on UN peacekeeping missions.
III. Strengthening internal security: Apart from outside-security strategy, the Indian security strategy is also geared towards meeting security challenges within the country. In order to accommodate several militants groups from Nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab, and Kashmir, among others, India has tried to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system that allows different communities and groups of people to freely articulate their grievances and share political power.
IV. Developing India’s economy: In order to uplift its citizens out of poverty, misery, and huge economic inequality, India strategically planned to develop its economy. The attempt has not quite succeeded, we are still very poor and an unequal country. Yet democratic politics allows space for articulating the voice of the poor and the deprived citizens. Thus, in our country (India) democracy is not just a political ideal, but it is also a way to provide greater security. However, the above discussion justifies that India has been giving priority to both “Traditional and Non-traditional security.”

Q.25. What is meant by ‘Global Commons’. Suggest any two steps for the protection of ‘Global Commons’.
Ans:
The areas or regions of the world which are located outside the sovereign jurisdiction of any one state and require common governance by the International Community are known as Global Commons. All these conferences and Summits, therefore, raised the issue to the political arena and developed some political questions like if the various governments take steps to check environmental degradation, these issues will have political consequences in that sense and therefore, they have to become a part of world politics.

Q.26. Highlight any four issues of tension between India and Bangladesh.
Ans: 
The governments of India and Bangladesh have had “differences over several issues” like

  • The sharing of the Ganga and Brahmaputra river waters.
  • The problem of illegal immigration to India.
  • Bangladesh’s support for anti-Indian Islamic fundamentalist groups.
  • Bangladesh’s refusal to allow Indian troops to move through its territory to northeastern India.
  • Above all Bangladesh’s decision not to export natural gas to India also became a bone of contention.

Areas of Cooperation:
Despite their difference, India and Bangladesh do cooperate on many issues like:

  • In economic areas, both countries have improved their economic relations in the last ten years.
  • Bangladesh is the main blank of “India’s Look East policy” that wants to link up with South East Asia via Myanmar.

Q.27. Match the following:
Class 12 Political Science Solved Paper (2012 Delhi Set-III) Notes | EduRev
Ans: (a) Ch- Charan Singh – Farmers
(b) P.C. Mahalanobis – Industrialisation
(c) Bihar Famine-Zoning
(d) Varghese Kurien-Milk cooperatives

Q.28. What was the Tibet issue? How did it cause tension between India and China? Explain.
Ans:
‘Tibet’ the plateau region of Central Asia is one of the major issues that for a long historical period caused tension between India and China.

  • Since 1950, China has claimed administrative control over Tibet.
  • In 1950, China took over control of Tibet but larger sections of the Tibetan population opposed this takeover.
  • India conceded China’s claim over Tibet. But in 1958 there was an armed uprising in Tibet against China’s occupation which was fully suppressed by the Chinese.
  • Dalai Lama sought asylum in India which was granted.
  • The Chinese government strongly protested against this and created the Tibet autonomous region which is an integral part of China.
  • Tibetans oppose China’s claim that Tibet is a part of Chinese territory. They think that China wants to undermine the traditional religion and culture of Tibet. All these developments led to tension between India and China.

Q.29.
Class 12 Political Science Solved Paper (2012 Delhi Set-III) Notes | EduRev

Study the cartoon given above carefully and answer the following questions:
(i) Identify and name the person holding in his hand, the placard ‘Save Democracy’.
(ii) In your opinion, the group of five persons belongs to which political party?
(iii) According to the group of five, what are the intentions of the person sitting on Dhar ia’?
(iv) Which issues responsible for the downfall of democracy are highlighted in the cartoon?
Ans:
(i) The person holding in his hand the placard “Save Democracy” is Jayapraksh Narayan.
(ii) The group of fire persons belongs to the Non-Congress group.
(iii) The intentions of the persons sitting on the Dharna are to launch a nationwide Satyagraha. They asked the army, the police, and government employees not to obey illegal and immoral orders.
(iv) The declaration of Emergency of 1975 was the issue followed by mass protests. The downfall of democracy is highlighted in the cartoon.
Note: For Blind Candidates only, in lieu of Question No. 29.
(a) Who accepted the students’ request to lead the Bihar Movement? Which condition did he lay before giving his consent to lead?
(b) Mention any two main objectives of his movement.

