Ques 1: What is the main reason for beginning of the US hegemony in 1991?
Ans: US hegemony began in 1991 after Soviet power disappeared from the international scene. US hegemony can be seen from the Gulf War when US interrupted and showed the military power to other countries.
Ques 2: Define the word ?Bandwagon Strategy?
Ans: Bandwagoning in international relations occurs when a state aligns with a stronger, to take advantage of the opportunity that hegemony creates such as raising economic growth, increasing trade and investment.
Ques 3: Correct the following sentence and rewrite in your answer book.
The International Monetary Fund has five member countries and they enjoy equal status.
Ans: The International Monetary Fund has 184 member countries and they do not enjoy equal status.
Ques 4: Mention any two new threats to security of a state.
Ans: (i) Terrorism and (ii) Poverty
Ques 5: Who was popularity known as 'The Milkman of India'?
Ans: Dr. Verghese Kurien.
Ques 6: What was Bombay Plan?
Ans: The Bombay Plan is the name commonly given to a World War II-era set of proposals for the development of the post-independence economy of India. The plan, published in 1944/1945 by eight leading Indian industrialists, proposed state intervention in the economic development of the nation after independence from the United Kingdom.
Ques 7: Name the two main contenders who contested the elections for the post of President of India in 1969.
Ans: (i) V.V. Gin and (ii) N.S. Reddy.
Ques 8: Who led the Railway Strike in 1974? What was its main demand?
Ans: 1974 Railway Strike in India was the strike by workers of Indian Railways in 1974. The strike was held to demand a raise in pay scale, which had remained stagnant over many years. The President of the All India Railway men?s Federation George Fernandes led the strike.
Ques 9: Which organization of Assam led the movement against foreign nationals in 1979?
Ans: All India Assam Students Union.
Ques 10: Shetkari Sanghatana and Rayat Sangha belonged to which two respective states?
Ans: (i) Maharashtra and (ii) Karnataka.
Ques 11: Which were the two important features of the Soviet system?
Ans: (i) The Soviet system centred around one party and no other political party of opposition was allowed.
(ii) The system was bureaucratic and authoritarian, the economy was planned and controlled by the state.
Ques 12: State any two consequences of the 'largest garage sale' in the history.
Ans: (1) It meant the end of cold war confrontations. The ideological dispute over whether the socialist system would beat the capitalist system was not an issue any more.
(2) Power relations in world politics changed and, therefore, the relative influence of ideas and institutions also changed.
Ques 13: What is meant by hegemony?
Ans: Hegemony is an international system with only one centre of power. Countries and groups of countries are engaged in constantly trying to gain and retain power. This power in the form of military domination, economic power, political clout and cultural superiority.
Ques 14: Name any four main organs of the United Nations.
Ans: (i) General Assembly
(ii) Security Council
(iii) Economic and Social Council
(iv) Trusteeship Council
Ques 15: What is meant by non-traditional nation of security?
Ans: Non-traditional notions of security go beyond military threats to include a wide range of threats and dangers affecting the conditions of human existence. They begin by questioning the traditional referent of security. In doing so, they also question the other three elements of security - what is being secured, from what kind of threats and the approach to security.
Ques 16: Mention any two merits of Green Revolution.
Ans: Two merits of Green Revolution are:
(a) Production increased due to intensive use of scientific methods in agriculture. It helped in increasing the production of rice remarkably.
(b) Good financial condition of farmers because of surplus production. Even small and marginal scale farmers got benefit from this.
Ques 17: Mention any two important features of Bharatiya Jana Sangh's ideology.
Ans: The BJS was political wing of Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh, and derived most of its political activist base and candidates from the RSS ranks.
The BJS also attracted many economically conservative members of the Indian National Congress who were disenchanted with the more socialist policies and politics of Jawaharlal Nehru and the Congress Party.
Ques 18: What were the two main consequences of Indo- Pakistan conflict of 1971?
