Ques 1: Which incident was related to 9/11?
Ans: Incident 9/11 was related to attack on World Trade Centre in New York United States of America.
Ques 2: Under which plan did USA extend financial support for reviving Europe's economy after the Second World War?
Ans: US diplomats designed a plan called the Marshall Plan under this European Economic Cooperation was established in 1948 to channel aid to the western European states.
Ques 3: Who is present Secretary General of United Nations?
Ques 4: Define Security.
Ans: Security means prevention from threats that could endanger core values which would be beyond repair. It aims at ending of war.
Ques 5: Name the leader who played a historic role in negotiating with the rulers of princely states to join the Indian Union.
Ans: Sardar Vallabhai Patel
Ques 6: Which political party laid emphasis the idea of one country, one culture, one nation?
Ans: All India Congress
Ques 7: In which year was the fifth general election to the Lok Sabha held?
Ans: First general election was held in 1952. Fifty general election was held in 1971.
Ques 8: Who represented Congress (O) and Congress (R) after the split of the congress party?
Ans: Congress (R) - Indira Grandhi, Congress (O) - Syndicates
Ques 9: Which students group led the anti-foreigner movement in Assam?
Ans: All Assam Students Union.
Ques 10: What is meant by the Cold War?
Ans: Ideological rivalries between the two powder blocs USA and USSR after the end of Second World War till the disintegration of USSR is known as cold war. It was a war without weapons.
Ques 11: State any two features of the Soviet System.
Ans: (i) The Soviet system centred around one party and no other political party of opposition was allowed.
(ii) The system was bureaucratic and authoritarian, the economy was planned and controlled by the state.
Ques 12: Which two differences between India and China led to an army conflict in 1962?
Ans: Military and moral helps was given to India by the US in the 1962 war. The aim was to check the spread communism.
Ques 13: List any four principal organs of the United Nations.
Ans: The four principal organ of United Nations are:
(i) The Security Council
(ii) The International Court of Justice
(iii) Economic and Social Council
(iv) The Trusteeship Council
Ques 14: Suggest any one effective step which would limit war or violence between countries.
Ans: We can limit war or violence between countries by following means:
(i) By destroying harmful weapons such as nuclear bombs.
(ii) By increasing bilateral dialogues between countries.
Ques 15: Differentiate between the main objectives of the First and Second Five Year Plan.
Ans: Objectives of first five year plan were to develop agrarian sector, include investment in dams and irrigation projects where as the objective of second five year plan was to develop industries including technology advancement.
Ques 16: Highlight any two features of the ideology of Bhartiya Jana Sangh.
Ans: Two features of Bhartiya Jana Sangh are:
(i) It emphasised the idea of one party, one culture, and one nation.
(ii) It believed that the country could become modern, progressive and strong on the basis of Indian cultural and tradition.
Ques 17: What is meant by Non - Alignment?
Ans: The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of newly independent countries of Asia and Africa who did not wanted to join any of the two power blocs came together and formed NAM.
Ques 18: What was the main demand of Chipko Movement?
Ans: The villagers demanded that no forest- exploiting contract should be given to outsiders. They wanted the government to provide low cost material to small industries and ensure development of the region without disturbing the ecological balance.
Ques 19: Who was the chairperson of Mandal Commission State any one recommendation made by him/her.
Ans: B.P. Mandal was me chairperson of Mandal commission. Its main recommendations are -
(i) It recommended reservation of 27 per cent of sears in educational institutions and government jobs for the OBCs.
Ques 20: Describe any four consequences of Shock Therapy.
Ans: Pour consequences of Shock Therapy arc -
(i) In Russia, the large stare-controlled industrial complex almost collapsed, as about 90 per cent of its industries were put up for sale to private individuals and companies.
(ii) All citizens were given vouchers to participate in the sales; most citizens sold their vouchers in the black market because they needed the money.
(iii) The value of the Ruble, the Russian currency, declined dramatically. The rate of inflation was too high.
(iv) The old system of social welfare was systematically destroyed. The withdrawal of government subsidies pushed large sections of the people into poverty.
Ques 21: What is meant by the ASEAN way? Mention any two of its objectives?
