Ques 1: Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:
The South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) was signed by the members of ____ in the year.
Ans: The South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) was signed by the members of SAARC in year 2004.
Ques 2: What is meant by ASEAN way?
Ans: ASEAN way is a form of interaction among ASEAN members that is informal and comparative.
Ques 3: Correct and rewrite the following statement: USSR/Russia used veto power 92 times till 2006.
Ans: USSR/Russia used veto power 122 times till 2006.
Ques 4: How is balance of power a component of traditional security?
Ans: Balance of power is the net effect produced by a state system in which the independent states as sovereign members are free to join or to refrain from joining alliances and alignments as they seek to maximize the security and prevent any of them becoming sufficiently strong.
Ques 5: In which year was the first General Election held in India?
Ans: The first General Election in India was held in 1952.
Ques 6: What was the main objective of the Second Five Year Plan?
Ans: The main objective of the Second Five Year Plan was the "development of industry".
Ques 7: What is meant by defection?
Ans: Defection means an elected representative who leaves the party on whose symbol he was elected and joins another party.
Ques 8: The results of which elections were called 'political earthquake'?
Ans: The result of 1967 election was called political earthquake.
Ques 9: What was Chipko Movement?
Ans: The Chipko Movement (1974-77) was a socio-ecological movement carried out by hugging trees to prevent them from being cut. It linked the issue of environment degradation for fuel and fodder.
Ques 10: Whose mediation resolved the 'Indus River Waters Dispute' between India and Pakistan?
Ans: The Indus River Water Dispute? between India and Pakistan was resolved by World Bank Mediation.
Ques 11: Mention any two characteristics of the Soviet Economy during the Cold War days.
Ans: 1. Soviet system of economy was based on planned economy.
2. Soviet economic system was far ahead from other countries like U.S.A.
Ques 12: Mention the duration of the First and the Second world wars?
Ans: (i) First World War - 1914 to 1918
(ii) Second World War - 1939 to 1945
Ques 13: Write the four forms of power which reflect the U.S. hegemony.
Ans: (1) Hard power
(2) Structural power
(3) Soft power
(4) Cultural power.
Ques 14: What was 'Operation Enduring Freedom'?
Ans: On 11 September 2001, nineteen hijackers hailing from Arab countries took control of four American commercial air crafts and flew them into important buildings in U.S. President George W. Bush launched operation enduring freedom against Afghanistan to curb terrorism and crush the terrorist organizations.
Ques 15: Define Geo-politics.
Ans: Geo-politics means politics of land territory, according to G. N. Singh, A science dealing with the influence exercised by physical geography in determining condition of political life and relation between states. According to Havshofer Geo-politics demonstrates the dependence of all development on the permanent reality of the soil.
Ques 16: Name the original states from which the following states were carved out:
Ans: (a) Meghalaya - Assam,
(b) Gujarat - Bombay Presidency.
Ques 17: Explain the role played by Sardar Patel in the integration of Princely states into Indian Union.
Ans: At the time of independence there were 565 princely states. It was due to the leadership and statesmanship of Sardar Patel, most of the princely states integrated with the Indian Union without much difficulty.
Ques 18: When did India sign the twenty - years 'Treaty of Peace and Friendship' with Soviet Union?
Ans: India signed the twenty-year Treaty of peace and friendship with the Soviet Union in August 1971. This treaty assured India of Soviet's support if the country faced any attack.
Ques 19: Which action of government of India threatened the fish workers lives in a major way? Which organization did they form at the national level?
Ans: Fish worker's lives were threatened in major way when the government permitted entry to mechanised trawlers and technologies like bottom trawling for large- scale harvest of fish in the Indian seas. Local fish worker's organization fought with the state government over the issues of their livelihood. They formed the National Fish Workers Forum (NFF) at the National level.
Ques 20: Political equations in coalition governments are unstable. How was this concept reflected in the formation of National Front Government in 1989 and United Front Government in 1996?