Q.30. When and why did a long phase of coalition politics begin in India?
Ans:
As the decade of the eighties came to a close, the country witnessed five main issues that were to make a long-lasting impact on our politics.
(i) End of the Congress System
(ii) Mandal Issue
(iii) New economic reforms
(iv) Babri Masjid Issue
(v) Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi
Elections in 1989 led to the defeat of the Congress party but did not result in a majority for any other party. Thus, began an era of a “Multi-party system”. What happened after 1989 was the emergence of several parties in such a way that one or two parties did not get most of the votes or seats. This also meant that no single party secured a majority of seats in any Lok Sabha election held since 1989. This development led to an era of coalition governments at the center in which regional parties played a crucial role in forming a ruling alliance. The nineties also saw the emergence of powerful parties and movements that represented the Dalit and backward castes. Many of these parties represented powerful regional assertions as well. Thus, with the election of 1989, a long phase of coalition parties began in India. Since then there have been nine governments at the center, all of which have either been coalition governments or minority governments supported by other parties, which did not join the government. In this new phase, any government could be formed only with the participation or support of many regional parties.

Q.31. How did the ‘New International Economic Order’ come into being? Which reforms were proposed by UNCTAD in its report in 1972? 

OR

Explain any six factors which helped the Soviet Union in becoming a Super-Power after the Second World War
Ans: 
The idea of a New International Economic Order (NIEO) originated for the sustainable economic development of the least developed countries of NAM. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) brought out a report in 1972 entitled “Towards a New Trade Policy for Development”.
The report proposed a reform of the global trading system to

  • give the Least Developed Countries [LDCs] control over their natural resources exploited by the developed western countries.
  • obtain access to western markets so that the LDCs could sell their products and therefore, make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries.
  • reduce the cost of technology for western countries.
  • provide the LDCs with a greater role in international economic institutions.

OR

Six factors that helped the Soviet Union in becoming a superpower after the second world war:

  • The Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) came to being after the socialist revolution in Russia in 1917.
  • The Soviet Union made the biggest attempt in human history to abolish the institution of private property and design a society based on “Principles of equality.” All these gave rise to the Soviet Society.
  • In Soviet society, the economy was planned and controlled by the state. It gave primacy to the state and the institution of the party.
  • The Soviet Union had a domestic consumer industry that produced everything from pins to cars, through their equality concept.
  • It had a complex communications network, vast energy resources including oil, iron, and
  • steel; machinery production, and a transport sector that connected its remotest areas with efficiency.
  • The Soviet state ensured a minimum standard of living for all citizens and the government-subsidized basic necessities including health, education for children, and other welfare schemes.
  • The Soviet Economy was more developed than that of the rest of the world. There was no unemployment. All these show that the Soviet Union had a prosperous and developed economy and to some extent, it was at par with the west economy.
  • Hence, Soviet Union became powerful after the second world war.

Q.32. Explain any six factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate reforms in the Soviet Union. 

OR

‘Although India has maintained good relations with all the post-Communist countries, yet the strongest relations are still between India and Russia.’ Explain the statement with any three suitable arguments.
Ans: Mikhail Gorbachev, who had become General Secretary of the state Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1985, sought to reform this system. Hence, the following factors forced Gorbachev to initiate the reforms in the USSR.

  • The very first factor was to keep the USSR abreast of the information and technological revolutions taking place in the west.
  • Secondly to reform the Soviet economy, catch up with the west, and loosen the administrative system also forced Gorbachev to initiate the reforms.
  • Lastly to improve and normalize relations with the west along with democratizing the Soviet Union were also the focussed factors to introduce the reform policies.
  • Reform policies were based on the restructuring of the administrative system and openness of economic affairs.
  • Reform policy also aimed at keeping information and technological development in the USSR abreast of the information and technological revolutions taking place in the west.
  • Gorbachev introduced the policy of democratization of the Soviet Union with the aim to normalize relations with the west in order to leave free economic affairs in the world area.

