Ques 1: How is alliance building a component of traditional security?
Ans: Coalition or alliance politics is not a static affair. It is a dynamic affair as coalitions dissolve old cohesion and form new ones. In coalitions, compromise is the keystone with rigidity being sidelined. It works on the basis of Common Minimum Programme (CMP).
Ques 2: Students of which two states started agitation against the rising food prices in 1974?
Ans: Bihar and Gujarat.
Ques 3: What is 'cultural homogenisation'? Give an example to show that its consequence is not negative.
Ans: The preponderance of US is based today not only on its military and economic superiority, but also its cultural presence. Most of the ideas of good life, personal success, dreams of individuals and societies all over the world are dreams endured by prevailing customs and practices of the twenty-first century America.
US culture is the most seductive and dominant on the earth at the moment. This element is known as Soft Power the ability to persuade rather than coerce. Over a period of time, we get used to hegemony around us just as we get used to birds, trees and rivers around us.
During the Cold War, the US found it hard to gain victories over the USSR in the realm of hard power. It was in the realm of structural power and soft power where the US hegemonised even the Soviet Union. That's why it's consequence not negative.
Ques 4: When and between whom was the Shimla Agreement signed?
Ans: The terror unleashed on East Pakistan in 1971 by West Pakistan saw an influx of refugees in India leading to an Indian intervention in East Pakistan and another War set between India & Pakistan.
Pakistan was defeated and the new state of Bangladesh was created. It was made after the war of India & Pakistan in 1971. On 2nd July 1972, Shimla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan by Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Pakistan's President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto.
Ques 5: Which action of the Government of India threatened the fish workers? lives in a major way? Which organization did they form at the national level?
Ans: The lives of fishermen were threatened when the government permitted entry to mechanized trawlers and technologies like bottom trawling for large scale harvest of fish in the Indian seas. Throughout the 1970s, and 1980s local fish workers organization fought with state government over the issues of their livelihood. Since fish is a state subject, its movement was mobilized mostly at the local level.
When liberalization was started in India most of these organizations were forced to come together on a national platform called National Fish workers Forum (N.F.E). Fish workers from. Kerala undertook the responsibility of mobilization of fellow workers including- women workers from other states.
Ques 6: What is meant by decentralised planning?
Ans: Decentralised plan here refers to the plan of the local governments at the sub-state level at the district or below. Decentralized planning is an integral component of national planning that complement each other.
It is nothing but participatory process plan formulation by the local governments as part of the national and state level planning. The much acclaimed decentralised planning in Kerala started under a campaign called Peoples Plan. Campaign (PPC) launched in 1996.
It was a pioneering movement towards decentralised manning and governance at the sub-state level Kerala follows a multi-stage decentralised plan formulation process that has tremendous de-bureacratisation potential.
The different stages adopted and found successful in this decentralized planning are environment setting, situation analysis, need identification, vision setting, plan formulation, projectisation, plan vetting, plan approval and plan implementation. Bach stage has a few sub-components too.
Ques 7: Match the following:
(a) E.M.S. Namboodiripad (b) Balraj Madhok
(c) C. Rajagopalachari
(d) Rammanohar Lohia
(i) Swatantra Party
(ii) Socialist Party
(iii) Communist Party of India
(iv) Bharatiya Jana Sangh
Ans: a-(c), b-(d), c-(a),d-(b)
Ques 8: What was the Tibet issue? How did India help the Tibetan migrants to settle down?
Ans: Tibet touches the Indian borders in the north. Dalai Lama was the spiritual and political head of Tibet. British had stationed an Indian mission in Tibet. Even China had stationed its troops in Tibet. During 1993-39 KMT China made attempts to regulate Tibet foreign affairs. At the end of the Second World War, Chinese were unable to gain access to Tibet. India wanted to keep Tibet as an autonomous region as a buffer state between India and China. When civil war broke out in China, Tibet's status was in confusion.
In October 1950, India learnt that Chinese had launched a full scale invasion of Tibet. India protested, but China paid no heed to it. China refused to accept Tibetan autonomy. On May 23, 1951 Dalai Lama was forced to sign an agreement which accepted Chinese sovereignty over Tibet with limited Tibetan autonomy in certain matters.
The agreement promised Tibetan autonomy but provided regulation of Tibet's external relations. Chinese army was to be stationed in Tibet for reorganization and merger of Tibet's army into Chinese army.