Ans: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations or ASEAN was established on 8 August 1967 m Bangkok by the five original Member Countries, namely, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Brunei Darussalem joined on 8 January 1984, Vietnam on 28 July 1995, Laos and Myanmar on 23 July 1997, and Cambodia on 30 April 1999.
The ASEAN Declaration stares that the aims and purposes of the Association are:
(i) To accelerate the economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region through joint endeavours in the spirit of equality and partnership in order to strengthen the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful community of Southeast Asian nations.
(ii) To promote regional peace and stability7 through abiding- respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries in the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter.
Ques 22: Explain any two points of conflict between India and Bangladesh.
Ans: (i) Illegal migration: illegal migration is one of the bones of the contention between these two countries, since the 1971 war of independence that created the state of Bangladesh, millions of Bangladeshi immigrants (the vast majority of them illegal) have poured into neighbouring India, While the Indian government has tried to deport some of these immigrants, tire sheer number of them, as well as the porous border between the two countries, has made such an enterprise impossible.
(ii) Water disputes: Sharing of Changes water is the one of the sources of conflict between India and Bangladesh. This conflict between two countries arose when India decided to construct Farakka barrage to divert water from Ganges to Hoogly River (in India). Ganga is a trans-boundary river of India.
Ques 23: As decided by the member states in 2005, highlight any four steps to make the United Nations more relevant in the changing context.
Ans: (i) Security council reform: A very frequent discussion is to change the permanent membership of the UN Security Council, which reflects the power structure of the world as it was in 1945.
(ii) UN secretariat: transparency reform: At another level, calls for reforming the UN demand to make the UN administration more transparent, more accountable, and more efficient, including direct election of the Secretary - General by the people.
(iii) Democracy reform: Another frequent demand is that the UN becomes ?more democratic, and a key institution of a world democracy. This raises fundamental question about the nature and role of the UN. The UN is not a world government, rather a forum for the world's sovereign states to debate issues and determine collective courses of action.
(iv) Human rights reform: The United Nations Commission on Human Rights came under tire during its existence for the high-profile positions it gave to member states that did not guarantee the human rights or their own citizens. Several nations known to have been quality of gross violations of human rights became members of the organization, such, as Libya;, Cuba etc.
Ques 24 Mention any four political consequences of globalization.
Ans: (i) One of the major impacts of political globalization is that it reduces the importance of1 nation - states. Many have organized themselves into trade blocs, Emergence of supranational institutions such as the European Union, the WTO, the G-8, and The International Criminal Court etc. replaced or extended the national functions to facilitate international agreement.
(ii) Another major impact of globalization is the increased influence of Non-Government Organizations in public policy like humanitarian aid, developmental efforts etc. Many organizations have come forward with the mission of uplifting the most unprivileged societies of the world where there is massive funding of millions of dollars.
(iii) United States intervened in many Middle East Asian countries recently. The whole idea was on extracting oil mines for which they took the economic, political, social and cultural control of these oil rich countries.
(iv) The rise of global civil society is one of the major contributions of globalization. The multivariate groups make up civil society which often protests against capitalism.
Ques 25: List any two merits and two demerits of the Green Revolution.
Ans: Merits of Green Revolution:
(i) Compared to the traditional seeds, the ITYV seeds promised to produce much greater amounts of grain on a single plant. As a result, the same piece of land would now produce far larger quantities of food grains than that was possible earlier.
(ii) Increase in agriculture production:
Demerits of Green Revolution:
(i) Poor farmers could not afford HYV seeds, fertilizers and machinery.
(ii) The Green Revolution was limited to rice and wheat only.
Ques 26: Suppose you are looking after the foreign policy of India. Which four values will you like to integrate into the foreign policy?
Ans: India's growing economy, strategic location, friendly foreign policy and large and vibrant diaspora has won it more allies than enemies. India has friendly relations with several countries in the developing world. Though India is not a part of any major military alliance, it has close strategic and military relationship with most of the fellow major powers.
At first I would like to include India's national interest. Because it aims at maintaining international peace and security, to oppose imperialism, to stand against the apartheid policy, to propagate the peaceful and political settlement of international disputes, to foster peaceful coexistence and to remain non-aligned and non-committed.
