Ques 1: What is meant by '9/11' in context of U.S.A?
Ans: 9/11 is important for USA because on that day terrorists attacked the World Trade Centre in New York and the Pentagon in Washington.
Ques 2: Correct the following statement and rewrite: ASEAN stands for? Association of South East African Nations?
Ans: ASEAN stands for Association of South East Asian Nations.
Ques 3: How many Permanent Members and how many Non - permanent Members does the UN Security Council have?
Ans: There are 5 Permanent and 10 Non-permanent Members in the U.N. Security Council.
Ques 4: What is meant by 'Security'?
Ans: Security is a simple word which means freedom from threat.
Ques 5: What is the 'Two Nation Theory' advanced by the Muslim League?
Ans: According to Muslim League in India, before partition 1947 there are two nations, i.e., Hindu Nation and Muslim Nation.
Ques 6: Name the founder President of the Congress Socialist Party. What name was given to this Party after 1948?
Ans: Acharya Narendra Deva was founder President of the Congress Socialist Party. After 1948, this party was known as the Socialist Party.
Ques 7: After which General Election in India did the Congress Party lose its dominance for the first time at the centre?
Ans: After the General Election of 1977, Congress Party lost its dominance for the first time at the centre.
Ques 8: After the death of Lal Bahadur Shastri, which two leaders of the Congress Party contested against one another to become leader of the Congress Parliamentary party?
Ans: Sh. Morarji Desai and Smt. Indira Gandhi contested in elections against one another to become the leader of the Congress Parliamentary Party.
Ques 9: Name the popular movement which demanded that no forest exploiting contract should be given to any outsiders?
Ans: Chipko Movement.
Ques 10: From which year did the era of Coalition Governments at the Centre begin in India?
Ans: From which year did the era of Coalition Governments at the Centre begin in India?
Ques 11: Name the two superpowers responsible for Cold War. When did the world become unipolar?
Ans: U.S.A and U.S.S.R were responsible for the Cold War. The world became unipolar in 1991.
Ques 12: What is meant by 'Shock Therapy'?
Ans: With the disintegration of Soviet Union, the process of change from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic socialist system led to great turmoil in terms of changes in society and economy. This was called Shock Therapy.
Ques 13: When was ASEAN Regional Forum established? What was its main objective?
Ans: ASEAN Regional Forum was established in 1993 with the objective of regional security, co-operation and dialogue platform among foreign ministers of ASEAN and its full dialogue partners.
Ques 14: Explain the traditional concept of 'Security'.
Ans: In traditional concept of security the greatest danger to a country is from military threats. Military threat is always from another country and such action endangers the core value of sovereignty and independence of a country. The military action also endangers the lives of the people.
Ques 15: Why are International Organizations like the U.N. required?
Ans: 1. These International Organizations are helpful in stopping wars and establishing law and order in the world.
2. The international organizations are helpful in creating better living conditions.
Ques 16: Which four Princely States of India initially resisted to join the Indian Union?
Ans: 1. Junagarh 2. Hyderabad 3. Kashmir 4. Manipur are four Princely States of India those initially resisted to join the Indian Union.
Ques 17: Which are the two models of development? Which model of development was adopted by India?
Ans: The two models of development are Liberal - Capitalist model and Socialist Model. Socialist Model was adopted by India.
Ques 18: What is Indians Policy of Non-alignment?
Ans: The main characteristic of India's foreign policy is non-alignment. Non-alignment means that India will remain independent by not joining any group. Non- alignment is a policy of peacefulness. Non-alignment does not mean neutrality in international affairs. India's policy of non - alignment is positive one. India wants to bridge the gap between Eastern and Western ideologies.
Ques 19: Mention any two issues of concern related to development projects such as Sardar Sarovar Project?
Ans: (1) Rehabilitation of project affected the villagers.
(2) The social cost included forced resettlement of the project affected people, a serious loss of their means of livelihood and culture and depletion of ecological resources.
Ques 20: Highlight any two recommendations of Mandal Commission.
Ans: (i) Twenty seven percent of the posts in public services should be reserved for OBC
(ii) Welfare programmes specially meant for OBC should be financed by the Government of India in the same manner and to the same extent as already done in the case of SC's and ST's.
Ques 21: Explain any two reasons for the disintegration of the U.S.S.R.?
Ans: The following were the main reasons for the disintegration of the former Soviet Union.
