Ques 1: Name any two member states of the European Union who are permanent members of the UN Security Council.
Ans: In the UN Security Council, the two members are: China, Russia.
Ques 2: Name the leader of the freedom movement of India who was popularly known as Frontier Gandhi.
Ans: Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan
Ques 3: Who was the official Congress candidate for the post of President of India in 1969?
Ans: Sri Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy.
Ques 4: List any four member counties of NATO.
Ans: U.S., Canada, Denmark, Iceland.
Ques 5: State any two features of the European Union that make it an influential organization.
Ans: 1. Its currency, Euro can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar.
2. Its share of world trade is 3 times larger than that of US.
Ques 6: Explain the major differences of ideology between that of Congress and the Jana Sangh.
Ans: The Jana Sangh was different from the Congress party in terms of ideology and programmes. It emphasised the idea of one country, one culture and one nation and believed that country could become modern, strong and progressive on the basis of Indian culture and traditions. The Congress party emphasised on the idea that development of agriculture and industry can make India developed.
Ques 7: Highlight any two main demands of the anti-arrack movement.
Ans: (i) The anti-arrack movement had touched upon larger social, economic and political issues of the region that affected women's life.
(ii) A close nexus between crime and politics was established around the business of arrack.
Ques 8: Explain any two strategies to overcome hegemony.
Ans: 1. Hegemony as hard power: Jenny was a budding artist living in Kenya and was planning to join dance academy to give proficiency her art. But she lost her right leg in 2003 missile attack by US. Anyhow she overcame her misery and is trying to achieve her desired goal with the help of an artificial leg, provided the foreign armies leave country.
2. Hegemony as structural Power: Mozambu is very good in his studies at the secondary level in the countryside of Iraq and is planning to study humanity to become an administrative officer. But his parents want him to study computer in order to become a software engineer. Now-a-days Computer Science and Information Technology have a flair for job opportunity.
Ques 9: Explain any two economic consequences of globalization.
Ans: The economic consequences of globalization are:
(i) Greater economic flows among the different countries of the work commodities, capital, people and ideas.
(ii) Reduction in restrictions on imports and exports. Developed countries are more benefitted than the developing countries.
Ques 10: Explain the reasons for the student's movement of 1974 in Bihar and role played by Jaya Prakash Narain in this movement.
Ans: In March 1974 students came together in Bihar to protest against rising prices, food scarcity, unemployment and corruption. After a point they invited Jaya Prakash Narayan (JP), who had given up active politics and was involved in social work, to lead the student movement. He accepted it on the condition that the movement will remain non-violent and will not limit itself to Bihar. Thus the students movement assumed a political character and had national appeal. People from all walks of life now entered the movement.
Jaya Prakash Narayan demanded the dismissal of the Congress government in Bihar and gave a call for total revolution in the social, economic and political spheres in order to establish what he considered to be true democracy. A series of bandhs, gheraos and strikes were organized in protest against the Bihar government. The government, however, refused to resign. He was now supported by the non-Congress opposition parties like the Bhartiya Jana Sangh, the Congress (O), the Bharatiya Lok Dal, the Socialist Party and others.
Ques 11: Explain any three challenges faced by India at the time of its independence.
'For a long time, Congress Party had been a social and ideological coalition.' Just the statement.
Ans: Broadly, independent India faced three kinds of challenges. The first and the immediate challenge was to shape a nation that was united, yet accommodative of the diversity in our society.
India was a land of continental size and diversity. Its people spoke different languages and followed different cultures and religions. At that time it was widely believed that a country full of such kinds of diversity could not remain together for long. The partition of the country appeared to prove everyone's worst fears. There were serious questions about the future of India:
Would India survive as a united country Would it do so by emphasising national unity at the cost of every other objective Would it mean rejecting all regional and sub-national identities And there was an urgent question: How was integration of the territory of India to be achieved.
The second challenge was to establish democracy. You have already studied the Indian Constitution, You know that the Constitution granted fundamental rights and extended the right to vote to every citizen. India adopted representative democracy based on the parliamentary form of government.
These features ensure that the political competition would take place in a democratic framework. A democratic constitution is necessary but not sufficient for establishing a democracy. The challenge was to develop democratic practices in accordance with the Constitution.
The third challenge was to ensure the development and well-being of the entire society and not only of some sections. Here again the Constitution clearly laid down the principle of equality and special protection to socially dis advantaged groups and religious and cultural communities.
The Constitution also set out in the Directive Principles of State Policy the welfare goals that democratic politics must achieve. The real challenge now was to evolve effective policies for economic development and eradication of poverty.
The Congress Party evolved from its origins in 1885 as a pressure group for the newly educated, professional and commercial classes to a mass movement in the twentieth century. This laid the basis for its eventual transformation into a mass political party and its subsequent domination of the political system.
Thus the Congress began as a party dominated by the English speaking, upper caste, upper middle-class and urban elite. But with every civil disobedience movement it launched, its social base widened. It brought together diverse groups, whose interests were often contradictory Peasants and industrialists, urban dwellers and villagers, workers and owners, middle, lower and upper classes and castes, all found space in the Congress.
Gradually, its leadership also expanded beyond the upper caste and upper class professionals to agriculture based leaders with a rural orientation.
By the time of Independence, the Congress was transformed into a rainbow like social coalition broadly representing India's diversity in terms of classes and castes, religions and languages and various interests. In this sense the Congress was an ideological coalition as well.
It accommodated the revolutionary and pacifist, conservative and radical, extremist and moderate and the right, left and all shades of the centre. The Congress was a platform for numerous groups, interests and even political parties to take part in the national movement.