Ans: In November 1989 five parties National Front comprising of Janata Dal, Congress (S) and three regional parties i.e., Telugu-Desam, DMK and AGP formed the government headed by V.P. Singh with the outside support extended by the BJP and the left parties. In November 1990, V.P. Singh's government reduced into minority and V.P. Singh resigned.
In 1996, Janta Dal formed a United Front with the consent of Congress and CPI (M), the Chief Minister of Karnataka, H.D. Deve Gowda was asked to lead coalition as Prime Minister. His term was from June 1, 1996 to April 21, 1997, till the Congress Party withdrew the support.
Ques 21: Explain the 'Cuban Missile Crisis'.
Ans: Cuba is an ally of the Soviet Union. In April 1961, the leaders of USSR were worried that U.S.A. would invade communist ruled Cuba and overthrow Fidel Castro, the President of Cuba. Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of U.S.S.R, placed nuclear missiles in Cuba. Soviet Union missiles were dangerous for the cities of America.
American President John. F. Kennedy and his advisers were determined to get Khrushchev to remove the missiles and nuclear weapons from Cuba. President Kennedy ordered American warships to intercept any Soviet Union ship heading to Cuba. A conflict between the two big powers was imminent and this crisis was known as Cuban Missile Crisis.
Ques 22: Describe any two major constraints of the U.S. hegemony.
Ans: At the beginning of the 21st century, the United States was a superpower. But history tells us that empires decline because they decay from within. Similarly the biggest constraints to American hegemony is from within. Two constraints of American powers are as follows:
(1) The first constraint is the institutional architecture of the American State itself. American system is based on division of power between the three organs of government, i.e., the Congress (Legislature), the Executive (President) and Judiciary.
(2) The second constraint of American Power is the open nature of the American Society. It means that there is no government control over mass media.
Ques 23: Name one country each from the continents of America, Africa, Asia and Europe, wherein the U.N. 'Peacekeeping Operations' were administered.
Ans: (i) America - Cuba
(ii) Africa - Congo
(iii) Asia - Japan
(iv) Eurpoe - Spain.
Ques 24: How is global poverty a source of insecurity? Explain.
Ans: In the present age, global poverty is the great source of insecurity. At present, the world population is more than 650 crores and will increase to about 850 crores within 25 years. Half of the World?s population exists in India, Indonesia, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nigeria. In the underdeveloped and poor countries, population is increasing very rapidly but on the other hand, the population of many developed and rich countries are almost stable.
The reason is that poverty is increasing in the poor and fast developing population countries whereas richer countries with stable population are becoming more rich. The Global poverty is affecting the security of the poor countries. Many armed conflicts have occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa, which is the poorest region of the world. More people were killed in the region in armed conflicts than those in the rest of the world.
Ques 25: 'Let the polluters pay'. Support this statement with any two suitable arguments.
Ans: Environment generally includes rocks, minerals, soil, water, land, rivers, sea, plants etc. Environmental problems begin with the man and ends with the man as the victim.
That is why it is said Let the polluters pay.
(1) Rapid population growth is a major factor responsible for environment pollution. It has been rightly observed that much of the environmental destruction in the form of deforestation can be traced to humankind's struggle to feed a rapidly growing population.
(2) Rapid industrialization has also caused environmental pollution. The discharge of industrial waste in the water resources causes water pollution.
Polluters pay the price in the following ways:
(1) More than one billion people in developing countries have no access to safe and clean drinking water. About 2.6 million people of those countries remain deprived of sanitation.
(2) Throughout the world, the area under cultivation is decreasing day-by-day because of the construction of colonies, factories etc.
(3) Polluted environment has increased various diseases which are very harmful.
Ques 26: 'Globalization has shifted power from nation-states to global consumers.' Justify the statement.