Ans: (i) Pakistan military's experience with India including Gen. Yahya Khan experience in 1977 influenced the Pakistani government to support jihadist groups in Afghanistan even after the Soviets left, because the jihadists were a tool to use against India, including bogging down the Indian Army in Kashmir.
(ii) After the war Zulfikar All Bhutto authorized the highly secretive and clandestine atomic bomb program, as part of its new deterrence policy, to defend itself and never to allow another armed invasion from India.
Ques 19: Highlight any two issues that dominate the politics of North-East India.
Ans: (i) Issues of governance -The Indian government's past and ongoing processes of national integration, state, building and democratic consolidation have further aggravated the conflict scenario in the region.
(ii) Demand for autonomy -Leaders of the major tribal communities wanted to separate from Assam. They formed the Eastern India Tribal Union which later transformed into a more comprehensive All Party Hill Leaders Conference in 1960.
Ques 20: What does a coalition of government mean? Mention any one example of such a government.
Ans: A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which several political parties cooperate, to form majority in Lok sabha and government at the centre. At the national level India's first ever coalition government was formed under the Prime Ministership of Morarji Desai which existed from 24th March, 1977 to 15th July, 1979 headed by the Janata Party. The first successful coalition government in India which completed the whole 5 year term was the BJP Bharatiya Janata Party led National Democratic Alliance with Atal Bihari Vajpayee as Prime Minister from 1999-2004.
Ques 21: Why is the policy of non-alignment of India criticized? Explain any two reasons.
Ans: India has played a significant role in shaping the Non-aligned Movement which began as a collective and constructive response of the newly liberated masses of Asia, Africa, Caribbean and Latin America. The Movement is responsible for inculcating self-esteem to these newly liberated countries and to a great extent responsible for the creation of more just and equitable world order.
NAM has failed to help promote peace and many of its members have been involved in internal and external violence (for example the civil war in Cambodia, or the war between Iran and Iraq). NAM has also been unable to bear on lingering disputes such as the conflict and the problems in Kashmir causing tensions between Pakistan and India or in die Cyprus which is resulting in tensions between Turkey and Greece.
Ques 22: Explain any four factors which make the European Union a highly influential organization.
Ans: (i) The European Union is traditionally seen as a new, and partly separate, legal order within the global legal system. At the same time more recent developments revealed the position of the EU as an important player in the global governance network.
(ii) The strong and explicit link between the EU and a large number of other international organizations raises questions concerning the impact of decisions taken by other international organizations and of international agreements concluded with those organizations (either by the EU itself or its member States) on the autonomy of die EU and its Member States.
(iii) The European Union's legal order is traditionally seen as largely autonomous within die global legal system.
(iv) At the same time, the EU is an important player in the global governance network and has revealed its dependence on international law and international normative processes.
Ques 23: Explain the hegemony of United States as a hard power.
Ans: The bedrock of contemporary US power lies in the overwhelming superiority of its military power. American military dominance today is both absolute and relative. In absolute terms, the US today has military capabilities that can reach any point on the planet accurately, lethally and in real time, thereby crippling the adversary while its own forces are sheltered to the maximum extent possible from the dangers of war.
The military dominance of the US is not just based on higher military spending, but on a qualitative gap, a technological chasm that no other power can at present conceivably span. There are five commands of US military and these are not limited to the area of the United States only. In fact, it extends to include the whole world. This clearly shows the US Hegemony as a Hard Power.
Ques 24: Describe India's relation with China from Independence to 1962.
Ans: India began its relationship with China on a very friendly note. The two countries signed Panchsheel, the five principles of peaceful coexistence in 1954 which was a step in direction of stronger relationship. The China invasion in 1962 marks the turning point in the relationship of the two countries and had affected the domestic and international politics, after two massive invasions, China declared a unilateral ceasefire and its troops withdrew to where they began.
This dented the India's image at home and abroad. India had to approach the America and the British for the military assistance whereas the Soviet Union remained neutral during the conflict. Indeed, India faced a sense of national humiliation. Some of the top army commanders either resigned or were retired, the Defence Minister V. Krishna also had to leave the cabinet. Nehru suffered criticism for the lack of military preparedness.