Then I would give priority to the question of ensuring security from external aggression. The question of internal security is also associated with it. I believe that the issue of security must be integrated into India's foreign policy. The question of national development would be third priority for my Indian foreign policy. One of the principal aims of Indian Foreign policy is to ensure all pervasive national economic development and to expand the area of external trade as well as of accelerating the pace of development. Fourth objective of India's foreign policy would be to settle all international disputes through peaceful means and politically.
Since independence India has consistently and firmly followed the basic principles of her foreign policy. India remained peaceful and non-violent in matters that closely concerned her. India's sincerity and impartiality have been gradually recognized by all.
Ques 27: Explain any two reasons for the popularity of Indira Gandhi during 1971 election.
Ans: In 1971 general elections Indira Gandhi came up with different strategies. She put forward the slogan of Garibi Hatao (remove poverty) for which she focused on the growth of the public sector, imposition of ceiling on rural land holding and urban property, removal of disparities in income and opportunity, and abolition of princely privileges.
She vigorously campaigned for implementing the existing land reform law and undertook further land ceiling legislation.
The slogan of garibi hatao and the programmes that followed it were part of Indira Gandhi's political strategy of building an independent nationwide political support base, the raise of these important issues, agenda and slogan and weak strategy and plans of the opposition made Indira Gandhi popular.
Ques 28: In the given political map of India four places have been marked as A, B, C, D. Identify them with the help of information given below and write their correct names in the answer book, along with their serial numbers and the alphabets concerned.
(i) The state associated with Narmada Bachao Andolan.
(ii) The state which merged with Indian Union in 1975.
(iii) The state related to Operation Blue Star.
(iv) The state whose one of the important leader was Lal Denga.
Ans: (i) Gujarat - C
(ii) Manipur - B
(iii) Amritsar and Punjab - D
(iv) Koch Bihar - A
Ques 29: What was Cuban Missile Crisis? Describe its main events.
Explain any three reasons for the disintegration of the USSR.
Ans: The Cuban Missile Crisis known as the October Crisis Scare in Cuba was a 13-day confrontation in October 1962 between the Soviet Union and Cuba on one side and the United States on the other side. The crisis is generally regarded as the moment in which the Cold War came closest to turning into a nuclear conflict.
Since Cuba was an ally of Soviet Union and received both diplomatic and financial aid from it. Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of Soviet Union, decided to convert Cuba into a Russian base. In 1962 he placed nuclear missiles in Cuba. The installation of these weapons put the US, for the first time, under fire from close range.
Three weeks later the Soviet Union had placed the nuclear weapons in Cuba, the America become aware of it. The US President john E Kenned} and its advisers were reluctant to do anything that would lead to a full- scale war but he soon determined to get Khrushchev to remove the missiles from Cuba. Kennedy ordered American warships to intercept any Soviet ships heading to Cuba as a way of warning the USSR of his seriousness. A clash seemed imminent in what came to be known as Cuban Missile Crisis.
(i) Stagnating economy: The Soviet Union had grown to a size large enough to have continue state planning. The massive and intricate Soviet economy became too large to manage by state planners, who were unwilling to enable more autonomy at mid-managerial level to remain responsive down to a localized level. This resulted in failed economic policies (failure to respond timely to continuous changes), while thwarting innovation.
(ii) Afghanistan quagmire: The Soviet-friendly Afghan government was threatened by anti-communist insurgents, which grew to outnumber the Afghanistan army. The USSR supplied tens of thousands of troops and war machines. However, support transformed into an invasion followed by occupation of various cities and towns, bogging the Soviets down into a guerrilla war with an increasingly growing and zealous Afghan resistance movement. By the time of the Soviet withdrawal from 1987-89, nothing concrete had been gained, and the USSR left damaged and humiliated.
(iii) Local Nationalism: With declining public perception of the Soviet government (due to political blunders), nationalism grew within each of the individual republics, creating independence ambitions in republics such as Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
Ques 30: Explain the concept of Common but differentiated responsibilities. How and where was it emphasised upon?
Explain any three benefits of globalization with examples.
Ans: The principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibility (CBDR) is one of the cornerstones of sustainable development. It has emerged as a principle of International Environmental Law and has been explicitly formulated in the context of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit. It finds its origin in equity considerations and equity principles in international law. It informs in particular the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol.