(i) Negation of Political Democracy: After the death of Lenin in 1924, Stalin had succeeded in establishing himself as an absolute dictator. The Parliament of the Soviet Union (Duma) had been reduced to mere rubber stamp giving approval to his decisions. The government exercised strict controls over all means of communication (i.e., radio, newspaper etc.). The dictatorial character of the regime caused public discontentment.
(ii) Economic Failure: Because of the emphasis on heavy industries the Soviet Economy failed to meet the expectations of people, especially in terms of food production and the consumer goods. The management and control of agriculture and industry was in the hands or state officials. In order to raise agricultural and industrial production recourse was taken to violence and terror, but food situation went from bad to worse.
Ques 22: List any four Directive Principles of State Policy given in the Constitution of India for the promotion of international peace and security.
Ans: Article 51 of the Indian Constitution lays down certain principles which are the basis of Indian Foreign Policy. Following are constitutional bases of the Indian Foreign Policy:
1. To promote international peace and security.
2. To establish just and respectable relations with various nations.
3. To foster respect for international law and order - obligations in the dealings of organized people with one another.
4. To encourage the settlement of international disputes by arbitration.
Ques 23: Describe any two constrains on American Hegemony?
Ans: At the beginning of the 21st century, the United States was a super power. But history tells us that empires decline because they decay from within. Similarly, the biggest constraint to American hegemony is within. Broadly there are three constraints on American Power.
1. The first constraint is the institutional architecture of the American state itself. American system is based on division of power between the three organs of government i.e., legislature, executive and judiciary. These organs put many restrictions on military powers.
2. The second constraint on American power is the open nature of the American Society. It means that there is no government control over mass media.
Ques 24: Describe any two major issues of conflict between India and Pakistan leading to the war of 1971.
Ans: Beginning in 1970 Pakistan faced its biggest internal crisis. The country's first general election produced a split verdict-Zulfikar Alt Bhutto's party emerged a winner in West Pakistan, while the Awami League led by Sheikh Mujib-ur Rahman swept through East Pakistan. The Bengali population of East Pakistan had voted to protest against years of being treated as a second class citizens by the rulers based in West Pakistan. The Pakistani rulers were not willing to accept the democratic verdict. Now they were ready to accept the Awami League's demand for a federation.
Instead, in early 1971 the Pakistani army arrested Sheikh Mujib and unleashed a reign of terror on the people of East Pakistan. In response to this, the people started a struggle to liberate Bangladesh from Pakistan. Throughout 1971, India had to bear the burden of about 80 lakh refugees who fled East Pakistan and took shelter in the neighbouring areas in India. India extended moral and materiel support to the freedom struggly in Bangladesh. Pakistan accused India of a conspiracy to break it up.
After months of diplomatic tension and military build-up, a full scale war between India and Pakistan broke out in December 1971. Pakistani aircrafts attacked Punjab and Rajasthan, while the army moved on the Jammu and Kashmir front, India retaliated with an attack involving the air force navy and army on both the western and the eastern front welcomed and supported by the local population.
The Indian army made rapid progress in East Pakistan. Within ten days the Indian army had surrounded Dhaka from three sides and the Pakistani army of about 90,000 had surrender with Bangladesh as a free country. India declared a unilateral ceasefire. Later the signing of the Shimla Agreement between Indira Gandhi and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on 3 July 1972 formalised the return of peace.
Ques 25: Identify and explain any four new sources of threat to security.
Ans: New sources of threat are Terrorism, Human Rights, Global Poverty and Migrants.
1. Terrorism: Terrorism is a serious threat to human security Terrorism is unlawful activity used to achieve desired objectives. Terrorism refers to violence which target the civilians deliberately and indiscriminately. Bomb blasts, human bombs, mass killings etc. are all acts of terrorism.
2. Human rights: Human Rights are those rights which are essential for all around development of a man. Human Rights are commonly understood as those rights that every human being is entitled to enjoy freely irrespective of his religion, race, caste, sex, nationality or any one of these. In majority of the countries of the world, human rights are not available to their citizens. The violation of human rights is perceived as a threat to human security.
3. Global poverty: Global poverty is another big threat to human security. Poverty is increasing in countries with low income and large population wire as richer countries with stable population are becoming richer. The global poverty is affecting the security of the poor countries. Many armed conflicts have occurred in Sub-Sahara Africa, which is the poorest region of the world.
4. Migrants: Those who voluntarily leave their home - countries are called migrants. The migrants are also creating problems for human security.