For the first time a no-confidence motion was passed against his government in Lok sabha, as a result the Congress lost some of the key by - elections to Lok sabha and changed the political mood of the country. The Sino-India conflict affected the opposition as well, the growing rift between the China and Soviet Union created difference within the Communist Party of India which later led to split and marked the formation of communist Party of India (Marxist). The war alerted Indian leadership for the development of isolated and underdeveloped regions of northeast India. The process of its reorganization began soon after the China War.
Ques 25: State any four criteria that have been proposed in recent years for new permanent and non - permanent members of the UN. Security Council.
Ans: Reform of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) encompasses live key issues; categories of membership, the question of the veto held by the five permanent members, regional representation, the size of an enlarged Council and its working methods; and the Security Council, General Assembly relationship. Member States, regional groups and other Member State interest groupings developed different positions and proposals on how to move forward on this contested issue.
One proposed change is to admit more permanent members. The candidates usually mentioned are Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan. They comprise the group of G-4 nations, mutually supporting one another's bids for permanent seats. The United .Kingdom, France and Russia support G-4 membership in die LLN. Security Council This sort of reform has traditionally been opposed by the Uniting for Consensus group, which is composed primarily of nations who are regional rivals and economic competitors of the G
4. The group is led by Italy and Spain, (opposing Germany), Mexico, Colombia, and Argentina (opposing Brazil), Pakistan (opposing India), and South Korea (opposing Japan), in addition to Turkey, Indonesia and others. Since 1992, Italy and other members of the group have instead proposed semi-permanent seats or the expansion of the number of temporary seats.
Most of the leading candidates for permanent membership are regularly elected onto the Security Council by their respective groups: Japan and Brazil were elected for nine two, year terms each, and Germany for three terms. India has been elected to the Council seven times in total, with the most recent successful bid being in 2010 after a gap of almost twenty years since 1991-92.
Ques 26: Explain any four factors responsible for the development of globalization.
Ans: (i) Information technology: Advances in technology have made it possible to share and process information among nations and people regardless of geographic location. The Internet has transformed commerce by creating new ways for retailers and their customers to complete transactions. Internet-based communication system made things easier.
(ii) World Trade organization: The World Trade Organization plays a vital role in reducing barriers to trade in services and goods. Globalization has encouraged countries to negotiate trade agreements. Countries engaging in trade agreements increase access to foreign markets of their products. Many countries choose to become members of this organization to increase prosperity and their potential for achieving economic growth.
(iii) Human migration: Human migration involves physical movement of humans from one area to another. Since World War I the costs of migration have continued to decline. The lower costs have made it easier for individuals to travel to other nations. Reasons that people choose to move their families to another country include wars, political conflicts or seeking better employment opportunities.
(iv) Transportation: Transportation is necessary to connect international trade with domestic consumption and production. Improvements in transportation have made it possible to deliver fresh items quickly to other countries. Ocean cargo carriers are capable of delivering up to 150,000 tons of goods to locations around the globe.
Ques 27: Who founded the Swatantra Party in 1959? Describe any three policies and programmers of this party.
Ans: The Swatantra Party was an Indian conservative political party that existed from 1959 to 1974. It was founded by C. Rajagopalachari, the party stood out from other parties in terms of its position on economic issue.
(i) The party wanted the government to be less and less involved in controlling the economy. It believed that prosperity could only be achieved through individual freedom.
(ii) The Party clearly and openly declared its opposition to Socialism which it described as State Capitalism, and its mission was to Save Freedom, Preserve Family Economy, Restore Fundamental Rights and to provide the country A Democratic Alternative. For Farm, Family and Freedom became the signature slogan of the Swatantra Party.
(iii) It was critical of the development strategy of the state intervention in the economy, centralized planning, nationalization and the public sector. Instead it favoured expansion of private sector.