The CBDR has two matrices. The first is the common responsibility, which arises from the concept of common heritage and common concern of humankind, and reflects the duty of States of equally sharing the burden of environmental protection for common resources; the second is the differentiated responsibility, which addresses substantive equality; unequal material, social and economic situations across States; different historical contributions to global environmental problems; and financial, technological and structural capacity to tackle those global problems. In this sense the principle establishes a conceptual framework tor an equitable allocation of the costs of global environmental protection.
The United States does not accept any interpretation of principle 7 that would imply- a recognition or acceptance by the United States of any international obligations or liabilities, or any diminution in the responsibilities of developing countries." The same approach is shared by a number of other developed countries. This makes it difficult to configure the CBDR as a norm of customary international law.
Globalization increases economic growth and generates a wider range of products and services. Economies that are developing globally have more economic growth than, established economies, demonstrating globalizations benefits for developing regions.
Globalization can help create capitalistic and democratic political systems. Foreign exchange allows more products and services to be available, while also lowering costs, because of specialization. In respect to utilitarianism, or the pursuit of the greatest utility for the largest number of people the tendency for data points to group together in a meaningful way.
From 1962 to 1989, South Korea's GDP growth averaged over 8% year-on-year. Exports and international trade grew enormously, along with the purchasing power of South Korean individuals, supporting the argument that international exchange creates opportunities for developing countries. This idea also supports the way South Korea's economies began specializing in order to capture comparative and grow more competitive in the global.
Ques 31: What forced the Union Government of India to appoint the States Reorganization Commission in 1953? Mention its two main recommendations. Name any four new states formed after 1956.
Describe the various steps taken to hold the first general elections in India. How far were these elections successful?
Ans: The States Reorganization Commission (SRC) was a body constituted by the Central Government of India in 1953 to recommend the reorganization of state boundaries. In 1955, after nearly 2 years of study, the Commission recommended that India's state boundaries should be reorganized to form 16 states and 3 union territories.
One of the proposals was to reorganize the state on the basis of languages of India. This would make administration easier, and would help replace the caste and religion-based identities with less controversial linguistic identities. Earlier in 1920, the members of the Indian National Congress had agreed on the linguistic reorganization of the Indian states as one of the party's political goals. As the memories of partition were fresh it was feared that the division on the basis of language might further lead to division of India.
By the 1952, the demand for creation of a Telugu - majority state m the parts of the Madras State had become powerful. Potti Sriramulu, one of the activists demanding the formation of a Telugu-majority state, died on 16 December 1952 after undertaking a fast-unto-5 death. Subsequently, the Telugu-majority Andhra State was formed in 1953. This sparked of agitations all over the country, with linguistic groups demanding separate statehoods.
In order to reorganize the states, the Government of India constituted the State Reorganization Commission (SRC) under the chairmanship of Fazal Ali, a former Court judge.
States formed after 1956 are:
(i) Uttarakhand in 2000
(ii) Chhattisgarh in 2000
(iii) Jharkhand in 2000
(iv) Telangana in 2014
The Indian General Election of 1951-52 elected the first Lok Sabha since India became independent in August 1947. Until this point, the Indian Constituent Assembly had served as an interim legislature. The Indian National Congress (INC) won a landslide victory, winning 364 of the 489 seats and 45% of the total votes polled.
This was over four times as many votes as the second-largest party. Jawaharlal Nehru became the first democratically elected Prime Minister of the country. Voter turnout was 45.7%.
Organization of the elections was a wondrous task. There was a house-to-house survey to register the voters. With over 70 per cent of the voters being illiterate, the candidates were to be identified by symbols, assigned to each major party and independent candidates, painted on the ballot-boxes.
Over 2,24,000 polling booths, one for almost every 1000 voters, were constructed and equipped with over 21/2 million steel ballot-boxes, one box for every candidate. Nearly 620,000,000 ballot papers were printed. About a million officials supervised the conduct of the polls. Of the many candidates, who ever got the plurality, or the largest number of votes would be elected. It was not necessary for the winning candidate to have a majority.
Nearly 17,500 candidates in all stood for the seats to the Lok Sabha and the state legislatures. The elections were spread out over nearly four months from 25 October 1951 to 21 February 1952 and the first general election of the largest democracy turn out to be a big success.
