Ques 1: On which ground was a state of emergency declared on 25 June 1975?
Ans: The biggest cause of implementing emergency was the economic crises caused by crop failure in 1972 and 1973 and increasing oil price in 1973-74. Despite loan, country was not in a position to come out of inflation. The third cause of implementing emergency was the verdict of Allahabad High Court against Prime Minister Indira Gandhi?s election to the Lok Sabha election 1971.
Ques 2: What is Amnesty International?
Ans: It is an NGO which campaigns for the protection and presentation of human rights all around the globe. It promotes respect for all the human rights given in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Ques 3: Why did India not sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)?
Ans: In 1977, negotiations started for the CTBT. The CTBT imposes restrictions on non-nuclear states but does not impose restrictions on nuclear states. It even bans the right of states to conduct peaceful nuclear explosions. The treaty was approved in 1996 but India has not signed this treaty since it is tided in favour of the nuclear states and does not answer Indians two basic concerns:
(i) Freedom to use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, and
(ii) India's national security concerns.
Ques 4: Why was a case against the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh registered in the Supreme Court in 1993? What punishment was awarded to him?
Ans: The demolition of Babri Masjid led to communal tensions between Hindus and Muslims all over the country. U.P. State Government with BJP as ruling party were dismissed by the Center. A case against U.P. Chief Minister Kalyan Singh was registered in the Supreme Court for contempt of Court since he gave an undertaking for protection of the disputed structure. Symbolic punishment for one day was awarded to him.
Ques 5: Give any two reasons as to why issues of environment and natural resources have become a part of the world politics.
Ans: Environment concern in global politics is a very serious issue. This concern is based on the following facts:-
1. The Human Development Report (2006) of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) clearly states that over 2.6 billion people have no proper sanitation in developing states. Similarly 1.2 billion people in such states do not have safe water. It has resulted in death of over 3 million children every year.
2. Natural forests which are essential for stabilizing climate, moderating water supplies and harbouring majority of the displacement or people. Loss of biodiversity has led to destruction or certain species which live in that particular habitat.
If the environment protection is not taken seriously, it would have serious political repercussions. No government can handle this issue single-handedly. Therefore, the issue becomes a part of world politics.
Ques 6: Match the following:
(a) S. A. Dange
(b) Shyama Prasad Mukherjee
(c) Minoo Masani
(d) Asoka Mehta
(i) Bharatiya Jana Singh
(ii) Swatantra Party
(iii) Praja Socialist Party
(iv) Communist Party of India
Ans:(a) S. A. Dange
(b) Shyama Prasad Mukherjee
(c) Minoo Masani
(d) Asoka Mehta
(i) Communist Party of India
(ii) Bharatiya Jana Singh
(iii) Swatantra Party
(iv) Praja Socialist Party
Ques 7: How was the 1971 war forced upon India? Explain in brief.
Ans: When India was partitioned in 1947, the basis of partition was religion. The East Wing of Bengal had joined Pakistan as East Pakistan. Between the two parts of Pakistan was about 1200 miles of Indian Territory. After partition, Pakistan's bureau-military government did not pay much attention to East Pakistan. Urdu was imposed upon East Pakistan. However, the immediate source of conflict was denial of office of Premier to Sheikh Mujibur Rehman of East Bengal whose party had won 160 out of 300 seats in the 1970 elections.
The new President of Pakistan, Yahya Khan in connivance with Pakistan People's Party leader Z.A. Bhutto denied rights to East Bengal. Sheikh Mujibur Rehman was put behind bars. In 1971, people of East Bengal or East Pakistan declared themselves to be belonging to an independent country, Bangladesh. As tension mounted, Bangla Youth established a force for the new state called Mukti Vahini. Pakistan charged that India was responsible for the civil wars and Indian troops had to fight on behalf of Mukti Vahini.
Ques 8: Describe any four weaknesses of the Soviet system.
Ans: (a) Economic Stagnation: The Soviet Union maintained a huge nuclear and military arsenal which was used to develop and maintain its satellite states in Eastern Europe and it's Soviet Republics particularly the five central Asian republics. It led to a huge burden on its economy and resources. People on Soviet Union could not advance as rapidly as their western adversaries.
(b) Political and Administrative Stagnation: Soviet Union also suffered from political and administrative stagnation. The ruling CPSU (Communist Party of Soviet Union) was unaccountable to the people. People felt alienated by the stifling administration. There was rampant corruption and the political elites did not try to rectify their mistakes by allowing openness in the government and decentralization of authority on a vast land.