OR

Indo-Russian relations are embedded in a history of trust and common interests and are matched by popular perceptions.

  • Common view on the multipolar world order: Russia and India share a vision of multipolar world order. For both these countries, multipolar world order is the co-existence of several powers in the international system, collective security, greater regionalism, negotiated settlements of international conflicts, an independent foreign policy for all countries, and decision making through bodies like the UN that should be strengthened, democratized and empowered.
  • India’s stand towards Russia: India gets meaningful benefits for having healthy relations with Russia on the issues like Kashmir, energy supplies, sharing information on international terrorism, access to central Asia, and balancing its relation with China.
  • Russia’s stand towards India: Like India, Russia stands to benefit from this relationship because India is the second-largest arms market for Russia.
  • Besides, the Indian military gets most of its hardware from Russia. Since India is an oil-importing nation, so Russia is important to India and has repeatedly come to the assistance of India during its oil crisis.
  • In order to meet the demands of energy, India is trying to increase its energy imports from Russia and the republics of Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. This also broadened the scope for partnership and investment in oilfields.
  • India has also strengthened its relationship with Russia for its nuclear energy plans and space industry. India gets the cryogenic rocket from Russia whenever it needed it.
  • Thus, we may safely conclude that India has maintained good relations with all the post-communist countries. But the strongest relations are still those between Russia and India.

Q.33. Evaluate any three factors that helped Congress to continue to dominate the Indian political scene for almost three decades after independence. 

OR

What was Green Revolution? Mention its any two positive and any two negative consequences.
Ans: 

  • The key role of the Congress in the freedom struggle gave it a head start over others.
  • The ability of Congress to accommodate all interests and all aspirants for political power strengthened the democracy.
  • The dominance of the Congress party in India appeared in a very democratic manner as many other parties contested elections in conditions of a free and fair election and yet the Congress managed to win election after election.
  • Besides, the Congress party tolerated and encouraged various factions as well. These factions were mostly based on ideological considerations. However, since there was room within the party for various factions to fight with each other these remained within the Congress rather than go out and form a new party.
  • In this way, the dominance of one party i.e. Congress strengthened the ideals of democracy and realized the goals of the Indian nation.

OR

The Green Revolution is a package of a new strategy of agricultural practices which resulted in increased yields of crops, especially foodgrains. The increase in production is a result of high-yielding varieties of seeds, fertilizers, and scientific irrigation.

Features:

  • As a follow up the government offered a high-yielding variety of seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, and better irrigation at highly subsidized prices.
  • The government also gave a guarantee to buy the produce of the farmers at a given price. Two positive consequences

The Green Revolution had two positive effects such as:

  • Opened the path for left-wing organizations: One was that in many parts, the stark contrast between the poor peasantry and the landlords produced conditions favorable for left-wing organizations to organize the poor peasants.
  • Gave rise to the middle peasant sections: Secondly, the Green Revolution also resulted in the rise of what is called the “Middle peasant sections”. These were farmers with medium size holdings, who benefitted from the changes and soon emerged politically influential in many parts of the country.

Two Negative Consequences

  • The Green Revolution created a stark contrast between the poor peasantry and the landlords.
  • Secondly, the Green Revolution delivered only moderate agricultural growth i.e. rise in wheat production and raised availability of food in the country, but increased polarisation between classes and regions. For example, some regions like Punjab, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh became agriculturally prosperous while others remained backward.

Q.34. Explain any six factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s government in the early 1970s. 