Ques 32: Examine the three main reasons responsible for the split of the Congress Party during 1969.
Evaluate any three consequences of the emergency imposed in 1975.
Ans: The Indian National Congress (Organization) or Congress (0) was a political party in India formed when Indira Gandhi (then the Congress president) broke away from the leadership of the Congress Party (which became known as Congress (I)). As Indira had control over the state machinery, her faction was recognized as the "real WC by die Election Commission of India, so the rump INC became known as the INC (O), or informally the "Old Congress". Kingmaker Kamaraj and later Morarji Desai became the leader of the INC (O). The Indian National Congress (Organization) was also occasionally referred to as the Syndicate (by its opponents).
On 12 November 1969 Indira Gandhi was expelled from the Congress party for violating the party discipline. The party finally split with Indira Gandhi setting up a rival organization, which came to be known as Congress (R) - R for Requisition. In the All India Congress Committee, 446 of its 705 members walked over to Indira's side.
The split can in some ways be seen as a left-wing/right - wing division. Indira wanted to use a populist agenda in order to mobilize popular support for the party. The regional party elites, who formed the INC (O), stood for a more right-wing agenda, and distrusted Soviet help.
At the 1971 general election, the INC (O) won about 10% of the vote and 16 Lok Sabha seats, against 44% of the vote and 352 seats for Indira's Congress. In 1977, their vote share was almost halved and they lost 3 seats. Later the same year, INC (O) merged with the much larger Bharatiya Lok Dal and other parties to form the Janata Party as a more united opposition to Indira's rule. Congress (O)s leader Morarji Desai served as Prime Minister of India of the Janata government from 1977 to 1979.
The serious attack on democracy was sparked off by a sharp conflict between the ruling and the opposition bourgeois-landlord parties which in itself was a manifestation of the deep crisis within the bourgeois-landlord system. The experiment in truncated democracy and the repressive regime could not be sustained for very long. The stifling of democratic rights and the atrocities carried out in the sterilization programme created the conditions for a mass upsurge.
The popular anger against the authoritarian regime burst out and found expression in the March 1977 elections, which was suddenly called by Mrs Gandhi. She had miscalculated that with a cowed down opposition, the Congress would easily come back to power. Instead, for the first time, the Congress was swept away from power at the centre. Then followed the first non-Congress coalition government headed by the Janata Party.
Indian unity has shown the tensile strength to withstand rebellions in the north-west and north-east and murmurs in the south. But it is only as strong as Indian democracy, for it is democracy that gives every Indian a practical stake in his countrys present and future. The Emergency of 1975 was a turning point precisely because time stood still during those 19 months.
Ques 33: Read the passage carefully given below and answer the questions that follow:
The Assam movement from 1979 to 1985 is the best example of such movements against Outsiders. The Assamese suspected that there were huge numbers of illegal Bengali Muslim settlers from Bangladesh.
They felt that unless these foreign national are detected and deported, they would reduce the indigenous Assamese into a minority. There were other economic issues too. There was widespread poverty and unemployment in Assam despite the existence of natural resources like oil, tea and coal. It was felt that these were drained out of the State without any commensurate benefit to the people.
(i) Name the group that lead the movement against outsiders in 1979.
(ii) Why did the Assamese seek the detection and deportation of the outsiders?
(iii) What were the economic issues taken up as part of the movement?
This new challenge came to the force in the 1980s, as the Janata experiment came to an end and there was some political stability at the centre. This decade will be remembered for some major conflicts and accords in the various regions of the country especially in the Assam, the Punjab, Mijoram and the development in Jammu and Kashmir.
(i) Explain the meaning of the phrase ?Janata experiment came to an end?.
(ii) 'There was some stability at the centre' what does it imply?
(iii) Highlight any two developments in Punjab in 1980s.
Ans: (i) All Assam Student Union.
(ii) The Assamese suspected that there are huge number of illegal Bengali Muslim settlers from Bangladesh. They felt that unless these foreign nationalists are detected and deported, they would reduce the indigenous Assamese into a minority.
(iii) There was widespread poverty and unemployment in Assam.
(i) It refers to the janata party government rule before 1980s elections.
(ii) India was witnessing major conflicts in its states and political instability during this period. These came to an end.
(iii) Agricultural and technical development.