Ques 26: Explain any four consequences of globalization.
Ans: 1. Globalization has shifted the power to regulate certain activities from government to international, which are indirectly controlled by the multi-national activities.
2. The international organizations like World Trade Organization frames rules and regulations for all countries.
3. The role of IMF and WTO in the making of economic policies in the various countries, has increased.
4. The restrictions in the movement of capital goods across countries have also been reduced.
Ques 27: Explain any four reasons for the dominance of the Congress Party in the first three General Elections.
Ans: Indian National Congress dominated in the first three general elections. Following factors were mainly responsible for the dominance of Congress Party.
1. Indian National Congress is the oldest party in Asia and was established in 1885.
2. Congress Party played a very important role in India's freedom struggle. In fact, history of National Movements is the history of die Congress Party. Many leaders and thousands of workers of Congress Party went to jail during the freedom struggle.
3. Congress Party was led by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Acharya J.B. Kripalani, Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramayya etc.
4. Congress Party was the party having proper organization at the grass root level. Its nation-wide organization enabled the government to keep in close touch with the people and to function as an effective democracy.
Ques 28: Where and when was the organization 'Dalit Panthers' formed? Describe any three of its activities?
Ans: The organization Dalit Panthers was formed in Maharashtra in 1972. Dalit Panthers was an organization of educated Dalit youths. Baburao Bagul, Raja Dhale, Namdev Dhasal gave direction to Dalit policies through their poems, literature and biographies. Dalit Panthers openly challenged casteism and Brahmanisam. Dalit Panthers raised the following issues for the welfare of Dalits.
1. Dalit Panthers aim was to unite the Dalits and bring them into their fold.
2. According to the manifesto of Dalit Panthers Dalit word includes scheduled castes and tribes, new Buddhists, economically backward workers, women, landless poor peasants and all those persons who were being exploited.
3. According to Dalit Panthers manifesto, main problems of Dalit are lack of education, food, water, shelter, jobs, land, unequal social status and atrocities inflicted on them.
4. According to Dalit Panthers, their problem could be solved only by acquiring economic and political power.
Ques 29: Why is the 'Emergency' and period around it known as the period of Constitutional crisis? Explain.
Ans: Internal Emergency was declared on June 1975. The Emergency and the period around is known as the period of Constitutional crisis because it had its origins in the constitutional battle over the jurisdiction of the Parliament and the judiciary. Emergency abraded the democratic framework of India. The most disgraceful dimension of the Emergency was not its imposition but the modus in which almost the entire country succumbed to it and conceded it tenderly.
Along with this, it was also an epoch of political paucity. The party in power had full majority and yet, the leadership of this party decided to occlude the democratic process. Earlier, it used to be believed that all political parties would principally concede the democratic norm, which has been described under the Constitution of India. According to the Constitution, in the period of Emergency, when the government would use conspicuous powders, its use would be inboard the standard of the rule of law. This anticipation endows the wide and open ended potencies ceded to the government during the period of Emergency.
The rule of law and norms were misapplied during the period of Emergency. This political crisis was more sedate than the constitutional crisis. Along with the arrests of political leaders of opposition parties and the inhibitions on the press, the Emergency apparently influenced lives of common people in many ways.
Torture and custodial deaths were common incidents during the Emergency. Self-willed translocation of poor people also occurred, and ultraeuphoria about controlling the increasing population led to cases of mandatory sterilization. Such instances clearly show that what happens when the common democratic process is placed under suspension.
Ques 30: Study the passage carefully -and answer the questions that follow:
The best way to respond to regional aspirations is through democratic negotiations rather than through suppression. Look at the situation in the eighties - militancy had erupted in Punjab; problems were persisting in North East; students in Assam were agitating; Kashmir valley was on the boil. Instead of treating these as simple law and order problems, the Government of India reached negotiated settlement with regional movements.
(i) How are regional aspirations dangerous for the unity of the country?
(ii) What is meant by democratic negotiations?
(iii) Who was leading the agitation in Assam?
(iv) What steps were taken by the Government of India to respond to the regional aspirations?
Study the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
In fact, the BSP under Kanshi Ram's leadership was envisaged as an organization based on pragmmatic politics. It derived confidence from the fact that the Bahujans (SCs, STs, OBCs and religious minorities) constituted the majority of the population and were a formidable political force on the strength of their numbers.
(i) Which organization was formed by Kanshi Ram?
(ii) Give the full form of BSP.