OR

‘The 1977 elections for the first time saw the opposition coming to power at the center.’ Examine any six reasons for this change.
Ans:
In the early 1970s the government of Indira Gandhi gained popularity due to various factors such as:

  • During this period the government made conscious attempts to project its socialist credentials.
  • Indira Gandhi vigorously campaigned for implementing the existing land reform laws and undertook further land ceiling legislation.
  • Not only this in order to end her dependence on the other political parties, strengthen her party’s position in the Parliament and seek a popular mandate for her programs, but Indira Gandhi’s government also recommended the dissolution of the Lok Sabha in December 1970.
  • The crisis in East Pakistan and the Indo-Pak war leading to the establishment of Bangladesh added one more feather to the popularity of Indira Gandhi.
  • In this way, Indira Gandhi and her government were seen not only as of the protector of the poor and the underprivileged but also as a strong government.
  • The Congress was now in power in almost all the states and restored its dominance. It was also popular across different social sections.

OR

The result of the 1977 election took everyone by surprise. For the first time since independence, the Congress party was defeated and the opposition came into power at the center.

  • Basically, the most valid reason for the defeat of the Congress Party was the people’s verdict which was decisively against the emergency. The opposition fought the election on the slogan of “save democracy”.
  • The Janata Party made this election a referendum on the emergency. Its campaign was focused on the non-democratic character of the rule and on the various excesses that took place during this period.
  • In the backdrop of arrests of thousands of persons and the censorship of the press, public opinion was against Congress.
  • Besides, the formation of the Janata Party also ensured that Non-Congress votes would not be divided. It was evident that the going was tough for Congress.
  • Most importantly, north India had experienced some long-term changes in the nature of political competition. The middle classes from north India were beginning to move away from the Congress and the Janata Party became a platform for many of these sections to come together. Thus, the elections of 1977 were not merely about the emergency but other factors also.

Q.35. How have popular movements contributed to the expansion of democracy rather than causing disruption?
Class 12 Political Science Solved Paper (2012 Delhi Set-III) Notes | EduRev
In the given political outline map of India, six states have been labeled as (A), (B), (C),(D),(E), and (F). Keeping in mind, the Lok Sabha Election Results of 2004 and with the help of the information provided below, identify these states. Write their correct names in your answer book in the following tabular form:
Class 12 Political Science Solved Paper (2012 Delhi Set-III) Notes | EduRev

(i) Two states where the left parties won the majority of Lok Sabha seats. 
(ii) Two states where the NDA won the majority of Lok Sabha seats. 
(iii) Two states where the UPA won the majority of seats in Lok Sabha.
Ans: To some extent movements and protests in a country strengthen democracy. We have mixed reactions both for and against.
Arguments in favor: The history of movements and protests helps us to understand “better the nature of democratic politics”.

  • We have observed that these non-party movements like Anti-Arrack Movement, Chipko Movement, NBA are neither sporadic in nature nor are these a problem.
  • These movements came to rectify some problems in the functioning of party politics and should be seen as an integral part of our democratic politics.
  • Popular movements ensured effective representation of diverse groups and their demands. This reduced the possibility of deep social conflict and disaffection of these groups from democracy.
  • Besides, popular movements suggested new forms of active participation and broadened the idea of participation in Indian democracy, e.g., the Anti-Arrack movement and “Dalit Panthers Movement”.
  • Political parties are required to bring together different sectional interests, but they also seem to be unable to do so. Parties do not seem to be taking up issues of marginal social groups.
  • Thus, the relationship between popular movements and political parties has grown weaker over the years, creating a vacuum in politics. And in recent years, this has become a major problem in Indian politics.

Conclusion:
Keeping in view both negative and positive arguments, while concluding we can sum up that movements are not only about collective assertions or only about rallies or protests. They involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems, similar demands, and similar expectations. ‘ Movements are also about making people aware of their rights and the expectations that they can have from democratic institutions. Social movements in India have been involved in these educative tasks for a long time and have thus contributed to the expansion of democracy rather than causing disruptions. The struggle for the right to information is a case in point.

OR

  • UPA – A&C – Kerala
  • NDA – D & E – Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh
  • Left Parties – B & F – Chhattisgarh and West Bengal

Note: the following questions are for Blind Candidates only in lieu of Q. No. 35:
(a) Write the full forms of the coalitions (i) UPA and (ii) NDA
(b) Which coalition came to power in 2004? Name any two major supporting parties.
(c) What was the consensus amongst most parties on the issue of reservation of seats for the backward classes?

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