Full respect was to be given to Dalai Lama who would set out to Lhasa. Tibet was also promised religious freedom and cooperation in development. Tibet for all purposes became a Chinese territory. India was criticized for sacrificing legitimate interests in Tibet, But Nehru, India's premier realized that India did not have the capacity to stop China and therefore, avoided trouble over it.
The Tibet crises, however, percipated in spite of India's soft attitude. Tibetans revolted against the brutalities of PRC. In 1959, Dalai Lama along with thousand Buddhist Tibetans ran and sought asylum in India. Despite giving asylum to Dalai Lama, India officially recognized Tibet as a part of China.
Ques 9: State four reasons as to why super-powers should have military alliances with small countries.
Ans: Inspite of their mighty armies and nuclear armament, superpowers needed allies in Asia, Africa and Europe. Small states helped superpowers to:
(a) Get vital resources like minerals and oil.
(b) Get territorial base from where superpowers could launch their troops and weapons.
(c) Get locations to spy on each other.
(d) Get economic support, where many small allies could combine together to pay for military expenses.
(e) Get ideological support and win war of ideas between socialism and communism versus liberal and capitalism.
Ques 10: Explain any two factors responsible for Pakistan's failure in building a stable democracy.
Ans: Pakistan has failed to establish a stable democracy due to several reasons.
(i) The social dominance of military, clergy and landed aristocracy in Pakistan has been central to military dictatorship and overthrow of democratic regimes. Pakistan's hostility with India has also made the military strong.
(ii) The pro-military group clearly shows that political parties and democracy in Pakistan is not in their true forms and this misled democracy and rule by selfish-minded parties will only hamper Pakistan's security.
These grounds have helped Pakistani military to stay in power for long. And though democracy has not been successful in Pakistan, pro-democracy sentiments are quite strong here. Pakistan relatively had a free and courageous press and an active human rights movement.
The lack of a real support for democratic rule in Pakistan has further ensured the dominance of military in Pakistan. The US along with other Western states, have favoured military dictatorship in Pakistan.
Ques 11: Why are India's relations with Russia considered an important aspect of India's foreign policy? Explain.
Explain the Eastern and the Western alliances during the Cold War period. Name any two European countries from amongst the following, which were not members of these alliances:
France, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Austria, Romania.
Ans: In the post-bipolar world, India has maintained good relations with all the post-communist states. However the strongest point over here is India's relations with Russia. India-Russian relations are wedded to a destiny of trust and mutual interest. Most Indian heroes from Raj Kapoor to Amitabh Bachhan are popular in these post - Soviet States.
Both India and Russia show a common vision of the post-cold war multipolar world. They believe in the co-existence of many powers in world politics. They believe in co-existence, collective security, greater regionalism, autonomous foreign policy for all states, and settlement of all international conflicts through negotiations and strengthening and democratization of decision-making bodies like U.N.O. Both India and Russia have signed over 80 bilateral agreements as part of the strategic agreement of 2001.
With Russia, India stands to get a vital support on Kashmir. Likewise, international terrorism, energy supply, access to central Asia and a balanced relationship with China are other key areas of increasing Indo-Russian relationship. Likewise, Russia would also be benefited as India is the second largest buyer of arms from Russia.
Indian army gets most of its military hardware from Russia. Russia has always helped India whenever there is a shortage of oil, since India is an oil importing country. India stands to increase its energy imports from Russia and the republics of Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. India Likewise, Indias nuclear energy and space programme cannot react their culmination without the aid of Russia.
The small countries in the alliances utilized the support from the superpowers to their advantage. They were promised protection, economic aid and weapons as aid against their rivals, mostly neighbours. The alliance system thus divided the world into two camps. The first division took place in Europe. West European countries joined the US and thus this bloc was also called Western alliance. East European countries joined the Soviet bloc and were often referred to as Eastern powers.
The Western alliance was called NATO while the Eastern alliance was called Warsaw. Global alliances during the Cold War period were determined by the needs of superpowers and calculations of smaller states. Europe was the centre of conflict. Soviet intervention in East Europe was used by USA to bring other countries under its alliance.
USA also built the alliance system in west Asia called CENTO and in East Asia called the SEATO. Soviet Union responded by having close relations with Communist China, North Vietnam, North Korea and Iraq.
Romania and Spain are two European Countries which were not members of these alliances.