(iii) Name any two religious minorities.
(iv) Why are the Bahujans considered a formidable political force?
Ans: (i) Regional aspirations are dangerous for the unity of the country because people give more importance to their region than to the country. Even after 67 years of independence some of the issues of national integration are not completely solved.
(ii) Settlement of disputes by peaceful method is known as democratic negotiations. Regional movements should be solved through political settlement i.e., democratic negotiations rather than suppression.
(iii) All Assam Students Union (AASU) and Asom Gana Parishad (AGP) led the agitations in Assam.
(iv) The Government of India reached negotiated settlement with regional movement. For example, the Mizoram problem was solved by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi through negotiations. Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi made serious efforts to solve the problems of foreigners of Assam and ultimately, an agreement was signed on 15 August 1985.
The Govt of India agreed to take proper steps for the economic development of Assam. Moreover, special provisions are mentioned in the Constitution to satisfy the regional aspirations.
(i) BSP was formed by- Kanshi Ram.
(ii) Bahujan Samajwadi Party.
(iii) Muslim and Sikhs.
(iv) Bahujans are considered a formidable political force because Bahujans are supported by S.C., backward classes, Dalits, etc.
Ques 31: 'States have common but differentiated responsibility & towards environment' Analyse the statement giving suitable examples.
Analyse India's stand on environmental issues.
Ans: The relevant pan of die Rio Declaration says that a Stare shall co-operate in the spirit of a global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of earth?s ecosystem. In view of the different contributions of the global environment degradation, stares have common but differentiated responsibilities.
The developed countries acknowledge die responsibility that they bear in the international pursuit of the sustainable development in view of the pressure their societies place on the global environment and of the technological, and financial resources they command?. The largest share of historical and current global emissions has originated in the developed countries.
The per capita emissions in the developing countries are still relatively low. Hence India, China and other developing countries were exempted from the requirements of the Kyto Protocol. Under die Kyoto Protocol, industrial countries are required to cut their greenhouse emissions.
India signed and ratified in 1997 Kyoto Protocol in August 2002. At the G-8 meeting in June 2005, India pointed out that the per capita emission rates of the developing countries are a tiny fraction of those in. the developed world.
India is of view that the major responsibility of curbing emission depends upon developed countries, which have accumulated emission over a long period of time. India's international negotiating position depends on the principles of historical responsibilities, as enshrined in UNFCCC. The Electricity Act of 2003 encourages use of renewable energy.
Ques 32: Explain any three consequences of partitions of British India in 1947.
Explain the process and basis of the reorganization of states of Indian Union.
Ans: (i) The year 1947 was the year of one of the largest, most abrupt, unplanned and tragic transfer of population that Indian history has known. There were killings and atrocities on both sides of the border. In the name of religion people of one community ruthlessly killed and maimed people of the other community. Cities like Lahore, Amritsar and Kolkata became divided into communal zones.
(ii) Minorities on both sides of the border fled their homes and often secured temporary shelters m refugee camps. They often found unhelpful administration. They travelled to the other country. They travelled to the other side of the new border by all sorts of means, often by foot.
Even during this journey they were often attacked, killed or raped. Thousands of women were abducted on both sides of the border. They were made to convert to the religion of the abductor and were forced into marriage. In many cases women were killed by their own family members to preserve the family honour.
Many children were separated from their parents. Those who did manage to cross the border found that they had no home. For millions of these refugees the country's freedom meant life in "refugee camps" for months and years.
(iii) The employees of the government and the railways were also divided. Above all, it was a violent separation of communities who had hitherto lived together as neighbours. It is estimated that the partition forced about 80 lakh people to migrate across the new border.
Between five to ten lakh people were killed in partition related violence.
Even after large scale migration of Muslims to the newly created Pakistan, the Muslim population in India accounted by 12% of the total population in 1951. So how would the government of India treat its Muslim citizens and other religious minorities. The partition had already created severe conflict between the communities.
The process of nation - building did not come to an end with partition and integration of princely states. Now the challenges were to draw the internal boundaries of the Indian states. This was not just a matter of administrative divisions. The boundaries had to be drawn in a way so that the linguistic and cultural plurality of the country could be reflected without affecting the unity of the nation.
During colonial rule, the states boundaries were drawn either on administrative convenience or simply coincides with the territories annexed by the British government or the territories ruled by the Princely Powers.