Ques 28: Explain India's nuclear policy.
Ans: A crucial development in India's foreign affairs was the first nuclear explosion in May 1974. When communist China conducted nuclear tests in October 1964, the five nuclear weapon powers, the USA, USSR, UK, France and China (Taiwan than represented China) also me five Permanent Members of the UN Security Council-tried to impose the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 on the rest of the world. India always considered the NPT as criminatory and had refused to sign it.
When India conducted its first nuclear test it was termed as peaceful explosion. India argued that it was committed to the policy of using nuclear power only for peaceful purpose. Nehru had always put his faith in science and technology for rapidly building a modern India.
A significant component of his industrialization plans was the nuclear programme initiated in the late 1940s under the guidance of Homi J. Bhabha. India wanted to generate atomic energy for peaceful purposes. Nehru was against nuclear weapons. So he pleaded with the superpowers for comprehensive nuclear disarmament. However, the nuclear arsenal kept rising.
Ques 29: What reasons, do you think, were responsible for the declaration of emergency in 1975? Examine any two reasons.
Ans: Indira Gandhi had emerged as a towering leader with tremendous popularity. This was also the period when party competition became bitter and polarised. This period also witnessed tensions in the relationship between the government and the judiciary. The Supreme Court found many initiatives of the government to be violative of the Constitution.
On 12th June 1975, Justice Jagmohanalal Sinha of the Allahabad High Court passed a judgment declaring Indira Gandhi election to the Lok Sabha invalid. This order came on an election petition filed by Raj Narain, a socialist leader and a candidate who had contested against her in 1971.
The petition, challenged the election of Indira Gandhi on the ground that she had used the services of government servants in her election campaign. The stage was now set for a big political confrontation. The opposition political parties led by Jaya Prakash Narayan pressed for Indira Gandhi resignation and organised a massive demonstration in Delhi's Ramlila ground on 25th June 1975.
Jaya Prakash announced a nationwide Satyagraha for her resignation and aksed me army, the police and government employees not to obey illegal and immoral orders. This too threatened to bring the activities of the government to a standstill. The political mood of the country had turned against the Congress, more than even before. The response of the government was to declare a state of emergency.
Ques 30: Study the passage given below carefully and answer the questions follow:
The collapse of communism was followed in most of these countries by a painful process of transition from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system. Privatization of state assets and corporate ownership patterns were to be immediately brought in.
(i) Why was the process of transition been described as painful?
(ii) Which political system existed before the transition and which system replaced it, if any?
(iii) What does privatization imply?
Study the passage given below carefully and answer the questions follow:
The two superpowers were keen on expending their spheres of influence in different parts of the world. In a world sharply divided between the two alliance systems, a state was supposed to remain tied to its protective super-power to limit the influence of the other superpower and its allies. Most countries of Western Europe sided with the US and those of Eastern Europe joined the Soviet camp.
(i) Name the two Superpowers.
(ii) Why did the allies want to remain tied with one of the superpowers?
(iii) Why did the superpowers want to bring other countries into their camps?
Ans: (i) Because democratic system is to be emerged due to failure of social system.
(ii) Before the transition authoritarian socialist system existed and it was replaced by the Democratic Capitalist system.
(iii) The transfer of ownership of property or business from a government to a privately owned entity, it represents transparency, it involves working of the economy without interference of the government.
(i) USA and USSR
(ii) To stand in world economy- as the superpowers provide them with both military assistance and financial aid.
(iii) They want other countries to be in there camp because they were vital resources of oil and minerals. It gave the superpowers their territory to launce their weapons and troops and location from where superpowers could spy on each other.
Ques 31: Explain any three environmental concerns in global politics.
Explain the concept of globalization and any two reasons for resistance to it.