Ans: Before the era of globalization, nation-state was supreme and omnipotent. However, globalization has shifted from nation-state to global commons. Globalization has resulted in the erosion of state authority. The entry and the increased role of multinational companies all over the world has led to a reduction in the capacity of government to take decisions on their own.
Almost all countries of the world have joined or accepted the supremacy of IMF and WTO and thus power of states has reduced as all rules and regulations enacted by the institution are binding on member-states.
Ques 27: Match the following:
(a) Acharya Narendra Dev
(b) A.K. Gopalan
(c) Rafi Ahmed Kidwai
(d) Deen Dayal Upadhyaya
(i) Bharatiya Jana Sangh
(ii) Indian National Congress
(iii) Praja Socialist Party
(iv) Communist Party of India (M)
Ans: (a) - (iii), (b) - (iv), (c) - (ii), (d) - (i).
Ques 28: Explain any two features of Indian nuclear policy.
Ans: (1) India is against the policy of nuclear experiment. In principle, India has stood tor general, and complete disarmament within the framework of the United Nations. Addressing me General Assembly Mr. Rajiv Gandhi, Prune Minister, asked nuclear powers to eliminate all nuclear weapons by the year 2010. India is the sixth country in the world enjoying atomic power by having undertaken as successful atomic experiment in 1974.
There are foul, Atomic power centres working in India. But this power is being utilized for peaceful and creative purpose and not for making atomic-bomb.
(2) After India conducted nuclear rests in. May, 1998 United States and other countries urged India to sign C.T.B.T. unconditionally. But India reiterated its, stand that since the treaty is discriminatory, it is not acceptable to the nations without any change.
Ques 29: '1960s were labelled as the 'dangerous decade'. Explain with the help of any four arguments.
Ans: The decade of sixties is called as the ?dangerous decade because in this decade India faced many serious problems such as poverty, inequality, communal and regional divisions.
(1) China attacked both the Western and Eastern Sectors of the Indian border on 20th October; 1962. By waging a war China was able to capture thousands of miles of Indian area which is still in its possession.
(2) Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru passed away in May 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri became the Prime Minister of the country from 1964 to 1966. Lal Bahadur Shastri suddenly expired on 10 January, 1966 at Tashkent (USSR). After the death of Shastri, Mrs. Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister with the help of the syndicate. At that time the economic condition of the country was in a very bad shape. She led the Congress party to victory in 1967.
(3) In 1969, Congress split and in the presidential elections of 1969, official candidates Sanjeeva Reddy was defeated by independent candidate V. V. Giri who won the election and was supported by Mrs. Indira Gandhi.
Ques 30: What was the main outcome of the Rajiv Gandhi Longowal Accord in July 1985?
Ans: In July 1985, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi reached on an agreement with Sant Harchand Singh Longowal, the president of Akali Dal. This agreement is known as the Rajiv Gandhi - Longowal Accord or the Punjab Accord. Main provisions of Punjab Accord were as follows:
(1) Chandigarh would be transferred to Punjab.
(2) To resolve border dispute between Punjab and Haryana, a Commission would be established.
(3) A tribunal would be set up to decide the sharing of Ravi-Beas river water among Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
(4) Armed forces in Punjab would be withdrawn.
Ques 31: What is the relevance of the Non-aligned Movement after the end of Cold War?Explain.
Analyse India's changing relationship with post-Communist Russia.
Ans: Non-alignment movement originated in 1961. The main aim of the non-alignment countries was to keep distance from politics based upon groupism. At that time, the world was divided into capitalist bloc or American bloc and communist bloc or Russian bloc. The main aim of non - alignment was to keep away from both the blocs. The contemporary international system has rapidly changed from a system characterized by cold war tensions to a system moving towards peace, security, co-operation and development.
The non-aligned movement asserted its continued relevance and its determination to uphold the objective to oppose and struggle against injustice, inequality and under development. NAM is committed to work for the removal of economic inequalities between the developed and the developing countries. It is necessary:
(1) For securing a place of dignity, honour and equality for the developing countries.