Our national movement had rejected these divisions as artificial and had promised the linguistic principle as the basis of formation of states. In fact after the Nagpur session of Congress in 1920 the principle was recognized as the basis of the reorganization in the Indian National Congress Party itself. Many provincial Congress Committees were created by linguistic zones, which did not follow the administrative divisions of British India.
Our leaders felt that carving out states on the basis of language might lead to disruption and disintegration. It was also felt that this would draw attention away from each other's social and economic challenges that the country faced. The central leadership decided to postpone matters. The need for postponement was also felt because the fate of the princely states had not been decided. Also, the memory of partition was still fresh.
The decision of the national leadership was challenged by the local leaders and the people. Protests began in the Telugu speaking areas of the old Madras province which included present day Tamilnadu parts of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Karnataka.
The Vishalandhra movement demanded that the Telugu speaking areas should be separated from the Madras province of which they were a part and be made into a separate Andhra Province. Nearly all the political forces in the Andhra region were in favour of linguistic reorganization of the Madras province.
Ques 33: 'Was the declaration of emergency in 1975 necessary' Support your answer with any three suitable arguments.
Explain any three lessons learnt from the emergency imposed in 1975.
Ans: Declaration of emergency in 1975 was necessary. On 25th June 1975, the President of India declared internal emergency under Article 352 on the advice of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Due to certain circumstances, Mrs. Indira Gandhi was left with no option except to impose emergency.
Emergency was justified by then Prime Minister, Mrs. Indira Gandhi when she gave a speech to Lok Sabha on July 22, 1975 and said, "This action is totally within our constitutional framework and it was undertaken in order not to destroy the constitution but to preserve the constitution, to preserve and safeguard our democracy.
1. Economic crisis due to high cost of 1971 war, crop failures of 1972 - 73, increase in oil prices in 1973 - 74 was one big reason for imposing emergency.
2. Strike of Railway employees in 1974, Bihar Movement led by students, were also responsible for the declaration of emergency in 1975.
3. A writ issued by Allahabad High Court invalidating Smt. Indira Gandhi 1971 elections made her ineligible to occupy her seat for years.
On the advice of Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi, the President declared internal emergency on 25 June 1975. Thousands of workers and leaders of the opposition parties were put in jail under MISA. Many restrictions were put on the freedom of press. Legislative Assemblies of Gujarat and Tamilnadu were dissolved. Following three lessons were learnt from the emergency:
1. Bureaucracy and Judiciary should be independent. Bureaucracy should be independent and impartial. It should not be committed to the ideology and principles of ruling party.
2. The government should run the administration according to the provisions of constitution. Constitution is supreme and its supremacy should be protected by the Judiciary.
3. Freedom of press should not be crushed. Freedom of press is very essential for the successful working of democracy. Political consciousness is created among the people by the press.
Ques 34: What was the Soviet System? Assess any four features of the Soviet System?
Examine the relevance of the Non-aligned movement after the cold war era.
Ans: The Soviet system of economy was planned economy and was managed on basis of state plans for economic and social development. The system of government in LLS.S.R was generally known as Soviet system of government.
1. The Soviet system was based on communist principles. Lenin and Stalin adjusted the communist philosophy to the needs of the country. Marxist philosophy was the guiding principle of the Soviet constitution.
2. The Soviet system forms the basis of the political and constitutional organization of the U.S.S.R. The word Soviet 7 means a council consisting of the elected deputies or delegates of workers.
3. In the very first Article of the Stalin Constitution, The Union of Soviet Republic was described as a socialist state of workers and peasants.
4. U.S.S.R. was one-party state. The communist party occupied a pivotal position in the socio-political system of Soviet Union. The communist party was die supreme guiding energy in the state.
Outside the UN. General Assembly there is no international body as largely representative as the Non-aligned Movement. The Non-aligned Movement is generally traced from the year 1955 when 29 Asian and African nations met at Bandung to devise the means of combating colonialism.
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, who was one of the moving forces of the conference, said that the coming together of the leaders of Asian and African states was an event of great importance in so far as it marked the birth of Asia and new Africa. The non-aligned movement asserted its continued relevance and its determination to uphold the objective to oppose and struggle against injustice, inequality and underdevelopment. NAM is committed to work for the removal of economic inequalities between the developed and the developing countries. It is necessary:
1. For securing a place of dignity, honour and equality for the developing countries.
2. For the establishment of the new international economic order.
3. For the democratization of the international system and its functioning.
4. For the progress of disarmament and denuclearization.