Ans: The growing focus on environmental issues within the arena of global politics was firmly consolidated at the United Nations Conference on Environmental and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 1992. This was also called the Earth Summit. Major three environmental concerns in global politics are:-
(a) Throughout the world, cultivable area is barely expanding any more, and a substantial portion of existing agricultural land is losing fertility, Grasslands have been over-grazed and fisheries over-harvested, Water bodies have suffered extensive depletion and pollution, severely restricting food production.
(b) Natural forests which help stabilise the climate, moderate water supplies, and harbor a majority of the planet's biodiversity on land are being cut down and people are being displaced. The loss of biodiversity continues due to the destruction of habitat in areas which are rich in species.
(c) A steady decline in the total amount of ozone in the Perth's stratosphere (commonly referred to as the ozone - hole) poses a real danger to ecosystems and human health. Certain gases like Carbon dioxide. Methane, Hydro-fluoro carbons etc. are considered at least partly responsible for global warming - the rise in global temperature which may have catastrophic consequences for life on Earth.
The relevant part of the Rio Declaration says that States shall cooperate in the spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth's eco system. In view of the different contributions of global environmental degradation, states have common but differentiated responsibilities.
The worldwide movement toward economic, financial, trade, and communications integration is Globalization. In fact it is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of life. It is not always positive; it can have negative consequences for the people. Indeed, there are many who believe that globalization has more negative consequences than positive.
Globalization need not be only about the economic issues, nor is the direction of influence always from the rich to the poor countries.
At the most simple level, globalization results in an erosion of state capacity, that is, the ability of government to do what they do. All over the world, the old welfare state is now giving way to a more minimalist state that performs certain core functions such as the maintenance of law and order and the security of its citizens. However, it withdraws from many of its earlier welfare functions directed at economic and social well-being. In place of the welfare state, it is the market that becomes the prime determinants of economic and social priorities.
Economic globalization usually involves greater economic flows among different countries of the world. Some of this is voluntary and some forced by international institutions and powerful countries. This flow or exchange can take various forms: commodities, capital, people and ideas. Globalization has involved greater trade in commodities across the globe.
That is why the concept of globalization is not accepted worldwide and it is resisted in many countries.
Ques 32: 'Congress had remained a social and ideological coalition for a long period.' Justify the statement.
Access the outcome of early phase of planned development in India.
Ans: The Congress Party evolved from its origins in 1885 as a pressure group for the newly educated, professional and commercial classes to a mass movement in the twentieth century. This laid the basis for its eventual transformation into a mass political party and its subsequent domination of the political system. Thus the Congress began as a party dominated by the English speaking, upper caste, upper middle-class and urban elite. But with every Civil Disobedience Movement it launched, its social base widened. It brought together diverse groups, whose interests were often contradictory.
Peasants and industrialists, urban dwellers and villagers, workers and owners, middle, lower and upper classes and castes, all found space in the Congress. Gradually, its leadership also expanded beyond the upper caste and upper class professionals to agriculture based leaders with a rural orientation.
By the time of Independence, the Congress was transformed into a rainbow-like social coalition broadly representing India's diversity in terms of classes and castes, religions and languages and various interests. In this sense the Congress was an ideological coalition as well. It accommodated the revolutionary and pacifist, conservative and radical, extremist and moderate and the right, left and all shades of the centre. The Congress was a platform for numerous groups, interests and even political parties to take part in the national movement.
The major outcomes of the three objectives that were identified in independent India, discussed in the first three chapters here, the third objective proved most difficult to realise. Land reforms did not take place effectively in most parts of the country; political power remained in the hands of the landowning classes; and big industrialists continued to benefit and thrive while poverty did not reduce much.
The early initiatives for planned development were at best realising the goals of economic development of the country and well-being of all its citizens. The inability to take significant steps in this direction in the very first stage was to become a political problem. Those who benefited from unequal development soon became politically powerful and made it even more difficult to move in the desired direction.
An assessment of the outcomes of this early phase of planned development must begin by acknowledging the fact that in this period the foundations of India's future economic growth were laid. Some of the largest developmental projects in India's history were undertaken during this period.