(2) For the establishment of the New International
(3) For the democratization of the international system and it's functioning.
(4) For the progress of disarmament and denuclearization. These objectives are of long term nature, hence NAM is destined to remain alive, active and relevant.
Summing up, we can say that the emergency of unipolarism both in the power structure and ideology has not reduced the relevance of NAM in international relations. The Non-Aligned countries continue to follow it and are taken to strengthen it. Thus it continues to be fully relevant even today.
India's relations with Russia are cordial and friendly. In January, 1993 new treaty of friendship and cooperation was designed to guide the path of Indo-Russian relations for the next 20 years. In December, 1994 Russian Prime Minister visited India and during his visit, India and Russia signed 8 agreements covering such vital areas as defence, technology and space exploration.
In June, 1998 India and Russia signed Nuclear Pact. On June 29, 2000 India and Russia signed a number of agreements on Indo-Russian Defence co-operation. On 2nd October, 2000 President Putin visited India. India and Russia signed ten agreements. Russian President visited India in January 2007 and during this visit, he signed nine memorandums of co-operation.
Indian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh visited Moscow on December 2009. During his visit, both countries signed comprehensive civil nuclear pact. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev visited India on December 21, 2010. The two countries signed a record 29 deals. The Russian President endorsed Indian candidature for permanent UN Security Council seat.
Ques 32: Why is the European Union considered a highly influential regional organization in the economic, political and military fields?
No region exists in a vacuum. It is influenced by outside powers and events no matter how much it may try to insulate itself from non-regional powers. China and the United States remain key players in South Asian-politics. Sine-Indian relations have improved significantly in the last ten years, but China's strategic partnership with Pakistan remains a major irritant. The demands of development and globalization have brought the two Asian giants closer, and their economic ties have multiplied rapidly since 1991.
Study the paragraph given above carefully and answer the following questions:
(a) Which two countries have been referred to as outside powers'?
(b) Which are the two Asian giants and why have they been called so?
(c) China's strategic partnership with Pakistan is a major irritant for which country and why?
Ans: European Union is a very strong regional organization of European countries. It plays a very important role in the world politics. European Union is also called European common market or European common community. European Union has its own parliament, flag, anthem and its own currency. Headquarters of European Union is at Brussels.
(1) The European union as the biggest Economy: The EU is the world's biggest economy with a GDP of more than $12 trillion in 2003, slightly larger than that of United States. Its currency, the Euro is now in a position to pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar. Due to its economy power, it exercises a great influence over its neigh bours as well as over Asia and Africa. It also functions as an important bloc in international economic organization such as WTO.
(2) The EU a political and diplomatic influence: The EU also exercises political and diplomatic influence. Two members of EU, i.e.. Great Britain and France are permanent members of the security council of UN. Several members of EU are non-permanent members of the Security Council.
(3) The EU military Influence: The EU combined armed forces are the second largest in. the world. Its total spending on defence is second after US, England and France, are having about 550 nuclear warheads. Thus, EU is a super-national organization and can intervene in economic, political and social matters or the world.
(a) China and United States have been referred to as the Outside Power.
(b) India and China have been called two Asian giants because both from economically and military point of view are strong and powerful.
(c) China's strategic partnership with Pakistan is a major irritant for India because this strategic partnership can become dangerous for India.
Ques 33: How was 'one party dominance' in India different from the 'one party system' of Mexico? In your opinion, which of the two political systems is better and why?
Explain the main arguments in the debate that ensured between industrialization and agricultural development of the time of Second Five Year Plan.
Ans: In India one party dominant system existed up to 1967, several political parties participated in election in India but Congress Party dominated the scene at the centre as well as states before 1967. First three general elections not only provided leadership to the Congress Party at the national level but was also made responsible for the evolution and development of the party system in India.