(c) Role of Gorbachev: Gorbachev's overzealous program of reformation was the biggest cause of Soviet disintegration. Gorbachev introduced Perestroika and Glasnost to reform the economy, democratize the political system, loosen the strings of administration and bridge the gap with the west. Though Gorbachev was right in initiating reforms, in reality when the reformation process set in, it loosened the system and set in motion factors and forces that few could control.
(d) Rise of Nationalism and Desire for Sovereignty: A major reason for collapse of Soviet Union was the rise of nationalism and desire for sovereignty within various Soviet republics like Russia, Baltic republics of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, Ukraine, Georgia, etc. This proved to be culminating point in the disintegration of Soviet Union. Opinionists are divided over this factor.
Ques 9: Describe in brief the crisis China faced before ending political and economic isolation.
Ans: At the time of the inception of Chinese economy in 1949, after the communist revolution under Mao, Chinese economy was modeled on Soviet Model. China even broke off its link with the capitalist world. For this reason, it had to rely on Soviet help and its own resources for a brief period.
The model adopted was creation of state-controlled heavy industries funded by the capital accumulated from agriculture. Since China needed foreign exchange to buy technology and goods from the world market, it substituted imports by domestic goods.
This model led China to use its own resources and establish an industrial-economic model that did not exist before. China assured social welfare and employment to all citizens. Further, it moved ahead by assuring health and education for all. China moved ahead of all developing states with a growth rate of 5-6%. However, the 2-3% annual growth rate of population meant that the growth rate did not match the increasing needs of population.
Agriculture did not provide surplus for industry. Thus, just like Soviet economy, China also faced severe economic crises due to minimal trade and low per capita income. The crises led Chinese to review their policy in 1970s. In 1972, it ended its economic and political isolation by establishing close relations with the USA.
Ques 10: 'The Transition from Communism to Capitalism in Pre-Soviet Republics was not a smooth one? Explain the statement.
'Non-alignment was a strategy evolved in the Cold War context.' With the disintegration of the USSR has it lost its relevance? Highlight any two suitable arguments in support of your answer.
Ans: Under the Shock Therapy these countries were required to make a total transition from communism to capitalism. It required rooting out of all structures evolved during the Soviet period. Private ownership of property became the dominant pattern of economy. It called for privatization of state assets. Collective farming was to be replaced by private farming and agriculture was to be set on capitalist lines. This shift involved either state-controlled socialism or capitalism and ruled out any other or third way of transition.
Shock Therapy also clarified changes in external arenas of these countries. Development now required more trade which was possible only through the evolution of free trade. Foreign direct investment (FDI) and Free Trade Regime were to be twin engines of change. It necessitated deregulation, opening doors to foreign investment and currency convertibility.
The Shock Therapy however, did not yield the desired results. Its effects were as follows:-
(a) The economies of these countries including that of Russia were ruined. In Russia, the state-controlled industrial complex collapsed when 90% of its industries were sold to private entrepreneurs.
(b) As the restructuring was implemented by market forces instead of Govt., it led to gradual disappearance of entire industries. It was the largest garbage sale in industry as industries were undervalued and sold at throw away prices.
(c) The value of Russian currency, rouble declined considerably, people lost their savings due to inflation. The collective farming collapsed leaving people starving for food.
(d) The old trading structure collapsed and GDP of Russia went down. Russia had to import food as the food security disintegrated.
(e) The traditional system of Social Security and welfare of all came to an end. Withdrawal of Govt. security made large sections of society poor.
(f) Shock Therapy made about half of Russia, 1500 banks and financial institutions bankrupt. Due to it the money of about 10000 corporate and private shareholders was lost.
Here, we should have to make a heading i.e. END OF COLD WAR: IS NAM RELEVANT NOW
NAM evolved as a strategy during the cold war period. Thus, with the end of cold war and the disintegration of Soviet - Union in 1991, NAM (Non-Aligned Movement) as a principle of India's foreign policy and as a global movement became irrelevant. However, this is not true. NAM contained certain core ideas and enduring values. It was premised on the contention that it was a movement of decolonized states who shared a historical affinity- and aimed to integrate their force collectively as a single entity at the international level.
What is meant was that, small, poor and less developed states had no need to follow big power hegemony. They could continue with an independent foreign policy. It was based on the idea to democratize the global system by creating a new world order based on fairness and equality. These core issues remain relevant after, the end of cold war and therefore, NAM is still a relevant activity.