These included mega-dams like Bhakhra - Nangal and Hirakud for irrigation and power generation. Some of the heavy industries in the public sector - steel plants, oil refineries, manufacturing units, defense production etc.-were started during this period. Infrastructure for transport and communication was improved substantially.
Of late, some of these mega projects have come in for a lot of criticism. Yet much of the later economic growth, including that by the private sector, many not have been possible in the absence of these foundations.
Ques 33: Mention any six steps taken for the restoration of dominance of the Congress Party after 1971 elections.
Mention any six factors responsible for defeat of the Congress Party in 1977 elections.
Ans: In the early of 1970s the government of Indira Gandhi gained popular due to various factors such as:
(i) During this period the government made conscious attempts to project socialist credentials.
(ii) Indira Gandhi vigorously compainged for implementing the existing in reform laws and undertook further land ceiling legislation.
(iii) Not only this in order to end her dependence on the other political parties strengthen her party's position in the Parliament and seek a popular mandate her programmes, Indira Gandhi's government recommended the dissolution die Lok Sabha in December 1970.
(iv) The crisis m East Pakistan and the Indo-Pak war leading to the establishment of Bangladesh added one more feather to the popularity of Indira Gandhi.
(v) In this way, Indira Gandhi and her government was seen not only as protector of the poor and the underprivileged but also as a strong government.
(vi) The Congress was now in power in almost all the states and restored dominance. It was also popular across different social sections.
(i) The election came after the end of the Emergency that Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had imposed in 1975; it effectively suspended democracy, suppressed the opposition, and took control of the media with authoritarian measures.
The opposition called for a restoration of democracy and Indians saw the election results as a repudiation of the Emergency.
(ii) Gandhi had become extremely unpopular for her decision and paid for it during the elections. Mrs. Gandhi, on 23 January, called for fresh elections and released all political prisoners.
(iii) Four Opposition parties, the Congress (Organization), the Jan Sangh, the Bharatiya Lok Dal and the Socialist Party, decided to fight the elections under a single banner called the Janata alliance. The alliance used the symbol allocated to Bharatiya Lok Dal as their symbol on the ballot papers.
(iv) The Janata alliance reminded voters of the excesses and human rights violations during the Emergency, like compulsory sterilization and imprisonment of political leaders.
(v) The structural factors allowed voters to express their grievances, notably their resentment of the emergency and its authoritarian and repressive policies.
(vi) One grievance often mentioned was the Nasbandi (vasectomy) campaign m. rural areas. The middle class also emphasised on the curbing of freedom of speech throughout the country.
Ques 34: What are popular movements? Describe any four benefits of popular movement.
Highlight any three issues on which a broad agreement has emerged among most of the political parties in India.
Ans: A popular movement is a sustained collective action over time. Such action is aimed against the stare and takes shape into demand for a change m state policy or practice. Any such collective action is marked by some degree of organizations.
Any popular movement must have a social orientation. Thus, it can be said briefly that popular movements often arise with the aim of bringing about changes on a public issue.
Following are the issues:
(i) Issues related domestic violence. The custom of dowry sexual abuse at work and public places, mainly among urban middle class women in different parts of the country.
(ii) Issues related to injustice to women and of gender inequalities. These issues were very complicated m nature.
(iii) During the decade of eighties issues of sexual violence against women within the family and outside were more focused. These issues were highlighted by different women movements in order to being gender equality.
India is a Sovereign socialist. Demo cratic Republic country. In India parliamentary democracy is established. Every political party has their own ideology, however agree to following issues:
(i) Full faith in constitution system - All the political parties have full faith in constitutional system of India.
(ii) Faith in democracy and secularism - All political parties have full faith in democratic values. Mrs. Indira Gandhi imposed emergency on 25th June, 1975, but she had election in a free and fair manner.
(iii) Policy of non-alignment - There is consensus on the policy of non-alignment. Non-alignment is the basic principle of India's foreign policy. Not only congress bur non - congress Govt. at the centre also followed the policy of non-alignment.