In China, there is only one party, i.e., Communist Party. In fact, a single party system cannot exist in a democracy. But in India multi-party system exists and within a multi-party system, one party can be dominating. Dominance of one party did not mean that India was not .really a democracy. India has neither a single party system as in China, nor a two party system as in England and America.
We have a multiple party system as in Switzerland. Both India and Switzerland are democratic countries. Besides Congress Party other parties also actively participated in elections and in the first three general elections, Congress Party was defeated and opposition parties came into power. Thus dominance of one party does not mean that democracy is absent.
The Second Five Year Plan stressed on heavy industries. Indian planner, Prof. P. C. Mahalanobis, was the real architect of the Second Plan. He adopted a strategy which emphasized on investment in heavy industry to achieve Indus tribalization which was assumed to be the basic condition for rapid economic development.
In fact, there was a big debate whether more importance should be given to industries or agriculture. Ch. Charan Singh, a Congress leader who later formed Bharatiya Lok Dal, forcefully articulated the case for keeping agriculture at the centre of planning for India. He was of the view that planning was increasing the prosperity rural people.
However, the planners justified their strategy of rapid development through rapid industrialization.
(1) The planners felt that the country with its vast natural and human resources was ideally suited for industries.
(2) Indian agriculture was suffering from heavy population pressure on land. One method of reducing this pressure of population on land was to shift the surplus population to industries.
(3) Rapid industrialization was an essential condition for the development of not only agriculture but also for all other sectors in the country.
(4) Rapid increase in national and per capita income would be possible only through rapid industrialization.
Ques 34: What was Narmada Bachao Andolan? What were its main issues? What democratic strategy did it use to put forward its demands?
In the midst of severe competition and many conflicts in 1989, a consensus appeared to have emerged among most parties. Explain any three point of consensus.
Ans: The Narmada Valley Project was conceived in 1946, but final planning and work on it started only after the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal passed its order in 1978. The Narmada Project will rank as die largest irrigating project planned and implemented in the world. The Narmada Project consisted of 30 big dams, 135 medium sized dams and 3000 minor dams.
Narmada Project has given rise to a powerful social movement: The movement against the Sardar Sarover Project started in 1985. In 1986, Narmada Dharangrast Samiti (NDS) began to investigate the problem under the leadership of Medha Pateker. They found dial the environmental impact has not been studied, the number of people to be displaced was not known, estimation of land to get irrigation water had been exaggerated, ere.
Thus, in 1989, organizations like NDS, Maharashtra Ghati Navnirman Samiti, Narmada Asargrasta Sangharasha Samiti and few others merged to form Narmada Bacho Andolan (NBA). One of the important events in the history of NBA has been filing of a petition against the dam by NBA in 1994. In May 1997, the Supreme Court halted construction of dam, but in its 2000 judgment it gave a go ahead signal.
Narmada Bacho Andolan has also become the centre of national and international concerns. In the beginning, the movement demanded proper rehabilitation of all those who were directly or indirectly affected by the Narmada Project. In 2003, the government formulated National Rehabilitation Policy and this is a major achievement of NBA.
NBA has been criticized by many on the ground that demand to stop construction of dam is against the process of development. For the development of the area, construction of Narmada Project is very essential.
India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic. In India parliamentary democracy is established. For the successful working of parliamentary democracy, political parties are inevitable. In India, multiple party system exists. In July, 2010 the Election Commission recognised six national parries and 45 state level parties.
Each party wants to capture power thus, there are competitions and conflicts among the political parties. Conflicts are there because each political party has its own ideology, policies and programmes.
(1) Full faith in constitutional system: All the political parties have full faith in the constitutional system of India. For working under Indian System, it is essential that all parties should have true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India.
(2) Faith in democracy and secularism: All political parties have faith in democratic values. Political parties are interested in capturing political power but through democratic methods.
(3) Policy of non- alignment: There is a consensus on the policy of non- alignment. Non-alignment is the basic principle of India's foreign policy. Not only Congress but Non-congress governments at the centre have also followed the policy of non-alignment.